Only peer-reviewed articles written in English will be considered without limit in the publication date.
criteria were defined for papers to be included. A risk of bias
assessment will be performed using a tool specifically developed for
animal studies. A meta-analysis will be performed, if feasible, for all
outcome measures; for subgroup analysis, a minimum of 3 studies per
subgroup will be required. If meta-analysis will not be possible, a
narrative synthesis of the results will be reported.
Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42020191105
Open access paper: https://
Objectives. With the rapid development of technologies related to the communications industry, human exposure to electromagnetic fields has increased during recent decades. The study aimed at investigating the effect of exposure to waves emitted from the base transceiver stations (BTS) on workers' health.
Methods. 240 workers participated in the study. In order to determine the general health conditions in two groups, along with electromagnetic waves exposure measurement, the general health questionnaire (GHQ) was completed and the data on blood parameters were assessed.
Results. The mean age and job experience in the case and control groups were 34.1 ± 4.8 and 10.1 ± 6 years and 31.6 ± 5.5 and 8.8 ± 7 years, respectively. According to the GHQ results, only anxiety and insomnia subscales showed a significant difference between the two groups. The white blood cell and red blood cell counts in the case and control groups were 6715.6 ± 1591 and 7594 ± 2416, 5.3 × 106 ± 4.6 × 105 and 5.05 × 106 ± 5.39 × 105 per ml, respectively. Analysis of the results showed that the difference between the two groups was significant.
Conclusion. The results revealed that blood parameters in the BTS operators showed more changes. Thus, it can be concluded that these health impacts result from occupational exposure to BTS waves.
Mumtaz S, Rana JN, Choi EH, Han I. Microwave Radiation and the Brain: Mechanisms, Current Status, and Future Prospects. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(16):9288.
Modern humanity wades daily through various radiations, resulting in frequent exposure and causing potentially important biological effects. Among them, the brain is the organ most sensitive to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure. Despite numerous correlated studies, critical unknowns surround the different parameters used, including operational frequency, power density (i.e., energy dose), and irradiation time that could permit reproducibility and comparability between analyses. Furthermore, the interactions of EMR with biological systems and its precise mechanisms remain poorly characterized. In this review, recent approaches examining the effects of microwave radiations on the brain, specifically learning and memory capabilities, as well as the mechanisms of brain dysfunction with exposure as reported in the literature, are analyzed and interpreted to provide prospective views for future research directed at this important and novel medical technology for developing preventive and therapeutic strategies on brain degeneration caused by microwave radiation. Additionally, the interactions of microwaves with biological systems and possible mechanisms are presented in this review. Treatment with natural products and safe techniques to reduce harm to organs have become essential components of daily life, and some promising techniques to treat cancers and their radioprotective effects are summarized as well. This review can serve as a platform for researchers to understand the mechanism and interactions of microwave radiation with biological systems, the present scenario, and prospects for future studies on the effect of microwaves on the brain.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-
Cabré-Riera et al (2020). Estimated whole-brain and lobe-specific radiofrequency electromagnetic fields doses and brain volumes in preadolescents. Environ Int. 142:105808. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2020.
J Mark Elwood, Shwe Sin Win, Phyu Sin Aye, Masoumeh Sanagou. Trends in brain cancers (glioma) in New Zealand from 1995 to 2020, with reference to mobile phone use. Cancer Epidemiol. 2022 Aug 9;80:102234. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2022.102234.
• Hypothesis is that mobile phone use increases brain cancers such as glioma.
• Mobile phone use in New Zealand increased greatly between 1990 and 2006.
• Incidence of glioma from 1995 to 2020 showed no increase at ages 10–69
• No evidence that phone use increases risk even after many years.
Background: Some case-control studies have suggested substantial increased risks of glioma in association with mobile phone use; these risks would lead to an increase in incidence over time.
Methods: Incidence rates of glioma from 1995 to 2020 by age, sex, and site in New Zealand (NZ) recorded by the national cancer registry were assessed and trends analysed. Phone use was based on surveys.
Results: In these 25 years there were 6677 incident gliomas, giving age-standardised rates (WHO world standard) of 6.04 in males, and 3.95 in females per 100,000. The use of mobile phones increased rapidly from 1990 to more than 50% of the population from about 2000, and almost all the population from 2006. The incidence of glioma from ages 10-69 has shown a small decrease over the last 25 years, during which time the use of mobile phones has become almost universal. Rates in the brain locations receiving most radiofrequency energy have also shown a small decrease. Rates at ages of 80 and over have increased.
Kim K, Lee YS, Kim N, Choi H-D, Lim K-M. 5G Electromagnetic Radiation
Attenuates Skin Melanogenesis In Vitro by Suppressing ROS Generation. Antioxidants. 2022; 11(8):1449.
Materials and Methods - CV was chosen as a model organism in this study because CV’s development can be influenced thermally and CV’s pupal stage presents a window of several days in which immobile pupae can be exposed to RF-EMFs. The 5.4 GHz frequency was used because it allowed us licence-free operation of the exposure setup. Numerical, EM simulations with 3D anatomically accurate models of CV, obtained using micro-CT scanning, were used in this study. These simulations enable the estimation of the absorbed power and the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate in CV during RF exposure experiments. An experiment with three exposure conditions was designed and executed in which 400 pupae were split into an exposed group that was placed inside the TEM cell for 48 h and a concurrent control. Two exposure conditions used RF-EMF input power into the TEM cell at 5.4 GHz on two different levels. One exposure condition was a sham exposure. Electric field strength measurements were used to validate the proper functioning of the exposure setups and to quantify the RF-EMF exposure of the control groups.
Results and Conclusions - All studied groups of pupae – exposed to RF-EMFs, sham, and control groups- showed similar (evolutions of) masses, lengths and diameters during their development. The total rate of pupal emergence was reduced in one of the studied RF-EMF exposures in comparison to its concurrent control, while the other RF-EMF exposure and the sham exposure did not alter the total rate of pupal emergence. The sham exposure and the lowest of the two studied RF-EMF exposure conditions (19.4 V/m) caused a median delay in pupal emergence of 4 and 8 hours, respectively, in comparison to concurrent control groups. The higher studied exposure of 55 V/m caused a median relative acceleration in development of 8 h.
Effect of RFEMR on NSE and MDA levels in Sprague Dawley rats
Pagadala, P; Shankar, V and Sumathi, ME. Effect of RFEMR on NSE and MDA levels in Sprague Dawley rats. Jun 2022. Bioinformation.18 (6): 501-505.
Radiofrequency emitted radiations (RFEMR) from mobile phones are known to produce a stress response because of its effect on hypothalamus. Mobile phones have become an integral part of our lives with increasing usage not only in terms of number of users but also increase in talk time. Therefore, it is of interest to study the effect of mobile phone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations on NSE and MDA levels in SD rats. Twelve male SD rats of 10-12weeks old, weighing 180-220 grams, were purchased from registered laboratory breeders & housed in a room with 12:12hour's light-dark cycle with adlibitum amount of food and RO water. Present study showed significant increase in NSE and MDA levels in rats exposed to RFEMR. This study proves that mobile RFEMR causes oxidative stress and oxidative damage in SD rats.
Objective: To assess exposure levels to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among library workers in Japan, focusing on co-exposure to intermediate-frequency EMF (IF-EMF) and pulsed EMF, to propose a new epidemiological research methodology.
Methods: The evaluated exposure sources were an electromagnetic type-electronic article surveillance gate (EM-EAS, IF-EMF (operating frequency 220 Hz-14 kHz)) and an activator/deactivator of anti-theft tags termed as "book check unit" (BCU, pulsed EMF). Short-term exposures were: (E1) whole-body exposure from the EAS gate when sitting within 3 m; (E2) local exposure to transient IF-EMF while passing through or beside the EAS gate; and (E3) local exposure to a pulsed magnetic field on BCU use. E1-E3 were evaluated based on exposure levels relative to magnetic flux density at the occupational reference level (RL; E1) or as per occupational basic restrictions (BR; E2 and E3) delineated by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 2010 guidelines. Exposure indices based on mid-term exposure (D1-D3), assuming exposure according to employment on a weekly basis, were used to assess exposure in actual working conditions. D1 represents continuous exposure from an EAS gate when sitting within 3 m of the gate. D2 and D3 represent repeated transient exposures occurring during gate pass or on the operation of a BCU. A link to a web-based questionnaire was distributed to librarians working at all libraries where the authors had mailed institutional questionnaires (4,073 libraries). Four exposure patterns were defined according to various exposure scenarios.
Results: We obtained information on exposure parameters and working conditions from the 548 completed questionnaires. The ICNIRP guideline levels were not exceeded in any of the E1-E3 scenarios. Median of the D1 (% ICNIRP RL × hour/week) was 1, and >85% respondents had values <10. However, the maximum value was 513. Altogether, these results indicate that continuous exposure was low in most cases. The same tendency was observed regarding repeated transient exposure from EM-EAS gates (i.e., the median value for D2 (% ICNIRP BR × gate pass) was 5). However, there were several cases in which D1 and D2 values were >10 times the median. The median of D3 (% ICNIRP BR × BCU operation) was 10, and most respondents' D3 values were greater than their D2 values, although the derived results depended on the assumptions made for the estimation.
Conclusion: We conducted an assessment of combined exposures to IF-EMF and pulsed EMF among library workers in Japan by evaluating both short-term exposures (E1-E3) and exposure indices based on mid-term exposures (D1-D3) assuming actual working conditions per questionnaire results. These results provide useful information for future epidemiological studies.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of occupational extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure on the thyroid gland.
Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis of 85 workers (exposure group) exposed to an ELF-EMF (100 μT, 10-100 Hz) produced by the electromagnetic aircraft launch system and followed up on thyroid function indices, immunological indices, and color Doppler images for 3 years. Additionally, 116 healthy volunteers were randomly selected as controls (control group), the thyroid function of whom was compared to the exposure group.
Results: No significant difference was observed in thyroid function between the exposure and control groups. During the follow-up of the exposure group, the serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) level was found to slowly decrease and free thyroxine (FT4) level slowly increase with increasing exposure time. However, no significant difference was found in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) over the three years, and no significant difference was observed in the FT3, FT4 and TSH levels between different exposure subgroups. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in thyroid autoantibody levels and ultrasound images between subgroups or over time.
Conclusion: Long-term exposure to ELF-EMF may promote thyroid secretion of T4 and inhibit deiodination of T4 to T3. ELF-EMF has no significant effect on thyroid immune function and morphology.
One of the currently popular research topics is whether thyroid cancer can be induced by long-term ELF-EMF exposure. As we know, cancer is caused by DNA damage, but it is generally believed that ELF-EMF is too weak to directly damage DNA. Nevertheless, a recent study shows that long-term occupational exposure to ELF-EMF may cause a genetically toxic effect. The researchers believe that DNA damage is caused by the magnetic field due to the oxidative stress that the magnetic field induced . Another meta-analysis on the relation between ELF-EMF and the risk of cancer suggests that ELF-EMF increases the risk of cancer .
33 Zhang Y, Lai J, Ruan G, et al. Meta-analysis of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer risk: a pooled analysis of epidemiologic studies. Environ Int, 2016,88:36-43
Zadeh-Haghighi Hadi, Simon Christoph. Magnetic field effects in biology from the perspective of the radical pair mechanism. J. R. Soc. Interface. Aug 3, 2022. 192022032520220325. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2022.0325.