Thursday, September 8, 2022

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on radio frequency and other non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since 2016. Several hundred EMF scientists around the world receive these updates. 

The complete collection contains more than 1,600 abstracts and links to more than 1,800 papers. 

You can download the complete collection of abstracts, a 1,355-page document (pdf) by clicking on the following link:


The abstracts for the most recent papers appear below.


Protocol for a systematic review of the in vivo studies on radiofrequency (100 kHz–300 GHz) electromagnetic field exposure and cancer

Pinto R, Ardoino L Giardullo P, Villani P, Marino C. Protocol for a systematic review of the in vivo studies on radiofrequency (100 kHz–300 GHz) electromagnetic field exposure and cancer. Syst Rev 11, 29 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-022-01898-4

Abstract

Background  An Italian project aims to review the scientific literature on the possible carcinogenicity of radiofrequency (100 kHz–300 GHz) electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The ENEA team has to carry out a systematic review of the in vivo studies on this topic.

Objectives  Development of a protocol for a systematic review (meta-analysis included) to investigate the potential carcinogenic risk following RF-EMF in vivo exposure to doses above or within legal limits. The aims of this review are (1) to provide a descriptive and, if possible, a quantitative summary of the results of the examined RF-EMF in vivo studies, together with an assessment of the consistency of observations and of the causes of heterogeneity, and (2) to assess the weight of evidence to support or refute the hypothesis of carcinogenic effects caused by RF-EMF exposure and to draw conclusions about the potential for carcinogenicity of RF-EMF exposure.

Methods  We will search for relevant studies in electronic academic databases and in the reference list of selected papers and reviews on the topic, including the descriptive reviews on RF-EMF carcinogenic effect carried out by international panels of experts since 2011. The following elements of the PECO question were defined: experimental studies on rodents of both sexes, all ages and species, all genetic backgrounds (Population) exposed to RF-EMF alone, or in combination with other physical or chemical agents (Exposure); only studies reporting outcome data in exposed and sham control groups (Comparison); and all types of cancer with all tumor-related outcome measures (Outcome) will be included.

Only peer-reviewed articles written in English will be considered without limit in the publication date.

Eligibility criteria were defined for papers to be included. A risk of bias assessment will be performed using a tool specifically developed for animal studies. A meta-analysis will be performed, if feasible, for all outcome measures; for subgroup analysis, a minimum of 3 studies per subgroup will be required. If meta-analysis will not be possible, a narrative synthesis of the results will be reported.

Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42020191105

Open access paper: https://systematicreviewsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13643-022-01898-4

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Base transceiver station antenna exposure and workers’ health

Hosseinali Rangkooy, Afshin Rahmati, Behzad Fouladi Dehaghi. Base transceiver station antenna exposure and workers’ health. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. 04 Aug 2022. doi: 10.1080/10803548.2022.2085892.

Abstract

Objectives. With the rapid development of technologies related to the communications industry, human exposure to electromagnetic fields has increased during recent decades. The study aimed at investigating the effect of exposure to waves emitted from the base transceiver stations (BTS) on workers' health.

Methods. 240 workers participated in the study. In order to determine the general health conditions in two groups, along with electromagnetic waves exposure measurement, the general health questionnaire (GHQ) was completed and the data on blood parameters were assessed.

Results. The mean age and job experience in the case and control groups were 34.1 ± 4.8 and 10.1 ± 6 years and 31.6 ± 5.5 and 8.8 ± 7 years, respectively. According to the GHQ results, only anxiety and insomnia subscales showed a significant difference between the two groups. The white blood cell and red blood cell counts in the case and control groups were 6715.6 ± 1591 and 7594 ± 2416, 5.3 × 106 ± 4.6 × 105 and 5.05 × 106 ± 5.39 × 105 per ml, respectively. Analysis of the results showed that the difference between the two groups was significant.

Conclusion. The results revealed that blood parameters in the BTS operators showed more changes. Thus, it can be concluded that these health impacts result from occupational exposure to BTS waves.


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Simulating the Dispersion of the Energy Flux Density of the Electromagnetic Field Generated by Antennas for Mobile Communications

Buckus R, Chlebnikovas A, Strukcinskiene B, Stukas R, Austys D, Caban J, Bogucki M, Sidlauskiene A, Seleviciene V, Kilikevičius A, Matijošius J, Kilikevičienė K, Vainorius D. Simulating the Dispersion of the Energy Flux Density of the Electromagnetic Field Generated by Antennas for Mobile Communications. Electronics. 2022; 11(15):2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11152431.

Abstract

The last two decades have faced a significantly increased number of telecommunication antennas emitting electromagnetic radiation in residential areas. The theoretical simulation of the dispersion of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field has been performed applying the physical peculiarities of the waves generating electromagnetic radiation. Having evaluated studies on simulation, the visual representation of the spread of electromagnetic radiation has been carried out according to the results obtained applying the AutoCad package. A comparison of the simulated value of the energy flux density radiated from antennas for mobile telecommunications with the measured one has disclosed an overlap of 30%. The simulation of the energy flux density showed that, in the close proximity zone (under a distance of 30 m), antennas radiate values within the range 10–10,000 µW/cm2. At a distance larger than 30 m, the values of energy flux density fluctuate from 10 to 0.001 µW/cm2.

Conclusions

The simulation of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field allows estimating electromagnetic radiation emitted by antennas for mobile telecommunications, which results in the termination of the conducted experiments. A comparison of the simulated value of the energy flux density radiated from antennas for cell telecommunications with the measured one point to an overlap of 30%, because simulation encounters difficulties in precisely measuring a variety of natural and human-made obstacles and reflections. Thus, the properly selected simulation software allows understanding and preliminarily estimating the electromagnetic fields of mobile telecommunications as well as visually determining places where electromagnetic radiation exceeds the established standards.

The simulation of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field of antennas for mobile telecommunications showed that, in the close proximity zone (under a distance of 30 m), antennas radiate values from 10 to 10,000 µW/cm2, whereas the values fluctuate between 10 and 0.001 µW/cm2 at a distance larger than 30 m. The values of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field decrease according to square dependence in free space, while at distances exceeding 100 m fluctuate in the range from 0.01 to 1 µW/cm2. The maximum density was equal to 10–100 µW/cm2 under the distance less than 25 m from the antenna in the direction of the most intensive radiation.

The examination of the upcoming or available antenna or other powerful source of radio waves includes calculating the theoretical parameters of the density taking into account the qualities of the antenna and accepting surrounding terrain as an area with no significant unevenness. Similar places have most frequently installed antennas, and, although the obtained measurement results are satisfactory enough, in order to determine necessary safety requirements, the impact of land relief is unnecessarily downgraded. The wave propagated outwards the antenna is dispersed and, having reflected from terrain, is summed up with the previous one, thus creating a maximum. Uneven terrain changes the maximum position of this electromagnetic field, which needs further examination. Thus, if the simulated values are lower than the established standard, it is still advisable to check them experimentally.


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Microwave Radiation and the Brain: Mechanisms, Current Status, and Future Prospects

Mumtaz S, Rana JN, Choi EH, Han I. Microwave Radiation and the Brain: Mechanisms, Current Status, and Future Prospects. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(16):9288. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169288

Abstract

Modern humanity wades daily through various radiations, resulting in frequent exposure and causing potentially important biological effects. Among them, the brain is the organ most sensitive to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure. Despite numerous correlated studies, critical unknowns surround the different parameters used, including operational frequency, power density (i.e., energy dose), and irradiation time that could permit reproducibility and comparability between analyses. Furthermore, the interactions of EMR with biological systems and its precise mechanisms remain poorly characterized. In this review, recent approaches examining the effects of microwave radiations on the brain, specifically learning and memory capabilities, as well as the mechanisms of brain dysfunction with exposure as reported in the literature, are analyzed and interpreted to provide prospective views for future research directed at this important and novel medical technology for developing preventive and therapeutic strategies on brain degeneration caused by microwave radiation. Additionally, the interactions of microwaves with biological systems and possible mechanisms are presented in this review. Treatment with natural products and safe techniques to reduce harm to organs have become essential components of daily life, and some promising techniques to treat cancers and their radioprotective effects are summarized as well. This review can serve as a platform for researchers to understand the mechanism and interactions of microwave radiation with biological systems, the present scenario, and prospects for future studies on the effect of microwaves on the brain.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/23/16/9288

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Specific Absorption Rate Analysis of Smartphone

M. Garvanova, I. Garvanov, D. Borissova. Specific Absorption Rate Analysis of Smartphone. 2022 22nd International Symposium on Electrical Apparatus and Technologies (SIELA), 2022, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/SIELA54794.2022.9845756.

Abstract

This paper discusses and analyzes the process of absorbing electromagnetic energy emitted by a smartphone. The study of the specific absorption rate (SAR) at the depth of the human head was carried out using a computer model simulated with COMSOL Multiphysics software. The computer model takes into account the technical parameters of a working smartphone and the biological characteristics of the human head. The model simulates the absorption process, depending on the type of radiation pattern of the antenna on a smartphone. To validate the results of the model in depth of the human head, an analysis of the brain activity of a person, using a smartphone, was performed.

Excerpts

This study confirms the hypothesis that prolonged use of mobile phones changes a person's brain activity, which may be a prerequisite for fatigue, distraction and stress of the body. This study largely confirms the assumption that SAR affects brain activity, but further research is needed in this direction....

In the places with the greatest absorption of electromagnetic energy, the most significant change in brain activity is observed. Here, statistically significant differences in the theta, alpha and beta ranges of the EEG signal were obtained, established by paired samples t-test. The results with p-values less than 0.05 indicate statistically significant differences in EEG power in T3 (θ, a, and β), T5 (θ and a), and F7 (θ and a) points as shown in Figure 6.

From the computer model for SAR (Fig. 7), it can be seen that the locations with the highest absorption levels of the electromagnetic field coincide with the locations of the most significant change in the spectrum of the EEG signals. Due to the computer model for simulating SAR from an EMF, it can be physically explained why a change in the signal spectrum occurs at several points in the human head. With the help of the computer model it is possible to study the effects of elevated values of electromagnetic radiation, which can be harmful to human health. Through the model it is also possible to visualize invisible processes that predict various negative effects from prolonged use of a mobile phone....

Conclusions

This article examines the SAR caused by the use of a smartphone. The EMF absorption level at the depth of the human head is simulated using a computer model. Depending on the parameters of the smartphone and the characteristics of the tissues of the human head, different SAR results are obtained. The computer model was tested by processing the EEG signals and analyzing the spectra of the EEG signals from all electrodes. It is interesting that the results of the model coincide with the results of the EEG analysis. The places with the highest EMF absorption values coincided with the places of greatest change in brain activity induced by smartphone operation. In our future research, we will focus on the analysis of the excessive use of smartphones by children and adolescents.


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Interference With Implanted Upper Airway Stimulation Device by Phones With Magnet Technology (iPhones 12 and 13)

Plawecki A, Tripathi N, Tovar Torres M, Yaremchuk K. Interference With Implanted Upper Airway Stimulation Device by Phones With Magnet Technology. Laryngoscope. 2022 Aug 17. doi: 10.1002/lary.30348.

Abstract

Newer iPhone models [12 and 13] with MagSafe magnetic technology can cause electromagnetic interference with the Inspire upper airway stimulator device (a surgical implant for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea).


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Simulating the Dispersion of the Energy Flux Density of the Electromagnetic Field Generated by Antennas for Mobile Communications

My note: The FCC exposure limit is 1 mW/cm2 or 1000 µW/cm2 which means within 30 meters of a cellular antenna the electromagnetic field could be up to 10 times the limit at some locations.

Buckus R, Chlebnikovas A, Strukcinskiene B, Stukas R, Austys D, Caban J, Bogucki M, Sidlauskiene A, Seleviciene V, Kilikevičius A, Matijošius J, Kilikevičienė K, Vainorius D. Simulating the Dispersion of the Energy Flux Density of the Electromagnetic Field Generated by Antennas for Mobile Communications. Electronics. 2022; 11(15):2431. doi:10.3390/electronics11152431.

Abstract

The last two decades have faced a significantly increased number of telecommunication antennas emitting electromagnetic radiation in residential areas. The theoretical simulation of the dispersion of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field has been performed applying the physical peculiarities of the waves generating electromagnetic radiation. Having evaluated studies on simulation, the visual representation of the spread of electromagnetic radiation has been carried out according to the results obtained applying the AutoCad package. A comparison of the simulated value of the energy flux density radiated from antennas for mobile telecommunications with the measured one has disclosed an overlap of 30%. The simulation of the energy flux density showed that, in the close proximity zone (under a distance of 30 m), antennas radiate values within the range 10–10,000 µW/cm2. At a distance larger than 30 m, the values of energy flux density fluctuate from 10 to 0.001 µW/cm2.

Conclusions

The simulation of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field allows estimating electromagnetic radiation emitted by antennas for mobile telecommunications, which results in the termination of the conducted experiments. A comparison of the simulated value of the energy flux density radiated from antennas for cell telecommunications with the measured one point to an overlap of 30%, because simulation encounters difficulties in precisely measuring a variety of natural and human-made obstacles and reflections. Thus, the properly selected simulation software allows understanding and preliminarily estimating the electromagnetic fields of mobile telecommunications as well as visually determining places where electromagnetic radiation exceeds the established standards.

The simulation of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field of antennas for mobile telecommunications showed that, in the close proximity zone (under a distance of 30 m), antennas radiate values from 10 to 10,000 µW/cm2, whereas the values fluctuate between 10 and 0.001 µW/cm2 at a distance larger than 30 m. The values of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field decrease according to square dependence in free space, while at distances exceeding 100 m fluctuate in the range from 0.01 to 1 µW/cm2. The maximum density was equal to 10–100 µW/cm2 under the distance less than 25 m from the antenna in the direction of the most intensive radiation.

The examination of the upcoming or available antenna or other powerful source of radio waves includes calculating the theoretical parameters of the density taking into account the qualities of the antenna and accepting surrounding terrain as an area with no significant unevenness. Similar places have most frequently installed antennas, and, although the obtained measurement results are satisfactory enough, in order to determine necessary safety requirements, the impact of land relief is unnecessarily downgraded. The wave propagated outwards the antenna is dispersed and, having reflected from terrain, is summed up with the previous one, thus creating a maximum. Uneven terrain changes the maximum position of this electromagnetic field, which needs further examination. Thus, if the simulated values are lower than the established standard, it is still advisable to check them experimentally


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Regular measurements of EMF in a representative Norwegian city-constant exposure over time despite introduction of new technologies

Markussen AC, Sjoemoen TM, Unander EH, Klaeboe L. Regular measurements of EMF in a representative Norwegian city-constant exposure over time despite introduction of new technologies. Environ Monit Assess. 2022 Aug 19;194(10):694. doi: 10.1007/s10661-022-10231-4.

Abstract

The rapid growth of the wireless communication industry has resulted in the installation of numerous of base stations, everywhere in our surroundings. The population is exposed to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields of varying frequency and strength. This, and introduction of new systems have risen public concerns regarding potential health effects from this RF-EMF exposure. The purpose of this project is to get an overview of any changes in exposure when new technologies are introduced. From June 2013 to October 2019, measurements were made at 16 measurement points in Kristiansand and surrounding areas in the same order, on the same day of the week and at the same time of day. The measurements are performed on the frequency bands 390, 450, 800, 900, 1800, 2100, 2400, and 2600 MHz. When we summed up the exposure for all the frequency bands relative to the limit values in a measuring point, the total values per measuring point showed that the exposure outdoors in most cases is less than 1‰ of the limit value. In 2017, a temporary increase was registered for most measurement points, but during 2018 the levels returned to the levels registered before 2017. During the increase, the levels were still low, around 3‰ of the limit values. The increase may be due to the fact that two mobile operators during this period made a comprehensive reconfiguration of their networks. The measurements presented in this report show that the exposure of the population is low, thousandths of the limit values, and relatively constant over time even though new technologies are introduced.


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Comments on Measurements and Analysis of Personal Exposure to RF-EMF Inside and Outside School Buildings

E. Arribas, R. Ramirez-Vazquez, I. Escobar. Comments on “Measurements and Analysis of Personal Exposure to RF-EMF Inside and Outside School Buildings: A Case Study at a Kosovo School." IEEE Access, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3198975.

Abstract

In this comment we present a table with the measurements of the personal exposure in the two Wi-Fi frequency bands inside educational centers such as colleges and universities, in different countries, with the aim of complementing and comparing the measurements carried out in a large school in the city of Pristina, Kosovo. We obtained that the maximum value was recorded in Spain with 120 μW/m2 and the minimum value was recorded in Switzerland with 1.19 μW/m2. The mean value of the data in Table 2 is 36.9 μW/m2, the median is 22.2 μW/m2, and the 95th percentile is 110 μW/m2.


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Trends in brain cancers (glioma) in New Zealand from 1995 to 2020, with reference to mobile phone use

My note: The study has several shortcomings: (1) it did not examine incidence rates over time for Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common type of glioma (brain cancer). Phillips et al (2018) found that GBM increased substantially over time in England despite a flat trend for glioma. (2) The authors combined temporal and parietal lobe tumors and examined the incidence over time. Their rationale was that these lobes received the most exposure to cell phone radiation; however, Cabré-Riera et al (2020) found that the temporal and frontal lobes received the most exposure; the parietal lobe received the least exposure.

Philips et al (2018). Brain Tumours: Rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme Incidence in England 1995–2015 Suggests an Adverse Environmental or Lifestyle Factor. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, doi:10.1155/2018/7910754.

Cabré-Riera et al (2020). Estimated whole-brain and lobe-specific radiofrequency electromagnetic fields doses and brain volumes in preadolescents. Environ Int. 142:105808. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2020.105808.

J Mark Elwood, Shwe Sin Win, Phyu Sin Aye, Masoumeh Sanagou. Trends in brain cancers (glioma) in New Zealand from 1995 to 2020, with reference to mobile phone use. Cancer Epidemiol. 2022 Aug 9;80:102234. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2022.102234.

Highlights

• Hypothesis is that mobile phone use increases brain cancers such as glioma.
• Mobile phone use in New Zealand increased greatly between 1990 and 2006.
• Incidence of glioma from 1995 to 2020 showed no increase at ages 10–69
• No evidence that phone use increases risk even after many years.

Abstract

Background: Some case-control studies have suggested substantial increased risks of glioma in association with mobile phone use; these risks would lead to an increase in incidence over time.

Methods: Incidence rates of glioma from 1995 to 2020 by age, sex, and site in New Zealand (NZ) recorded by the national cancer registry were assessed and trends analysed. Phone use was based on surveys.

Results: In these 25 years there were 6677 incident gliomas, giving age-standardised rates (WHO world standard) of 6.04 in males, and 3.95 in females per 100,000. The use of mobile phones increased rapidly from 1990 to more than 50% of the population from about 2000, and almost all the population from 2006. The incidence of glioma from ages 10-69 has shown a small decrease over the last 25 years, during which time the use of mobile phones has become almost universal. Rates in the brain locations receiving most radiofrequency energy have also shown a small decrease. Rates at ages of 80 and over have increased.

Conclusion: There is no indication of any increase related to the use of mobile phones. These results are similar to results in Australia and in many other countries. The increase in recorded incidence at ages over 80 is similar to that seen in other countries and consistent with improved diagnostic methods.

Excerpts

In contrast, the incidence of glioma at ages 70 and over has shown a substantial increase over time (Fig. 5), the annual percentage changes being in males 1.5% (95% limits 0.3–2.8), and in females 1.3% (95% limits 0.3–2.3). The increase has been regular throughout the 1995–2020 period in females. In men, the rates rose more quickly from 1995 to 2011, and have since declined: however, this change is not significant and a linear increase gives the best fit to the data.

Further examination shows that the increase is significant in the 80–84 and 85 + age groups, while the 70–74 and 75–79 year old groups show no significant increase (Fig. 6, Table 2). These older groups have a lower incidence of glioma than the 75–79 and 70–75 year old groups, but their rising rates have reduced this difference over time.

In conclusion, the incidence of glioma in the New Zealand population from ages 10–69 has shown a small decrease over the last 25 years, during which time the use of mobile phones has become almost universal. There is no indication of any increase related to the use of mobile phones. There has been an increase in recorded incidence at ages over 80, similar to that seen in other countries and consistent with improved diagnostic methods.


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Time trends in mobile phone use and glioma incidence among males in the Nordic Countries, 1979-2016

Isabelle Deltour, Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Christoffer Johansen, Maria Feychting, Tom Børge Johannesen, Anssi Auvinen, Joachim Schüz. Time trends in mobile phone use and glioma incidence among males in the Nordic Countries, 1979-2016. Environment International. 2022. 107487. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2022.107487.

Abstract

Introduction  In the Nordic countries, the use of mobile phones increased sharply in the mid-1990s especially among middle-aged men. We investigated time trends in glioma incidence rates (IR) with the perspective to inform about the plausibility of brain tumour risks from mobile phone use reported in some case-control studies.

Methods  We analysed IR of glioma in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden among men aged 40-69 years, using data from national cancer registries and population statistics during 1979-2016, using log-linear joinpoint analysis. Information on regular mobile phone use and amount of call-time was obtained from major studies of mobile phones in these countries. We compared annual observed incidence with that expected under various risk scenarios to assess which of the reported effect sizes are compatible with the observed IR. The expected numbers of cases were computed accounting for an impact of other factors besides mobile phone use, such as improved cancer registration.

Results  Based on 18,232 glioma cases, IR increased slightly but steadily with a change of 0.1% (95%CI 0.0%, 0.3%) per year during 1979-2016 among 40–59-year-old men and for ages 60-69, by 0.6 % (95%CI 0.4, 0.9) annually. The observed IR trends among men aged 40-59 years were incompatible with risk ratios (RR) 1.08 or higher with a 10-year lag, RR ≥ 1.2 with 15-year lag and RR ≥ 1.5 with 20-year lag. For the age group 60-69 years, corresponding effect sizes RR ≥ 1.4, ≥ 2 and ≥ 2.5 could be rejected for lag times 10, 15 and 20 years.

Discussion  This study confirms and reinforces the conclusions that no changes in glioma incidence in the Nordic countries have occurred that are consistent with a substantial risk attributable to mobile phone use. This particularly applies to virtually all reported risk increases reported by previous case-control studies with positive findings.

Excerpts

"Our analyses are based on 18,232 male glioma cases, which occurred in the male population aged 40-69 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with 162 million person-years at risk. Rates of glioma showed a slow and constant increase with no marked changes in the trend in the recent years."

"... our study also has some limitations. The exposure prevalence was obtained from two sources with different recruitment methods, age and questionnaire characteristics; the prevalence in the age group 60-69 years was less accurately registered than for the age group 40-59 years, because both studies had small sample sizes in this age range at recruitment, and in addition, the data had to be extrapolated for the distant past. Therefore, using these estimates of exposure prevalence could at best provide a range of possible exposure distributions in the population. The use of hands-free devices was not accounted for, but this was not frequent in these populations (data not shown). Our study is not free of assumptions. The induction period for an effect of mobile phone use on glioma risk, if one exists, is unknown, as is the magnitude of the risk, if any, and the real patterns may be more complex than the scenarios that we simulated. In addition, there are several factors that we were not able to account for. The coverage of the Nordic cancer registries was not perfectly complete, some 1.5% to 10% of the malignant brain tumours were missed in these age groups, but there is no reason to believe this proportion has increased over time. In Sweden, it has been estimated that completeness would not have changed over the period 1998-2014 for the age group 20-69 years, but has increased among ≥70 year olds; completeness might have improved in the other countries due to introduction of automated registration routines (Tettamanti et al., 2019, Gjerstorff, 2011, Leinonen et al., 2017, Larsen et al., 2009). Our analyses incorporated the possibility that other, currently unknown, risk factors, as well as improvement in glioma detection and reporting had a smooth, gradual impact, over the period 1979−2016, consistent with the gradually increasing IRs."

"Our findings indicate that glioma incidence trends among men aged 40-59 years in the Nordic countries are not consistent with increased risks of moderate effect size (RR>1.2-1.4) assuming latency up to 20 years. This means that increased risks reported in some case-control studies are implausible and likely attributable to biases and errors in self-reported use of mobile phone. Our results were consistent with results from prospective cohort studies showing no association between mobile phone use and risk of glioma.

Funding: This study was supported by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS; grant FM 8867)."

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5G Electromagnetic Radiation Attenuates Skin Melanogenesis In Vitro by Suppressing ROS Generation

Kim K, Lee YS, Kim N, Choi H-D, Lim K-M. 5G Electromagnetic Radiation Attenuates Skin Melanogenesis In Vitro by Suppressing ROS Generation. Antioxidants. 2022; 11(8):1449. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081449

Abstract

Recently, the impacts of 5G electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with 28 GHz on human health have been attracting public attention with the advent of 5G wireless communication. Here, we report that 5G (28 GHz) EMR can attenuate the skin pigmentation in murine melanoma cells (B16F10) and a 3D pigmented human epidermis model (Melanoderm™). B16 cells were exposed to 5G (28 GHz) with or without α-MSH for 4 h per day. Interestingly, 5G attenuated α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis. Fontana–Masson staining confirmed that the dendritic formation of α-MSH stimulated B16 cells was diminished by 5G exposure. To confirm the anti-melanogenic effect of 5G EMR, MelanoDerm™ was irradiated with 5G at a power intensity of 10 W/m2 for 4 h a day for 16 days and melanin distribution was detected with Fontana–Masson staining, which supported the anti-melanogenic effect of 5G EMR. Consistently, 5G EMR suppressed α-MSH induced upregulation of melanogenic enzymes; tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. Of note, 5G EMR attenuated ROS production stimulated by α-MSH and H2O2, suggesting that 5G EMR may dissipate ROS generation, which is pivotal for the melanin synthesis. Collectively, we demonstrated that 5G EMR can attenuate skin pigmentation by attenuating ROS generation.


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An In Vitro Experimental System for 5G 3.5 GHz Exposures

Y. S. Lee, S. B. Jeon, J. -K. Pack, N. Kim and H. -D. Choi. An In Vitro Experimental System for 5G 3.5 GHz Exposures. IEEE Access, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3204055.

Abstract

In this study, an in vitro experimental system is developed for fifth-generation (5G) 3.5 GHz exposures. A radial transmission line (RTL) housed in an incubator can support the single-mode propagation at a 3.5 GHz band. A conical antenna is also placed at the center of an RTL to ensure field symmetries. A 5G signal generator along with a customized power amplifier can create 5G new radio time division duplex (TDD) waveforms. Additionally, a feedback scheme implemented by employing a directional coupler and power meter allows power control to ensure a steady output power. The system is evaluated based on temperature measurements using the initial temperature slope and nonlinear curve fitting to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) values. Comparing SARs obtained from a “worst-case” signal of a maximum power condition with the values obtained from a “TDD” signal of an actual 5G TDD transmission gives the initial slope ratio of 0.741, which is very similar to the theoretical duty cycle of 0.743. It is also shown that the average output power, water temperature, incubator air temperature, and CO2 density are adequately controlled for appropriate in vitro experiments.


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Pilot Study of a New Methodology to Study the Development of the Blue Bottle Fly Under Exposure to Radio-Frequency Fields at 5.4 GHz

My note: The SAR for the 19.4 V/m exposure condition was estimated to be 0.028 W/kg. At this SAR, the median delay in pupal emergence was twice as long as in the sham condition. Yet, this full-body SAR is less than the so-called 50-fold safety limit of 0.08 W/kg of full body exposure adopted by the FCC and ICNIRP. Thus, along with numerous other biological studies, this pilot study suggests that current safety limits are not adequate across different species.

De Paepe S, De Borre E, Toribio Carvajal D, Bell D, Thielens A. Pilot Study of a New Methodology to Study the Development of the Blue Bottle Fly (Calliphora vomitoria) Under Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields at 5.4 GHz. Int J Radiat Biol. 2022 Aug 17:1-49. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2022.2113838.

Abstract

Purpose – Exposure of insects to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) can have developmental effects. However, there is currently no clear understanding of the exposure level that can lead to such effects. Therefore, the goal of this study was to, for the first time, study the development of the Blue Bottle Fly (Calliphora vomitoria, CV) under exposure to RF-EMFs at 5.4 GHz, using both numerical RF-EMF dosimetry with anatomically accurate 3D models of insects and an RF-EMF exposure experiment.

Materials and Methods - CV was chosen as a model organism in this study because CV’s development can be influenced thermally and CV’s pupal stage presents a window of several days in which immobile pupae can be exposed to RF-EMFs. The 5.4 GHz frequency was used because it allowed us licence-free operation of the exposure setup. Numerical, EM simulations with 3D anatomically accurate models of CV, obtained using micro-CT scanning, were used in this study. These simulations enable the estimation of the absorbed power and the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate in CV during RF exposure experiments. An experiment with three exposure conditions was designed and executed in which 400 pupae were split into an exposed group that was placed inside the TEM cell for 48 h and a concurrent control. Two exposure conditions used RF-EMF input power into the TEM cell at 5.4 GHz on two different levels. One exposure condition was a sham exposure. Electric field strength measurements were used to validate the proper functioning of the exposure setups and to quantify the RF-EMF exposure of the control groups.

Results and Conclusions - All studied groups of pupae – exposed to RF-EMFs, sham, and control groups- showed similar (evolutions of) masses, lengths and diameters during their development. The total rate of pupal emergence was reduced in one of the studied RF-EMF exposures in comparison to its concurrent control, while the other RF-EMF exposure and the sham exposure did not alter the total rate of pupal emergence. The sham exposure and the lowest of the two studied RF-EMF exposure conditions (19.4 V/m) caused a median delay in pupal emergence of 4 and 8 hours, respectively, in comparison to concurrent control groups. The higher studied exposure of 55 V/m caused a median relative acceleration in development of 8 h.


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Effect of RFEMR on NSE and MDA levels in Sprague Dawley rats


Pagadala, P; Shankar, V and Sumathi, ME. Effect of RFEMR on NSE and MDA levels in Sprague Dawley rats. Jun 2022. Bioinformation.18 (6): 501-505.

Abstract

Radiofrequency emitted radiations (RFEMR) from mobile phones are known to produce a stress response because of its effect on hypothalamus. Mobile phones have become an integral part of our lives with increasing usage not only in terms of number of users but also increase in talk time. Therefore, it is of interest to study the effect of mobile phone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations on NSE and MDA levels in SD rats. Twelve male SD rats of 10-12weeks old, weighing 180-220 grams, were purchased from registered laboratory breeders & housed in a room with 12:12hour's light-dark cycle with adlibitum amount of food and RO water. Present study showed significant increase in NSE and MDA levels in rats exposed to RFEMR. This study proves that mobile RFEMR causes oxidative stress and oxidative damage in SD rats.

http://www.bioinformation.net/018/97320630018501.htm

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Assessment of combined exposure to intermediate-frequency electromagnetic fields and pulsed electromagnetic fields among library workers in Japan

Yamaguchi-Sekino S, Taki M, Ikuyo M, Esaki K, Aimoto A, Wake K, Kojimahara N. Assessment of combined exposure to intermediate-frequency electromagnetic fields and pulsed electromagnetic fields among library workers in Japan. Front Public Health. 2022 Jul 28;10:870784. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.870784.

Abstract

Objective: To assess exposure levels to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among library workers in Japan, focusing on co-exposure to intermediate-frequency EMF (IF-EMF) and pulsed EMF, to propose a new epidemiological research methodology.

Methods: The evaluated exposure sources were an electromagnetic type-electronic article surveillance gate (EM-EAS, IF-EMF (operating frequency 220 Hz-14 kHz)) and an activator/deactivator of anti-theft tags termed as "book check unit" (BCU, pulsed EMF). Short-term exposures were: (E1) whole-body exposure from the EAS gate when sitting within 3 m; (E2) local exposure to transient IF-EMF while passing through or beside the EAS gate; and (E3) local exposure to a pulsed magnetic field on BCU use. E1-E3 were evaluated based on exposure levels relative to magnetic flux density at the occupational reference level (RL; E1) or as per occupational basic restrictions (BR; E2 and E3) delineated by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 2010 guidelines. Exposure indices based on mid-term exposure (D1-D3), assuming exposure according to employment on a weekly basis, were used to assess exposure in actual working conditions. D1 represents continuous exposure from an EAS gate when sitting within 3 m of the gate. D2 and D3 represent repeated transient exposures occurring during gate pass or on the operation of a BCU. A link to a web-based questionnaire was distributed to librarians working at all libraries where the authors had mailed institutional questionnaires (4,073 libraries). Four exposure patterns were defined according to various exposure scenarios.

Results: We obtained information on exposure parameters and working conditions from the 548 completed questionnaires. The ICNIRP guideline levels were not exceeded in any of the E1-E3 scenarios. Median of the D1 (% ICNIRP RL × hour/week) was 1, and >85% respondents had values <10. However, the maximum value was 513. Altogether, these results indicate that continuous exposure was low in most cases. The same tendency was observed regarding repeated transient exposure from EM-EAS gates (i.e., the median value for D2 (% ICNIRP BR × gate pass) was 5). However, there were several cases in which D1 and D2 values were >10 times the median. The median of D3 (% ICNIRP BR × BCU operation) was 10, and most respondents' D3 values were greater than their D2 values, although the derived results depended on the assumptions made for the estimation.

Conclusion: We conducted an assessment of combined exposures to IF-EMF and pulsed EMF among library workers in Japan by evaluating both short-term exposures (E1-E3) and exposure indices based on mid-term exposures (D1-D3) assuming actual working conditions per questionnaire results. These results provide useful information for future epidemiological studies.


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Effect of Occupational Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Thyroid Gland of Workers: A Prospective Study

Fang YY, Tu Q, Zhang YT, Liu J, Liu HG, Zhao ZH, Wu H, Yin TJ. Effect of Occupational Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Thyroid Gland of Workers: A Prospective Study. Curr Med Sci. 2022 Aug;42(4):817-823. doi: 10.1007/s11596-022-2610-8.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of occupational extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure on the thyroid gland.

Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis of 85 workers (exposure group) exposed to an ELF-EMF (100 μT, 10-100 Hz) produced by the electromagnetic aircraft launch system and followed up on thyroid function indices, immunological indices, and color Doppler images for 3 years. Additionally, 116 healthy volunteers were randomly selected as controls (control group), the thyroid function of whom was compared to the exposure group.

Results: No significant difference was observed in thyroid function between the exposure and control groups. During the follow-up of the exposure group, the serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) level was found to slowly decrease and free thyroxine (FT4) level slowly increase with increasing exposure time. However, no significant difference was found in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) over the three years, and no significant difference was observed in the FT3, FT4 and TSH levels between different exposure subgroups. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in thyroid autoantibody levels and ultrasound images between subgroups or over time.

Conclusion: Long-term exposure to ELF-EMF may promote thyroid secretion of T4 and inhibit deiodination of T4 to T3. ELF-EMF has no significant effect on thyroid immune function and morphology.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35963949/

Excerpt

One of the currently popular research topics is whether thyroid cancer can be induced by long-term ELF-EMF exposure. As we know, cancer is caused by DNA damage, but it is generally believed that ELF-EMF is too weak to directly damage DNA. Nevertheless, a recent study shows that long-term occupational exposure to ELF-EMF may cause a genetically toxic effect. The researchers believe that DNA damage is caused by the magnetic field due to the oxidative stress that the magnetic field induced [32]. Another meta-analysis on the relation between ELF-EMF and the risk of cancer suggests that ELF-EMF increases the risk of cancer [33].

32 Bagheri Hosseinabadi M, Khanjani N, Mirzaii M, et al. DNA damage from long-term occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields among power plant workers. Mutat Res, 2019,846:403079

33 Zhang Y, Lai J, Ruan G, et al. Meta-analysis of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer risk: a pooled analysis of epidemiologic studies. Environ Int, 2016,88:36-43

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Magnetic field effects in biology from the perspective of the radical pair mechanism

Zadeh-Haghighi Hadi, Simon Christoph. Magnetic field effects in biology from the perspective of the radical pair mechanism. J. R. Soc. Interface. Aug 3, 2022. 192022032520220325. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2022.0325.

Abstract

Hundreds of studies have found that weak magnetic fields can significantly influence various biological systems. However, the underlying mechanisms behind these phenomena remain elusive. Remarkably, the magnetic energies implicated in these effects are much smaller than thermal energies. Here, we review these observations, and we suggest an explanation based on the radical pair mechanism, which involves the quantum dynamics of the electron and nuclear spins of transient radical molecules. While the radical pair mechanism has been studied in detail in the context of avian magnetoreception, the studies reviewed here show that magnetosensitivity is widespread throughout biology. We review magnetic field effects on various physiological functions, discussing static, hypomagnetic and oscillating magnetic fields, as well as isotope effects. We then review the radical pair mechanism as a potential unifying model for the described magnetic field effects, and we discuss plausible candidate molecules for the radical pairs. We review recent studies proposing that the radical pair mechanism provides explanations for isotope effects in xenon anaesthesia and lithium treatment of hyperactivity, magnetic field effects on the circadian clock, and hypomagnetic field effects on neurogenesis and microtubule assembly. We conclude by discussing future lines of investigation in this exciting new area of quantum biology.


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Measurement and Estimation of the Magnetic Fields in Electric Vehicles

M. Garvanova, I. Garvanov, V. Ivanov, D. Borissova. Measurement and Estimation of the Magnetic Fields in Electric Vehicles. 2022 22nd International Symposium on Electrical Apparatus and Technologies (SIELA), 2022, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/SIELA54794.2022.9845773.

Abstract

To solve the problem of harmful emissions emitted by internal combustion vehicles such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, soot and others, the use of electric cars is proposed. These devices operate on electricity that induces “electromagnetic pollution” in or near them. The effects of electromagnetic fields on living organisms are undeniable, but it is not yet clear how harmful they are to humans. In electric car, passengers sit very close to an electrical system that operates at considerable power and for a long period of time. This means that consumers are exposed to artificial magnetic fields. Electric car manufacturers are very familiar with these problems and offer various technological solutions in their design and production. In the present article, experimental measurements of the magnetic fields generated by an electric car operating in different operating modes will be performed and recommendations for its proper operation will be given.

Excerpts

The levels of MF when driving in urban conditions are constantly changing in the range of about 100–200 nT. When starting and stopping, the levels are relatively high in the range of 170–230 nT. When the car is stopped at a traffic light, the level of the MF is in the range of 165–200 nT.

When driving the electric car on the highway at speeds of 50, 80 and 100 km/h, MF levels of the order of 100–300 nT are obtained. The measurement results are shown in Table 2

The obtained results show that in the passenger compartment of a car operating in different operating modes, the MF levels are normal. This is achieved thanks to the engineering solutions used in the production of the electric car. It is noteworthy that when accelerating and stopping the car, relatively high values of MF are observed, but this is for very short periods of time. More worrying is the fact of prolonged exposure and relatively high values of MF at high speeds of the electric car. The power, weight, acceleration and speed of the car affect the power of the MF generated in the car body. When charging the electric car, it is recommended that people are outside the car and as far away from it as possible. The three factors that have the strongest impact on human health are: high levels of electromagnetic fields, small distances between the generators of these fields and passengers, as well as relatively long exposure.


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Comparison of EMF Exposure Limits and Assessment for Electric Vehicle Wireless Power Transfer

N. Li, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Gan. Comparison of EMF Exposure Limits and Assessment for Electric Vehicle Wireless Power Transfer. 2022 IEEE 5th International Electrical and Energy Conference (CIEEC), 2022, pp. 3944-3948, doi: 10.1109/CIEEC54735.2022.9846400.

Abstract

The electric and magnetic fields (EMF) generated by electric vehicle wireless power transfer might have health effects on the human inside and around the electric vehicle, including persons with active implantable medical devices. The comparative analysis on the EMF limits, measurement methods and assessment methods in the relevant EMF exposure standards were conducted, and the similarities and differences between domestic and foreign EMF standards and the international mainstream view were obtained. These provide the reference for the measurement and environmental impact assessment of electric vehicle wireless power transfer, as well as for revising Chinese national standard. The simulation and test research will be required with respect to the issues in the future, including assessment method of basic restrictions.


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The effects of operating frequency on wireless power transfer system design and human health in electric vehicles

A. Ağçal, T. H. Doğan, G. Aksu. The effects of operating frequency on wireless power transfer system design and human health in electric vehicles. Electrica. 22(2): 188-197, 2022.

Abstract

Wireless power transfer (WPT) continues to be popular in today’s world because it is used in situations where the use of cables is difficult, dangerous, or restrictive. In WPT, electrical energy is transmitted over the air by magnetic connections instead of cables. In this paper, WPT system designs were made with 10 kHz and 20 kHz operating frequencies, 3.3 kW output power, and 50 cm × 50 cm size. The effects of the frequency on the WPT system were analyzed with the designs made for two separate frequencies. The WPT circuits were established in the MATLAB/Simulink program. The coil design of the WPT systems was made in ANSYS® Maxwell 3D. The critical air gap values of the 10 kHz and 20 kHz designs were determined as 15 cm and 17 cm, respectively. In this study, the efficiency of the WPT system was obtained as 88.79% at 15 cm air gap for 10 kHz and 92.74% at 17 cm air gap for 20 kHz. Wireless power transfer systems in different frequency bands at the same power were compared in terms of efficiency, loss, cost, and electromagnetic field distribution. In addition, the effects of WPT systems on human health were examined according to IEEE and ICNIRP standards.

Excerpt

In which regions the magnetic field emitted by the coils is safe and unsafe for human health has been determined according to IEEE and ICNIRP standards. In this study, it has been observed that scattering can pose a danger to human health when one is between or very close to the receiver and transmitter coil. When one moves away from the coils as much as approximately the coil diameter, a safe area for public exposure is reached in 20 kHz systems. On the other hand, in 10 kHz systems, it is necessary to move further away from the boundaries of the 20 kHz system for a safe area. In this case, it is shown that WPT systems need living and object detection systems to shut down the system when a living being or an object is between or near the receiver and transmitter. In addition, it has been observed that the magnetic field created by the 20 kHz design is less than the 10 kHz design. High-frequency designs have lower inductance values, lower number of turns, and correspondingly lower magnetic flux density.


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Differential biological responses of adherent and non-adherent (cancer and non-cancerous) cells to variable extremely low frequency magnetic fields

Nezamtaheri MS, Goliaei B, Shariatpanahi SP, Ansari AM. Differential biological responses of adherent and non-adherent (cancer and non-cancerous) cells to variable extremely low frequency magnetic fields. Sci Rep. 2022 Aug 20;12(1):14225. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-18210-y.

Abstract

Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) induces biological effects on different cells through various signaling pathways. To study the impact of the ELF-EMF on living cells under an optimal physiological condition, we have designed and constructed a novel system that eliminates several limitations of other ELF-EMF systems. Apoptosis and cell number were assessed by flow cytometry and the Trypan Blue dye exclusion method, respectively. In vitro cell survival was evaluated by colony formation assay. The distribution of cells in the cell cycle, intracellular ROS level, and autophagy were analyzed by flow cytometer. Suspended cell differentiation was assessed by phagocytosis of latex particles and NBT reduction assay. Our results showed that response to the exposure to ELF-EMF is specific and depends on the biological state of the cell. For DU145, HUVEC, and K562 cell lines the optimum results were obtained at the frequency of 0.01 Hz, while for MDA-MB-231, the optimum response was obtained at 1 Hz. Long-term exposure to ELF-EMF in adherent cells effectively inhibited proliferation by arresting the cell population at the cell cycle G2/M phase and increased intracellular ROS level, leading to morphological changes and cell death. The K562 cells exposed to the ELF-EMF differentiate via induction of autophagy and decreasing the cell number. Our novel ELF-EMF instrument could change morphological and cell behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, and cell death.


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Maternal stress induced anxiety-like behavior exacerbated by electromagnetic fields radiation in female rats offspring

Hosseini E, Farid Habibi M, Babri S, Mohaddes G, Abkhezr H, Heydari H. Maternal stress induced anxiety-like behavior exacerbated by electromagnetic fields radiation in female rats offspring. PLoS One. 2022 Aug 23;17(8):e0273206. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273206.

Abstract

There is a disagreement on whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have a beneficial or harmful effect on anxiety-like behavior. Prenatal stress induces frequent disturbances in offspring physiology such as anxiety-like behavior extending to adulthood. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of prenatal stress and ELF-EMF exposure before and during pregnancy on anxiety-like behavior and some anxiety-related pathways in the hippocampus of female rat offspring. A total of 24 female rats 40 days of age were distributed into four groups of 6 rats each: control, Stress (rats whose mothers underwent chronic stress), EMF (rats whose mothers were exposed to electromagnetic fields) and EMF/S (rats whose mothers were simultaneously exposed to chronic stress and ELF-EMF). The rats were given elevated plus-maze and open field tests and then their brains were dissected and their hippocampus were subjected to analysis. ELISA was used to measure 24(S)-hydroxy cholesterol, corticosterone, and serotonin levels. Cryptochrome2, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3B-Hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2(NMDAr2) and phosphorylated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2(PNMDAr2) were assayed by immunoblotting. Anxiety-like behavior increased in all treatment groups at the same time EMF increased anxiety induced by maternal stress in the EMF/S group. The stress group showed decreased serotonin and increased corticosterone levels. ELF-EMF elevated the PNMDAr2/NMDAr2 ratio and 24(S)-hydroxy cholesterol compared to the control group but did not change corticosterone. EMF did not restore changes induced by stress in behavioral and molecular tests. The results of the current study, clarified that ELF-EMF can induce anxiety-like behavior which may be attributed to an increase in the PNMDAr2/NMDAr2 ratio and 24(S)-OHC in the hippocampus, and prenatal stress may contribute to anxiety via a decrease in serotonin and an increase in corticosterone in the hippocampus. We also found that anxiety-like behavior induced by maternal stress exposure is exacerbated by electromagnetic field radiation.


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Chronic blue light leads to accelerated aging in Drosophila by impairing energy metabolism and neurotransmitter levels

Jun Yang, Song Yujuan, Law Alexander D., Rogan Conno J., Shimoda Kelsey, Djukovic Danijel, Anderson Jeffrey C., Kretzschmar Doris, Hendrix David A., Giebultowicz Jadwiga M. Chronic blue light leads to accelerated aging in Drosophila by impairing energy metabolism and neurotransmitter levels. Frontiers in Aging. Vol. 3, 2022, doi: 10.3389/fragi.2022.983373.

Abstract

Blue light (BL) is becoming increasingly prevalent in artificial illumination, raising concerns about its potential health hazard to humans. In fact, there is evidence suggesting that acute BL exposure may lead to oxidative stress and death of retinal cells specialized for photoreception. On the other hand, recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster demonstrated that chronic BL exposure across lifespan leads to accelerated aging manifested in reduced lifespan and brain neurodegeneration even in flies with genetically ablated eyes, suggesting that BL can damage cells and tissues not specialized for light perception. At the physiological level, BL exposure impairs mitochondria function in flies, but the metabolic underpinnings of these effects have not been studied. Here, we investigated effects of chronic BL on metabolic pathways in heads of eyes absent (eya<sup>2</sup>) mutant flies in order to focus on extra-retinal tissues. We compared metabolomic profiles in flies kept for 10 or 14 days in constant BL or constant darkness, using LC-MS and GC-MS. Data analysis revealed significant alterations in the levels of several metabolites suggesting that critical cellular pathways are impacted in BL-exposed flies. In particular, dramatic metabolic rearrangements are observed in heads of flies kept in BL for 14 days, including highly elevated levels of succinate but reduced levels of pyruvate and citrate, suggesting impairments in energy production. These flies also show onset of neurodegeneration and our analysis detected significantly reduced levels of several neurotransmitters including glutamate and Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suggesting that BL disrupts brain homeostasis. Taken together, these data provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which BL interferes with vital metabolic pathways that are conserved between fly and human cells.


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Genetic analysis of cryptochrome in insect magnetosensitivity

Kyriacou CP, Rosato E. Genetic analysis of cryptochrome in insect magnetosensitivity. Front Physiol. 2022 Aug 10;13:928416. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2022.928416.

Abstract

The earth's magnetic field plays an important role in the spectacular migrations and navigational abilities of many higher animals, particularly birds. However, these organisms are not amenable to genetic analysis, unlike the model fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, which can respond to magnetic fields under laboratory conditions. We therefore review the field of insect magnetosensitivity focusing on the role of the Cryptochromes (CRYs) that were first identified in Arabidopsis and Drosophila as key molecular components of circadian photo-entrainment pathways. Physico-chemical studies suggest that photo-activation of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) bound to CRY generates a FADo- Trpo+ radical pair as electrons skip along a chain of specific Trp residues and that the quantum spin chemistry of these radicals is sensitive to magnetic fields. The manipulation of CRY in several insect species has been performed using gene editing, replacement/rescue and knockdown methods. The effects of these various mutations on magnetosensitivity have revealed a number of surprises that are discussed in the light of recent developments from both in vivo and in vitro studies.


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High-Power Electromagnetic Pulse Exposure (EMP) of Healthy Mice: Effects on Cognition, Neuronal Activity, and Hippocampal Structures

Hao Y, Liu W, Xu Z, Jin X, Ye Y, Yu C, Hu C, Zuo H, Li Y. High-Power Electromagnetic Pulse Exposure of Healthy Mice: Assessment of Effects on Mice Cognitions, Neuronal Activities, and Hippocampal Structures. Front Cell Neurosci. 2022 Jun 29;16:898164. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2022.898164.

Abstract

Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is a high-energy pulse with an extremely rapid rise time and a broad bandwidth. The brain is a target organ sensitive to electromagnetic radiation (EMR), the biological effects and related mechanisms of EMPs on the brain remain unclear. The objectives of the study were to assess the effects of EMP exposure on mouse cognitions, and the neuronal calcium activities in vivo under different cases of real-time exposure and post exposure. EMP-treated animal model was established by exposing male adult C57BL/6N mice to 300 kV/m EMPs. First, the effects of EMPs on the cognitions, including the spatial learning and memory, avoidance learning and memory, novelty-seeking behavior, and anxiety, were assessed by multiple behavioral experiments. Then, the changes in the neuronal activities of the hippocampal CA1 area in vivo were detected by fiber photometry in both cases of during real-time EMP radiation and post-exposure. Finally, the structures of neurons in hippocampi were observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. We found that EMPs under this condition caused a decline in the spatial learning and memory ability in mice, but no effects on the avoidance learning and memory, novelty-seeking behavior, and anxiety. The neuron activities of hippocampal CA1 were disturbed by EMP exposure, which were inhibited during EMP exposure, but activated immediately after exposure end. Additionally, the CA1 neuron activities, when mice entered the central area in an Open field (OF) test or explored the novelty in a Novel object exploration (NOE) test, were inhibited on day 1 and day 7 after radiation. Besides, damaged structures in hippocampal neurons were observed after EMP radiation. In conclusion, EMP radiation impaired the spatial learning and memory ability and disturbed the neuronal activities in hippocampal CA1 in mice.