Tuesday, January 2, 2024

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on radio frequency and other non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) monthly since 2016. The complete collection contains more than 2000 abstracts with links to these papers. Several hundred EMF scientists around the world receive these updates.

To download Volume 2 which contains abstracts of papers published from 2021 through 2023 (including the new papers listed below) 
click on the following link (867 page pdf):

To download Volume 1 which contains abstracts of papers published from 2016 through 2020
click on the following link (875 page pdf):

The abstracts for recently published papers appear below.


Is the sustainability of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation possible?

Calvente I, Núñez MI. Is the sustainability of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation possible? Med Clin (Barc). 2023 Dec 26:S0025-7753(23)00707-8. English, Spanish. doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2023.11.011.

Abstract

Technological advances imply an increase in artificially generating sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF), therefore, resulting in a permanent exposure of people and the environment (electromagnetic pollution). Inconsistent results have been published considering the evaluated health effects. The purpose of this study was to review scientific literature on EMF to provide a global and retrospective perspective, on the association between human exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR, mainly radiofrequency-EMF) and health and environmental effects. Studies on the health effects of 5G radiation exposure have not yet been performed with sufficient statistical power, as the exposure time is still relatively short and also the latency and intensity of exposure to 5G. The safety standards only consider thermal effects, do not contemplate non-thermal effects. We consider relevant to communicate this knowledge to the general public to improve education in this field, and to healthcare professionals to prevent diseases that may result from RF-EMF exposures.


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Evaluation of Micronuclei in Buccal Smears of Mobile Phone Users: A Comparative Study

Sangle V, Male VP, Sanap S, Maniyar A, Ugale G, Gundre D. Evaluation of Micronuclei in Buccal Smears of Mobile Phone Users: A Comparative Study. Journal of the International Clinical Dental Research Organization 15(2):p 112-118, Jul–Dec 2023. doi: 10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_40_23

Abstract

Background: The mobile uses have been increased drastically, creating increased health concern about radiation effects emitted from mobile phone. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the micronuclei (MN) frequency in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in high and low mobile users.

Materials and Methods: The total of 50 subjects was divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Further, subjects who use mobile phone for more than 10 h a week were considered high talk time users and <4–5 h a week was low talk time users. The buccal mucosa cells are extracted by scraping the oral cavity with a wooden spatula. MN was evaluated in 1000 cells per individual at the microscope.

Results: There was a significant increase in MN count in high mobile users compared to low mobile users. There was a highly significant difference in the mean MN count of participants using code division multiple access than global system for mobiles mobile phones. The MN mean count was found to be significantly increased in non-headphone users in comparison to headphone users. Furthermore, the MN count on the frequently used side of mobile phone was found to be statistically significantly elevated compared to the opposite side.

Conclusions: Mobile phone radiation, even in the permissible range when used for a longer duration, can cause significant genotoxicity. The genotoxicity is noted when the mobile phone is used more frequently on the same side, which may be due to more amount of radiation and increase in the temperature. Headphone usage reduces the genotoxicity of mobile phone radiation to some extent.


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Effect of Mobile Phone with and without Earphones Usage on Nickel Ion Release from Fixed Orthodontic Appliance

Rajendran R, Venkatachalapathy S, Thiyagarajan B, Jeevagan S, Chinnasamy A, Sivanandham M. Effect of Mobile Phone with and without Earphones Usage on Nickel Ion Release from Fixed Orthodontic Appliance. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2023 May 1;24(5):303-307. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-3475.

Abstract

Introduction: This study is an attempt to assess whether the usage of headphones could minimize the nickel ion release from fixed orthodontic appliance compared with hand-held mobile phones. The aim of the study is to validate the hypothesis whether there is a significant variation in nickel ion release from fixed orthodontic appliance among the patients using hand-held mobile phones and patients using mobile earphones.

Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study where a total of 60 healthy individuals who were undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment in the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Adhiparasakthi Dental College and Hospital, Melmaruvathur, Chennai, India, and all these individuals were bonded and banded. All of them are class I malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion. Salivary samples were collected in their regular checkup after two months and 7th, 14th, and 21st days salivary nickel level was evaluated based on their usage of mobile phones with earphones and without earphones.

Results: In this study, paired and independent t-tests were used. On basis of statistics results, the mean of nickel release in both male and female participants using mobile phones without earphones were significantly higher than the participants using mobile phone with earphones.

Conclusion: By our study, we concluded that usage of mobile phones with earphones has a significant reduced effect on metal ion release from fixed orthodontic appliance when compared to usage of mobile phones without earphones.


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A regulatory pathway model of neuropsychological disruption in Havana syndrome

Chacko TP, Toole JT, Morris MC, Page J, Forsten RD, Barrett JP, Reinhard MJ, Brewster RC, Costanzo ME, Broderick G. A regulatory pathway model of neuropsychological disruption in Havana syndrome. Front Psychiatry. 2023 Oct 27;14:1180929. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1180929.

Abstract

Introduction: In 2016 diplomatic personnel serving in Havana, Cuba, began reporting audible sensory phenomena paired with onset of complex and persistent neurological symptoms consistent with brain injury. The etiology of these Anomalous Health Incidents (AHI) and subsequent symptoms remains unknown. This report investigates putative exposure-symptom pathology by assembling a network model of published bio-behavioral pathways and assessing how dysregulation of such pathways might explain loss of function in these subjects using data available in the published literature. Given similarities in presentation with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), we used the latter as a clinically relevant means of evaluating if the neuropsychological profiles observed in Havana Syndrome Havana Syndrome might be explained at least in part by a dysregulation of neurotransmission, neuro-inflammation, or both.

Method: Automated text-mining of >9,000 publications produced a network consisting of 273 documented regulatory interactions linking 29 neuro-chemical markers with 9 neuropsychological constructs from the Brief Mood Survey, PTSD Checklist, and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of information flow through this network produced a set of regulatory rules reconciling to within a 6% departure known mechanistic pathways with neuropsychological profiles in N = 6 subjects.

Results: Predicted expression of neuro-chemical markers that jointly satisfy documented pathways and observed symptom profiles display characteristically elevated IL-1B, IL-10, NGF, and norepinephrine levels in the context of depressed BDNF, GDNF, IGF1, and glutamate expression (FDR < 5%). Elevations in CRH and IL-6 were also predicted unanimously across all subjects. Furthermore, simulations of neurological regulatory dynamics reveal subjects do not appear to be “locked in” persistent illness but rather appear to be engaged in a slow recovery trajectory.

Discussion: This computational analysis of measured neuropsychological symptoms in Havana-based diplomats proposes that these AHI symptoms may be supported in part by disruption of known neuroimmune and neurotransmission regulatory mechanisms also associated with mTBI.


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Evaluation of mitochondrial stress following ultraviolet radiation and 5G radiofrequency field exposure in human skin cells

Patrignoni L, Hurtier A, Orlacchio R, Joushomme A, Poulletier de Gannes F, Lévêque P, Arnaud-Cormos D, Revzani HR, Mahfouf W, Garenne A, Percherancier Y, Lagroye I. Evaluation of mitochondrial stress following ultraviolet radiation and 5G radiofrequency field exposure in human skin cells. Bioelectromagnetics. 2023 Dec 19. doi: 10.1002/bem.22495.

Highlights

  • A 24 h exposure to a 5G signal at 3.5 GHz was able to statistically significantly alter the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human skin fibroblasts (decrease at 1 W/Kg) and in human keratinocytes after UV-B irradiation (increase at 0.25 and 1 W/kg).

  • A 24 h exposure to a 5G signal at 3.5 GHz was not able to alter cell viability, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential in human skin cells, either alone or after UV-B irradiation.

  • Further studies on 3D or in vivo skin models would be needed to conclude about a possible effect of 5G 3.5 GHz signal on ROS production.

Abstract

Whether human cells are impacted by environmental electromagnetic fields (EMF) is still a matter of debate. With the deployment of the fifth generation (5G) of mobile communication technologies, the carrier frequency is increasing and the human skin becomes the main biological target. Here, we evaluated the impact of 5G-modulated 3.5 GHz radiofrequency (RF) EMF on mitochondrial stress in human fibroblasts and keratinocytes that were exposed for 24 h at specific absorption rate of 0.25, 1, and 4 W/kg. We assessed cell viability, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and membrane polarization. Knowing that human skin is the main target of environmental ultraviolet (UV), using the same read-out, we investigated whether subsequent exposure to 5G signal could alter the capacity of UV-B to damage skin cells. We found a statistically significant reduction in mitochondrial ROS concentration in fibroblasts exposed to 5G signal at 1 W/kg. On the contrary, the RF exposure slightly but statistically significantly enhanced the effects of UV-B radiation specifically in keratinocytes at 0.25 and 1 W/kg. No effect was found on mitochondrial membrane potential or apoptosis in any cell types or exposure conditions suggesting that the type and amplitude of the observed effects are very punctual.


Excerpts

To our knowledge, only a few published articles have examined the effects of 5G technology in experimental studies (EMF-Portal, 2022) at the specific band of 3.5 GHz. Among these, the exposure of zebrafish embryos at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 8.27 W/kg induced depressed sensorimotor function, abnormal behavioral responses, and variations in the expression of genes related to metabolic function in adult zebrafish (Dasgupta et al., 2020, 2022). In Drosophila melanogaster, 3.5 GHz exposure enhanced the expression of heat shock, oxidative stress, and humoral immunity system genes leading to fly developmental promotion (Wang et al., 2022). In addition, long-term exposure resulted in alterations of the expression of circadian clock genes resulting in improvement of sleep duration (Wang et al., 2021). Exposure of diabetic and healthy rats brains revealed an increase in appetite, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress (Bektas et al., 2022). Finally, no effect on anxiety-like behavior, but a SAR-dependent increase in different oxidative stress parameters were found in the guinea pig auditory cortex (Yang et al., 2022). Unfortunately, all these studies are highly heterogeneous in terms of endpoints, biological systems, and SAR levels, making it impossible to draw firm conclusions about the effects of 3.5 GHz signals on human health. It is also essential to indicate that all these studies used either an unmodulated or a GSM-modulated 3.5 GHz signal, but none of them used a 5G-modulated signal. In addition, none of the above-mentioned studies addressed the skin or other superficial tissues as relevant targets. Actually, since the penetration of the RF-EMF into the tissues decreases as the frequency increases, and given the large amount of water in the skin (Christ et al., 2006; Feldman et al., 2009), this tissue is susceptible to absorb most of the RF-EMF power when exposed to the 5G highest frequency ranges, that is, at 3.5 GHz and even more at 26 GHz....

Exposure of cells to 5G-modulated signals at 3.5 GHz was performed using an innovative reverberation chamber (RC) (Orlacchio et al., 2023), that is, an electrically large cavity made of metallic walls where a homogeneous field distribution was achieved through random mechanical stirring of the field components (Hill, 1998). This is particularly convenient in bioelectromagnetic experiments to ensure a highly homogeneous exposure level regardless of the samples location within the exposure system (Capstick et al., 2017; Ito & Bassett, 1983). In this study, a cell culture incubator (150 L; BINDER Gmbh), was converted into an RC to guarantee 24 h in vitro exposure under controlled biological conditions (37°C, 5% CO2, and 95% humidity). A detailed description of the system schematically represented in Figure 1a was given in (Orlacchio et al., 2023). The main components are reported hereafter. A printed patch antenna was used to deliver 5G-modulated 3.5 GHz signal in the chamber. A metallic stirrer composed of eight rectangular blades (8 × 10 × 1 cm3) was mounted on a 30 cm mast to continuously rotate through a motorized precision rotation stage (PRM1/MZ8; Thorlabs Inc.) driven via a K-Cube dc servo controller (KDC101; Thorlabs). The continuous rotation modified the boundary conditions during exposure allowing to achieve a homogeneous and isotropic averaged EMF within the samples (Serra et al., 2017)....

We report here some effects of 5G-modulated RF-EMF at 3.5 GHz on human skin cells, either alone in human fibroblasts, or after exposure to UV-B radiations in human keratinocytes. The effects were found nonlinear in relation to the SAR level and their amplitude did not exceed 30% compared to sham (fibroblasts) or to UV-B radiation (keratinocytes). Interestingly, we found no correlation with any change in the UV-B-induced mitochondrial membrane potential or apoptosis, suggesting that the RF-EMF increase in UV-B-induced ROS production was not enough to additionally impact neither mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis nor necrosis. To further determine whether these effects could lead to any protective effect or increase UV-B harmful bioeffects, it would be interesting to evaluate the activation of the cell's antioxidant response, that is, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, or glutathione peroxidase expression level or activity. It will also be of importance to assess whether the presence of ROS can induce end-products, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal that is produced by lipid peroxidation in cells, either in skin's organoids (Sun et al., 2021) or in skin in vivo, as we previously assessed in the sera of rats exposed to a CW 2.45 GHz signal (7 h/day for 30 days, 0.16 W/kg whole-body SAR) (De Gannes et al., 2009). These approaches would indeed be more representative of the skin complexity and take into account the interaction among the different skin cells.

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Frequency-Selective and Broadband Measurements of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Levels in the University Campus

Berisha D, Berzati HM, Dobruna J, Fazliu ZL, Ibrani M. Frequency-Selective and Broadband Measurements of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Levels in the University Campus. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 115, 47-55, 2024. doi:10.2528/PIERL23102704.

Abstract

Characterization of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure levels is considered crucial for green and sustainable wireless-empowered campuses. To investigate the university campus electromagnetic characteristics, we conducted concurrent environment-oriented and human-centric measurement campaigns with broadband and frequency selective methodologies, respectively. The broadband results are derived after processing samples of 6-minute averages of measured electric and magnetic field values, taken at various university indoor and outdoor spots using broadband survey meter. Comparative analysis of broadband measurements shows that campus outdoor electric field levels in the sub 3 GHz band average around 1.67 V/m are at least twice higher than the ones recorded in indoor environments such as dormitories, labs, and classrooms. Students' exposure pattern in the 88 MHz-6 GHz range is derived after post-processing of more than 340 thousand electric field samples which were taken every 5 seconds at various campus environments using narrowband frequency selective measurement equipment. The comparison of cumulative distribution functions per wireless technology and environment shows that Wi-Fi is the main contributor to students' personal exposure levels in indoor environments and exceeds the 2G-5G mobile communication emitted electric fields in campus outdoor environments. The presented results can be used for exposure-aware heterogeneous network planning and optimization in university campuses or comparable environments.


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An Exposimetric Electromagnetic Comparison of Mobile Phone Emissions: 5G versus 4G Signals Analyses by Means of Statistics and Convolutional Neural Networks Classification

Miclaus S, Deaconescu DB, Vatamanu D, Buda AM. An Exposimetric Electromagnetic Comparison of Mobile Phone Emissions: 5G versus 4G Signals Analyses by Means of Statistics and Convolutional Neural Networks Classification. Technologies. 2023; 11(5):113. https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11050113

Abstract
To gain a deeper understanding of the hotly contested topic of the non-thermal biological effects of microwaves, new metrics and methodologies need to be adopted. The direction proposed in the current work, which includes peak exposure analysis and not just time-averaged analysis, aligns well with this objective. The proposed methodology is not intended to facilitate a comparison of the general characteristics between 4G and 5G mobile communication signals. Instead, its purpose is to provide a means for analyzing specific real-life exposure conditions that may vary based on multiple parameters. A differentiation based on amplitude-time features of the 4G versus 5G signals is followed, with the aim of describing the peculiarities of a user’s exposure when he runs four types of mobile applications on his mobile phone on either of the two mobile networks. To achieve the goals, we used signal and spectrum analyzers with adequate real-time analysis bandwidths and statistical descriptions provided by the amplitude probability density (APD) function, the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), channel power measurements, and recorded spectrogram databases. We compared the exposimetric descriptors of emissions specific to file download, file upload, Internet video streaming, and video call usage in both 4G and 5G networks based on the specific modulation and coding schemes. The highest and lowest electric field strengths measured in the air at a 10 cm distance from the phone during emissions are indicated. The power distribution functions with the highest prevalence are highlighted and commented on. Afterwards, the capability of a convolutional neural network that belongs to the family of single-shot detectors is proven to recognize and classify the emissions with a very high degree of accuracy, enabling traceability of the dynamics of human exposure.

Conclusions

In this present work, we aim to quantify the time variability of emissions in the proximity of a mobile phone connected to either a 4G or a 5G-FR1 network when using four different mobile applications. The central objective was to provide knowledge on human exposure dynamics that completes the dosimetric studies necessary to describe the potential biological effects.

The main contribution of this study to current knowledge belongs to the topics of the effects of EMF exposure on humans that are not limited to induced heating, while non-thermal effects remain subjects of debate and investigation. To gain a deeper understanding of this aspect, new metrics and methodologies need to be adopted. The direction proposed in this work, which includes peak exposure analysis and not just time-averaged analysis, aligns well with this goal.

A supplementary benefit is the possibility to discern between exposure dynamics corresponding to one specific mobile application based on the capability of a real-time detection algorithm to successfully classify the emission type.

The proposed methodology is not intended to facilitate a comparison of the general characteristics between 4G and 5G signals. Instead, its purpose is to provide a means for analyzing specific real-life exposure conditions that may vary based on multiple parameters.
Synthetically, our results showed that:
  • Electric field strengths in the air at 10 cm from the phone were higher for 5G-FR1 emissions than for 4G, on average by 60%. None of the values exceeded human health and safety levels. The highest difference between technologies corresponded to Internet video streaming emissions, where 5G field strength was three times higher than 4G.
  • 4G and 5G-FR1 amplitude probability density distributions differ; 4G traces depend much more on the type of mobile application used, while 5G traces are more similar one to another and more independent of the mobile application. The same probability range of power level distribution was covered by a larger window of power values in 5G than in 4G.
  • Crest factors were higher for 5G-FR1 emissions than for 4G emissions; the highest difference (almost double) evolved during file download applications, while the lowest difference was observed during Internet video streaming.
  • The prevalence of the highest power levels (superior tail emissions) appeared much more frequent for 5G-FR1 emissions than for 4G, and a difference of as much as 9.5 dB over mean power was encountered in 5G versus 4G emissions.
  • The recorded spectrograms emphasized peculiarities that have been excellently captured and valorized by the YOLO v7 deep learning algorithm. Practically, excellent recognition and classification rates were obtained for each technology and each category of mobile application with a minimum of training.
Overall, the contribution of the present approach consists in the provision of an exposimetric tool that underlines the differences in amplitude-time profiling of a user’s exposure when running various applications on the mobile phone in two different mobile communication technologies. Due to the limitations of the methodology employed, the data presented cannot be considered to be of total generality. However, realistic exposure and time-variability analysis need further investigation in varied situations.


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Pressures of the urban environment on the endocrine system: Adverse effects and adaptation

Rannaud-Bartaire P, Demeneix BA, Fini J-B. Pressures of the urban environment on the endocrine system: Adverse effects and adaptation. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 2023. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2023.112125.

Abstract

With an increasing collective awareness of the rapid environmental changes, questions and theories regarding the adaptability of organisms are emerging. Global warming as well as chemical and non-chemical pollution have been identified as triggers of these adaptative changes, but can we link different kinds of stressors to certain phenotypic traits? The physiological adaptation, and particularly endocrine system adaptation, of living beings to urban environments is a fascinating way of studying urban endocrinology, which has emerged as a research field in 2007. In this paper, we stress how endocrine disruption in humans and environment can be studied in the urban environment by measuring the levels of pollution, endocrine activities or adversity. We broaden the focus to include not only exposure to the chemicals that have invaded our private spheres and their effects on wild and domestic species but also non-chemical effectors such as light, noise and climate change. We argue that taking into account the various urban stress factors and their effects on the endocrine system would enable the adoption of new approaches to protect living organisms.
Keywords: Endocrine disruption; Urban pollution; Biodiversity; Adaptation

Highlights
  • Urban environments represent adaptive challenges for humans as well as wild and domesticated animals, which could serve as sentinels as they share the same environment.
  • These challenges include chemical pollution as well as exposure to non-chemical factors (artificial light, electromagnetic waves, noise pollution, climate change, sedentary lifestyle, lack of nature and endocrine effects).
  • The endocrine system, which is conserved throughout evolution, constitutes the cornerstone of the adaptation of organisms to their environment.
  • An integrated consideration of the various urban stressors and their effects on the endocrine system would facilitate the development of new approaches to protect living organisms.
  • Studies should include multiple levels of information, such as air, water and food contamination data, and integrate a translational, holistic “One Health” view, combining human epidemiological data with those collected on nearby species.
Excerpts

However, scientific data are still insufficient to allow the implementation of regulations that would effectively protect populations. Electromagnetic waves, artificial lights, noise, a sedentary lifestyle and global warming are all factors that interact with the endocrine system and could call upon adaptation mechanisms also activated by exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (Russart and Nelson, 2018; Seebacher, 2022)....

Artificial light: In mammals, light reaching the retina is crucial for vision but also important for non-visual input to the brain. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) project the light to the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which release various neurotransmitters and, thus, mediate the 24-hour light-dark cycle, influencing the secretion of, for example, serotonin, dopamine and melatonin. Natural light and its variations during the circadian cycle are difficult to reproduce by electrical systems. Lack of daylight exposure in the developing child, a major consequence of increased screen time indoors, is correlated with multiple health risks, ranging from physiological problems (sleep, obesity) to psychological ones (depression, anxiety), cognitive problems, impacts on eye development (increased myopia) and deficiencies in endogenous vitamin D production (Wirz-Justice et al., 2021.). The effects of artificial light at night are known in animals (glycaemic dysregulation, decreased spontaneous energy expenditure, altered seasonal reproductive cycles) and humans (increased global circulating glucocorticoids, inflammation, altered daily plasma leptin rhythms and glucose homeostasis, altered ovarian steroid secretions, ovulation and embryo implantation), but the underlying mechanisms have yet to be studied. There is a probable link between the effects of continuous artificial light, melatonin depletion and interactions with the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (Russart and Nelson, 2018; Hadinia et al., 2020; Salti et al., 2006). A recent review reported that central control via the hypothalamus disrupted by artificial light at night is one of the causes of impaired migration (Grunst and Grunst, 2023).

Electromagnetic waves: The World Health Organization is currently conducting a project to assess the potential health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs), with frequencies between 100 kHz and 300 GHz, in the general and working population. Since the 1950s, RF-EMFs have been used in medicine (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, radio frequency ablation), the industry (e.g., heating and welding), domestic appliances (e.g., baby monitors, Wi-Fi), security and navigation (e.g., radar and RFID) and, especially, telecommunication (e.g., radio and television broadcasting, mobile telephony). Six major topics were identified (brain cancer and leukaemia, adverse reproductive effects, cognitive impairment, symptoms, oxidative stress and heat-related effects), for which the WHO commissioned systematic reviews of experimental observations to analyse and synthesise the available data (Mevissen et al., 2022; Pacchierotti et al., 2021).

A study published in 2020 including 21,049 Swedish and 3120 Finnish adult participants enrolled between 2008 and 2011 in the Cohort Study of Mobile Phone and followed for 4 years showed a slight increase in insomnia among mobile phone users in the highest call time category (>258 min/week), at that time, mainly in 2G and 3G. Since then, usage times and wave networks have changed significantly, but few data are available (Tettamanti et al., 2020). Increasing background levels of non-ionising anthropogenic electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from 0 Hz to 300 GHz could cause damage to non-human species at the ecosystem and biosphere levels, irrespective of the taxa; however, field studies are still scarce (McCredden et al., 2022; Pophof et al., 2023). In another study, exposure of gravid rats and pups in the postnatal phase 24 hours a day to 900-MHz electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) (average wave frequencies of electronic devices present in the home) led to an increase in hepatic markers of oxidative stress (Salameh et al., 2022) and changes in melatonin and cortisol secretion, but with conflicting results.

Patients with electro hypersensitivity (EHS) and/or multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) appear to have similar clinical pictures, with biological markers of low-grade inflammation, oxidative stress and an autoimmune response involving autoantibodies against O-myelin, associated with hemodynamic defects on brain imaging in the capsule-thalamic area of the temporal lobes, suggesting the involvement of the limbic system and the thalamus (Belpomme and Irigaray, 2020). The appearance of 5G networks, the installation of relay antennas in densely populated areas and the constant increase in exposure to EM waves in young children is a public health issue.

Table 1 (excerpt):

                                             Epidemiology Studies                                                                                                                                            Experimental Studies

Artificial lightWirz-Justice et al., 2021 (short review, human)
Salti et al., 2006 (children's urinary melatonin excretion and screen exposure)
Russart and Nelson (2018) (sensitivity of the circadian system to artificial light as night, human and nocturnal rodents)
Hadinia et al. (2020) (photostimulation and puberty, pullets)
Electromagnetic wavesMevissen et al. (2022) (laboratory animals studies and cancer)
Pacchierotti et al. (2021) (laboratory animals studies and male fertility, radiofrequaency electromagnetics fields)
Tettamanti et al. (2020) (cohort study of mobile phone use, human)
McCredden et al. (2022) (electromagnetics signal, human cohort)
Pophof et al. (2023) (electromagnetics signal, wildlife)
Salameh et al.,2022 (electromagnetics waves, rats liver)

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Mobile Cellular Data and Wi-Fi Use Are Not Associated with Adverse Health Effects

Rabiei M, Masoumi SJ, Mortazavi SMJ, Nematolahi S, Haghani M. Mobile Cellular Data and Wi-Fi Use Are Not Associated with Adverse Health Effects. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2023 Dec 1;13(6):497-502. doi: 10.31661/jbpe.v0i0.2206-1511.

Abstract

Background: Smartphone users frequently connect to the Internet via mobile data or Wi-Fi. Over the past two decades, the worldwide percentage of people who connect to the Internet using their mobile phones has increased drastically.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the potential link between mobile cellular data/ and Wi-Fi use and adverse health effects.

Material and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2,796 employees (52% female and 48% male) of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS), Shiraz, Iran. The sociodemographic data (e.g., gender, age, nationality, and education level) were collected for all the participants. They were also requested to provide information about their smartphone use including the characteristics of the connection to the Internet using their smartphones (mobile data and Wi-Fi). In addition, the participants' history of diabetes, hypertension, cardiac ischemia, myocardial infarction, renal failure, fatty liver, hepatitis, chronic lung disease, thyroid disease, kidney stone, gall bladder stone, rheumatoid disease, epilepsy, and chronic headache was recorded through face-to-face interviews.

Results: 94% of people participating in this study reported using mobile/Wi-Fi internet. The mean (±SD) Internet usage per day was 117.85±122.70 minutes including 76±98 minutes of mobile data and 42±81 minutes of Wi-Fi use.

Conclusion: Our findings showed no link between mobile phone Internet usage and the risk of the above-mentioned health problems. As in 2021, the global average daily time spent on the Internet using mobile phones was 155 minutes, the participants' lower use time could explain the failure to show any detrimental effects. Considering the study limitations, further large-scale studies are warranted.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10749419/

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Comment to Mobile Cellular Data and Wi-Fi Use Are Not Associated with Adverse Health Effects by Rabiei et al.

Arribas E, Escobar I, Ramirez-Vazquez R. Comment to Mobile Cellular Data and Wi-Fi Use Are Not Associated with Adverse Health Effects by Rabiei et al., Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2023 Dec 1;13(6):577-578. doi: 10.31661/jbpe.v0i0.2310-1669.

No abstract

Excerpt

We concur with the authors in the following statement: “Considering the limitations of our study, further large-scale studies are warranted”, due to the substantial expansion of wireless communications in the last 25 years. Moreover, the rollout of the fifth generation (5G) of telecommunication infrastructures is underway and requires thorough examination to ensure that it does not pose any risks to human health, particularly for the most susceptible populations such as children and the elderly. Thus, it is crucial to conduct comprehensive research and risk assessments before implementing this new technology.


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Potential Effects of Anthropogenic Radiofrequency Radiation on Cetaceans

Balmori-de la Puente A, Balmori A. Potential Effects of Anthropogenic Radiofrequency Radiation on Cetaceans. Radiation. 2024; 4(1):1-16. doi: 10.3390/radiation4010001.

Abstract

Cetaceans are cast to shore for a large number of reasons, although sometimes it is not clear why. This paper reviews the types and causes of cetacean strandings, focusing on mass strandings that lack a direct scientific explanation. Failure of cetacean orientation due to radiofrequency radiation and alterations in the Earth’s magnetic field produced during solar storms stand out among the proposed causes. This paper proposes the possibility that anthropogenic radiofrequency radiation from military and meteorological radars may also cause these strandings in areas where powerful radars exist. A search of accessible databases of military and meteorological radars in the world was carried out. Research articles on mass live strandings of cetaceans were reviewed to find temporal or spatial patterns in the stranding concentrations along the coast. The data showed certain patterns of spatial and temporal evidence in the stranding concentrations along the coast after radar setup and provided a detailed description of how radars may interfere with cetacean echolocation from a physiological standpoint. Plausible mechanisms, such as interference with echolocation systems or pulse communication systems, are proposed. This work is theoretical, but it leads to a hypothesis that could be empirically tested. Further in-depth studies should be carried out to confirm or reject the proposed hypothesis.

Simple Summary

The number of mass stranding events is dramatically increasing in recent decades affecting cetacean diversity and conservation. They consist in the accumulation of cetacean carcasses or live animals along the coast following certain temporal and spatial patterns. Although some cases can be explained based on a combination of physical or biological natural factors, direct human intervention is contributing to many of them. However, there are still many cases with unknown causes that demand to increase the efforts to describe possible new threats to cetacean species. In this context, we evaluate the potential effect of anthropogenic radiofrequency radiation (i.e., from meteorological and military radars) that has had a great expansion in the last years and is known to alter the magnetic receptor organs in several groups of animals. The aim of this work, was to conduct a bibliographic review reporting mass stranding events together with a search of radars in the vicinity areas. The results obtained suggest that anthropogenic radiofrequency radiation may be considered as a novel factor to understand some stranding events with unknown causes and proposes some plausible mechanisms of action.


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Estimation of SAR Average in Rats during 5G NR Chronic Exposure

Makhmanazarov R, Tseplyaev I, Shipilov S, Krivova N. Estimation of SAR Average in Rats during 5G NR Chronic Exposure. Applied Sciences. 2024; 14(1):208. doi: 10.3390/app14010208.

Abstract

To study physiological reactions in the brain and skin of higher mammals exposed to chronic radiofrequency radiation, specific absorption ratio (SAR) determination is required and time-consuming numerical methods are used. The paper deals with the estimation of the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) in rats chronically exposed to external electromagnetic fields, as well as the development of a laboratory setup simulating the operation of a fifth-generation 5G New Radio base station (with a signal bandwidth of 15 MHz and a carrier frequency of 2.4 GHz). The paper presents a modified method for theoretical SAR estimation for one-sided irradiation and distributed absorption. Mean whole-body SAR values were estimated by the proposed method and numerically modeled with the CST Microwave Studio simulation software 2020package using primitive rat models. Dielectric parameters in the numerical simulation were used from the software library. The IEEE/IEC 62704-1 algorithm was used to investigate SAR in numerical simulations. The theoretical estimates and numerical simulations were compared for different SAR distributions and were found to be qualitatively comparable. The differences between approximate theoretical estimates and numerical simulations are 7% and 10% for distributed and non-distributed absorptions, respectively. The proposed method, which takes into account the decreasing power flux density, can be used to estimate the approximate whole-body SAR during chronic electromagnetic field exposure in rats.

Conclusions

Despite the rough approximations of rat phantoms used in simulations, the numerical calculation of SAR is qualitatively comparable to the theoretical estimate. A more accurate estimate requires the use of high-resolution model phantoms and a more detailed statistical analysis of EMF distribution and animal position. The differences between the approximate theoretical estimate and numerical simulations were 7% and 10% for the distributed and non-distributed absorptions, respectively. The whole-body average SARs in the approximate in vivo theoretical estimates were 0.0431, 0.0076, and 0.0059 W/kg for the first, second, and third groups, respectively.

In fact, ambient illumination in combination with multiple reflections make accurate dosimetry more challenging. Adjustments to the actual amount of absorbed power are made by the fact that a living thing cannot stand still in a long-term experiment.

The waveguide method can be considered the most accurate measurement of the whole body average SAR. It is possible to measure the power transmitted and reflected from the subject, which can accurately determine the specific absorption rate. However, such conditions are not suitable for long-term experiments to study the physiological reactions of animals.

In [2], a threshold value of 4 W/kg under various exposure conditions was believed to cause some animal species, including non-human primates, to alter their complex behavioral patterns. Behavioral disturbance is often (but not always) accompanied by a 1.0 ºC rise in body temperature. Even at exposure levels well above current standards, human body temperature is effectively regulated by mobilizing appropriate heat loss mechanisms such as sweating and skin blood flow.

All first-group study animals (SAR = 0.043 W/kg) were recorded to have their body temperature rise by an average of 1 °C. In addition, the maximum possible absorption exceeded the allowable norms by 0.18/0.08 = 2.25 times. Despite the fact that the average SAR value was below the acceptable level, prolonged EMF exposure caused a rise in temperature. Changing temperatures were not registered during the exposure of rats.

The study of physiological reactions of animals in the first group was stopped because the temperature increase was not acceptable. The other groups were within normal temperature limits, and the results of physiologic studies are described in [22]. Expression (3) requires modifications related to the statistical distribution of the positions of rats in the cage. The posture positions of rats obviously depend on their number in the cage, the shape of the cage, the location of the feeder, the behavioral properties of the animals, etc. The developments in this domain are being planned for the near future.


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Effects of 4G mobile phone radiation exposure on reproductive, hepatic, renal, and hematological parameters of male Wistar rat

My note: Although this study exposed animals to a 4G carrier frequency (i.e., 2350 MHz), the signal generator (Keysight N9310A) used in this study provides a continuous wave signal which is not 4G.

Gautam R, Pardhiya S, Nirala JP, Sarsaiya P, Rajamani P. Effects of 4G mobile phone radiation exposure on reproductive, hepatic, renal, and hematological parameters of male Wistar rat. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2023 Dec 16. doi: 10.1007/s11356-023-31367-x.

Abstract

Background and objective: Mobile phones have become a vital part of human life. Due to drastic increase in the number of mobile phone subscribers, exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted from these phones has increased dramatically. Hence, the effect of RFR on humans is an area of concern. This study was performed to determine the impact of 4G mobile phone radiation on the male reproductive system, liver, kidney, and hematological parameters.

Methods: Seventy-day-old Wistar rats were exposed to 4G radiation (2350 MHz for 2 h/day for 56 days). Sperm parameters such as sperm count, viability, sperm head morphology, mitochondrial activity, total antioxidant activity, and lipid peroxidation of sperm were evaluated. Histopathology of the testis, prostate, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney was carried out. Complete blood count, liver and kidney function tests, and testosterone hormone analysis were done.

Results: At the end of the experiment, results showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in sperm viability with alterations in the histology of the liver, kidney, testis, and other reproductive organs in the exposed group of rats. A reduced level of testosterone, total antioxidant capacity, and decreased sperm mitochondrial function were also observed in the exposed rats. Moreover, the exposed rats showed an increase in sperm lipid peroxidation and sperm abnormality. Hematological parameters like hemoglobin, red blood cells (RBC), and packed cell volume (PCV) showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the exposed rats.

Conclusion: The results indicate that chronic exposure to 4G radiation may affect the male reproductive system, hematological system, liver, and kidney of rats.


Excerpts

Previous reports suggest the adverse effect of electromagnetic radiation on different organs, viz., testis (Gaharwar et al. 2022; Pardhiya et al. 2022), liver (Alkis et al. 2021), kidney (Pardhiya et al. 2020; Hasan et al. 2021), brain (Delen et al. 2021; Hasan et al. 2022), parotid gland (Siqueira et al. 2016), and hormonal changes in the male and female reproductive systems (Kozlowska et al. 2022). Mobile phone usage may also increase the risk of early spontaneous abortions in pregnant women (Mahmoudabadi et al. 2018). Various in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies have shown a higher risk of cancer upon a longer duration of exposure to these radiations (Cardis et al. 2011; Gupta et al. 2020). Epidemiological studies have shown the occurrence of sleep disorders, headaches, behavioral changes, and early spontaneous abortions (Hillert et al. 2008). Radiation emitted from mobile phones has been categorized as a possible carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (Miller et al. 2019)....

After exposure of rats to 4G frequency (2350 MHz) for 56 days, results obtained have showed alterations in sperm viability, count, head abnormality, and sperm mitochondrial activity of rats. A decrease in testosterone level may be associated with Leydig cell injury or its reduced function. RFR also induced histopathological alterations in the male reproductive organs, liver, and kidney. Some of the hematological parameters and liver function parameters showed significant changes while no significant changes in kidney function parameters were observed after the exposure. The results indicate that 4G radiation increases oxidative stress, induces peroxidation of membrane lipids, and decreases total antioxidant capacity in the testis. In the present experiment, among the sperm parameters studied, only sperm viability decreased significantly in the exposed group. However, long-term exposure may decrease sperm count and quality as well. Significant alterations in kidney and liver function tests may also result upon the longer duration of exposure. Thus, it may be concluded that 4G radiation (Carrier frequency 2350 MHz) can affect the reproductive, renal, and hepatic system of male Wistar rat. In order to further explore the impact of 4G radiation on reproductive health, cellular and molecular studies could be done in reproductive cells. In vitro as well as in vivo studies with varying time duration could be conducted to understand the underlying mechanism and cell signaling pathways involved in the alterations induced by 4G radiation. The relationship between the dosage of 4G radiation and reproductive health outcomes with variation in exposure duration could be done to determine the thresholds at which adverse effects may occur. Further, effects of 4G radiation could be examined among different age groups of animals. Young, mature, and aged animals may respond differently, and understanding age-dependent effects is important for assessing long-term implications. Behavioral aspects of reproductive health in animals after long-term exposure to 4G radiation could be examined. Future work can be done to check if 4G radiation can induce genetic or epigenetic changes such as DNA integrity, gene expression and epigenetic modifications in reproductive cells and tissues.

After exposure of rats to 4G frequency (2350 MHz) for 56 days, results obtained have showed alterations in sperm viability, count, head abnormality, and sperm mitochondrial activity of rats. A decrease in testosterone level may be associated with Leydig cell injury or its reduced function. RFR also induced histopathological alterations in the male reproductive organs, liver, and kidney. Some of the hematological parameters and liver function parameters showed significant changes while no significant changes in kidney function parameters were observed after the exposure. The results indicate that 4G radiation increases oxidative stress, induces peroxidation of membrane lipids, and decreases total antioxidant capacity in the testis. In the present experiment, among the sperm parameters studied, only sperm viability decreased significantly in the exposed group. However, long-term exposure may decrease sperm count and quality as well. Significant alterations in kidney and liver function tests may also result upon the longer duration of exposure. Thus, it may be concluded that 4G radiation (Carrier frequency 2350 MHz) can affect the reproductive, renal, and hepatic system of male Wistar rat. In order to further explore the impact of 4G radiation on reproductive health, cellular and molecular studies could be done in reproductive cells. In vitro as well as in vivo studies with varying time duration could be conducted to understand the underlying mechanism and cell signaling pathways involved in the alterations induced by 4G radiation. The relationship between the dosage of 4G radiation and reproductive health outcomes with variation in exposure duration could be done to determine the thresholds at which adverse effects may occur. Further, effects of 4G radiation could be examined among different age groups of animals. Young, mature, and aged animals may respond differently, and understanding age-dependent effects is important for assessing long-term implications. Behavioral aspects of reproductive health in animals after long-term exposure to 4G radiation could be examined. Future work can be done to check if 4G radiation can induce genetic or epigenetic changes such as DNA integrity, gene expression and epigenetic modifications in reproductive cells and tissues.

Adult male Wistar rats (7 weeks old) were grouped in two sets of sham-exposed (Control) and exposed with 6 rats per group....

The experimental group of rats was kept in plexiglass cages and placed inside the anechoic chamber (Fig. 1). The desired power signal was obtained by transmitting carrier signal from a signal generator (Keysight model no -N9310A) at 4G frequency (LTE Band 40) 2350 MHz. The power of the signal was low, thus was amplified by the amplifier (Amplifier Research Model number-1S1G4) before being sent to the WR-340 waveguide horn antenna (pyramidal shaped and 15dBi gain), which radiates the signal on the experimental animals (kept at 20 cm distance from the horn antenna). Animals were kept in plexiglass cone-shaped cages (dimensions length 25 cm × minimum and maximum width 3.5 and 8.5 cm × height 6 cm) exposed to Carrier signal 4G frequency of 2350 MHz (2 h/day) for 56 days. Power density was measured inside the cage by Narda measurement system NBM-520 (probe model 5092). Animals were exposed to the average power density of 0.2488 mW/cm2, and the average specific absorption rate (SAR) calculated for exposed group animals was 0.0625 Watt/kg (Durney et al. 1979)....

After exposure of rats to 4G frequency (2350 MHz) for 56 days, results obtained have showed alterations in sperm viability, count, head abnormality, and sperm mitochondrial activity of rats. A decrease in testosterone level may be associated with Leydig cell injury or its reduced function. RFR also induced histopathological alterations in the male reproductive organs, liver, and kidney. Some of the hematological parameters and liver function parameters showed significant changes while no significant changes in kidney function parameters were observed after the exposure. The results indicate that 4G radiation increases oxidative stress, induces peroxidation of membrane lipids, and decreases total antioxidant capacity in the testis. In the present experiment, among the sperm parameters studied, only sperm viability decreased significantly in the exposed group. However, long-term exposure may decrease sperm count and quality as well. Significant alterations in kidney and liver function tests may also result upon the longer duration of exposure. Thus, it may be concluded that 4G radiation (Carrier frequency 2350 MHz) can affect the reproductive, renal, and hepatic system of male Wistar rat. In order to further explore the impact of 4G radiation on reproductive health, cellular and molecular studies could be done in reproductive cells. In vitro as well as in vivo studies with varying time duration could be conducted to understand the underlying mechanism and cell signaling pathways involved in the alterations induced by 4G radiation. The relationship between the dosage of 4G radiation and reproductive health outcomes with variation in exposure duration could be done to determine the thresholds at which adverse effects may occur. Further, effects of 4G radiation could be examined among different age groups of animals. Young, mature, and aged animals may respond differently, and understanding age-dependent effects is important for assessing long-term implications. Behavioral aspects of reproductive health in animals after long-term exposure to 4G radiation could be examined. Future work can be done to check if 4G radiation can induce genetic or epigenetic changes such as DNA integrity, gene expression and epigenetic modifications in reproductive cells and tissues.

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Effects of Exposure to Radiofrequency at 2.45 GHz on Structural Changes Associated with Lipid Peroxidation in Prepubertal Rat Testicular Tissue

Karadayı, Ayşegül & Ünal, Nilüfer & Gülbahçe Mutlu, Elif & Engiz, Begüm & Akkoca, Ahmet & Varol, Salih. (2023). Effects of Exposure to Radiofrequency at 2.45 GHz on Structural Changes Associated with Lipid Peroxidation in Prepubertal Rat Testicular Tissue. European Journal of Therapeutics. 2023. doi: 10.58600/eurjther1875.

Abstract

Objective: The increasing use of electronic devices, accompanied by advancing technologies, has led to heightened exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR). This exposure instigates the accumulation of free radicals and oxidative damage in tissues, consequently impacting biological systems. Notably, the testis is among the tissues adversely affected by EMR. Numerous studies have highlighted the pivotal role of the testis in sperm production, emphasizing the potential implications of any damage on the reproductive system. This study aims to assess the levels of lipid peroxidation through histological evaluation in the testicular tissue of prepubertal male rats exposed to electromagnetic radiation at varying electric field intensities within the 2.45 GHz radiofrequency (RF) range.

Methods: The experimental group comprises six subdivisions, including a sham control group, as well as groups exposed to varying electric field strengths (EFS) of 0.6 V/m, 1.9 V/m, 5 V/m, 10 V/m, and 15 V/m, respectively. Excluding the sham control group, the remaining subgroups were subjected to a daily 2.45 GHz RF exposure for 1 hour starting immediately after fertilization. This exposure to different electric field intensities continued for 45 days post-birth.

Results: The samples obtained from the RF radiation-exposed rats exhibited elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) values and decreased glutathione (GSH) values in the testicular tissue. Furthermore, a comparative analysis between the microwave radiation-exposed group and the control group revealed distinct histological alterations in the testicular tissue.

Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings indicate that exposure to microwave radiation at an electric field intensity of 15 V/m can lead to significant histopathological and oxidative parameter changes in Wistar rats. These results underscore the potential effects of such exposure on human health.


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Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phones and Fructose consumption Coalesce to Perturb Metabolic Regulators AMPK/SIRT1-UCP2/FOXO1 in Growing Rats

Tripathi R, Banerjee SK, Nirala JP, Mathur R. Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phones and Fructose consumption Coalesce to Perturb Metabolic Regulators AMPK/SIRT1-UCP2/FOXO1 in Growing Rats. Biomed Environ Sci. 2023 Nov 20;36(11):1045-1058. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.134.

Abstract

Objective: In this study, the combined effect of two stressors, namely, electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from mobile phones and fructose consumption, on hypothalamic and hepatic master metabolic regulators of the AMPK/SIRT1-UCP2/FOXO1 pathway were elucidated to delineate the underlying molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance.

Methods: Weaned Wistar rats (28 days old) were divided into 4 groups: Normal, Exposure Only (ExpO), Fructose Only (FruO), and Exposure and Fructose (EF). Each group was provided standard laboratory chow ad libitum for 8 weeks . Additionally, the control groups, namely, the Normal and FruO groups, had unrestricted access to drinking water and fructose solution (15%), respectively. Furthermore, the respective treatment groups, namely, the ExpO and EF groups, received EMF exposure (1,760 MHz, 2 h/day x 8 weeks). In early adulthood, mitochondrial function, insulin receptor signaling, and oxidative stress signals in hypothalamic and hepatic tissues were assessed using western blotting and biochemical analysis.

Result: In the hypothalamic tissue of EF, SIRT1, FOXO 1, p-PI3K, p-AKT, Complex III, UCP2, MnSOD, and catalase expressions and OXPHOS and GSH activities were significantly decreased ( P < 0.05) compared to the Normal, ExpO, and FruO groups. In hepatic tissue of EF, the p-AMPKα, SIRT1, FOXO1, IRS1, p-PI3K, Complex I, II, III, IV, V, UCP2, and MnSOD expressions and the activity of OXPHOS, SOD, catalase, and GSH were significantly reduced compared to the Normal group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The findings suggest that the combination of EMF exposure and fructose consumption during childhood and adolescence in Wistar rats disrupts the closely interlinked and multi-regulated crosstalk of insulin receptor signals, mitochondrial OXPHOS, and the antioxidant defense system in the hypothalamus and liver.

Excerpts

In the Normal group, animals had free access to standard laboratory chow and filtered drinking water. The animals had free access to standard laboratory chow and 15% fructose as a drinking solution. In the ExpO group, the animals had free access to standard laboratory chow and filtered drinking water. Additionally, they were exposed to EMF from mobile phones (frequency of 1,760 MHz, power density of 0.3988 mW/cm2, GSM, and SAR of 0.181 W/kg) for 2 h/day for 8 weeks. In the EF, the animals had free access to standard laboratory chow and 15% fructose as a drinking solution. Additionally, they were exposed to EMF from mobile phones (frequency of 1,760 MHz, power density of 0.3988 mW/cm2, GSM, and SAR of 0.181 W/kg) for 2 h/day for 8 weeks....

These data indicate that the EMF from mobile phones and fructose consumption during childhood-adolescence coalesce to mitigate master metabolic regulators (AMPK-SIRT1) and signals of oxidative phosphorylation and insulin functions (UCP2 and FOXO1) in the hypothalamus and liver, ultimately initiating the genesis of hyp-IR and hep-IR by early adulthood.


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Comparison of the Effects of Rosmarinic Acid and Electromagnetic Radiation-Induced Cardiotoxicity on Rats

Goudarzi M, Fatahi Asl J, Shoghi H. Comparison of the Effects of Rosmarinic Acid and Electromagnetic Radiation-Induced Cardiotoxicity on Rats. J Tehran Heart Cent. 2023 Jul;18(3):207-213. doi: 10.18502/jthc.v18i3.14115.

Abstract

Background: Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) causes stable aggregation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), producing oxidative stress. Rosmarinic acid (RA), a plant-origin antioxidant, has been proposed against the side effects of cell phone and ultrahigh-frequency waves.

Methods: Forty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups. Group 1 (controls) received 5 mL of normal saline with the gavage method, Group 2 received 915 MHz radiation, Group 3 received 2450 MHz radiation, Group 4 received RA plus 915 MHz radiation, Group 5 received RA plus 2450MHz radiation, and Group 6 received oral RA (5 mg/kg). Treatment and radiation (1 hour per day) continued for up to 30 days.

Results: EMR significantly reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), the content of glutathione (GSH), and the level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and significantly increased oxidative stress indices, such as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and the content of protein carbonyl (PC). In contrast, RA significantly elevated TAC level (all groups), GSH content (the RA/cell phone radiation group), GPx activity (the RA/ultrahigh-frequency radiation group), SOD activity (all groups), and CAT activity (RA/ultrahigh-frequency radiation group) and conversely reduced MDA level (all groups), NO level (all groups), and PC content (all groups) in the RA/cell phone and RA/ultrahigh-frequency radiation groups compared with the NS/cell phone and NS/ultrahigh-frequency radiation groups, respectively. The administration of RA resulted in a significant reversal of cardiac markers in EMR-intoxicated rats.

Conclusion: RA treatment showed a significant protective effect against EMR-induced cardiotoxicity.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10748653/

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Single and combined neurotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of 5 GHz MIMO waves and computed tomography irradiation in male Wistar rats

Obajuluwa AO, Lech JC, Amina D, Onwuka CC, Bolarinwa RA, Obajuluwa TM, Fafure AA, Krüger TPJ, Afolabi OB, Anish A, Emoruwa O, Baker M (2023) Single and combined neurotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of 5 GHz MIMO waves and computed tomography irradiation in male Wistar rats. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 10(1):835-845. doi: 10.1080/2314808X.2023.2282243

Abstract

A significant public concern is how technologies that emit electromagnetic waves interact and affect the biota because they are linked to the dysregulation of genes involved in neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and normal cellular function. Standard methods have been used to study how the combination of electromagnetic waves from 5 GHz radio and computed tomography (CT) irradiation affects whole blood parameters, neurobehavioural profiles, genomic DNA, and p53 gene expression in Wistar rats grouped into five, namely, I-Negative control, II-sham, III-5 GHz only, IV-5 GHz + CT, V-CT. The 5 GHz router was connected to the internet using an ethernet cable and the specific absorbance rate (SAR) was measured as 0.54W/kg and 24 V/0.5A power density, while CT parameters were set at 140 K.v, 300 mA, 5.3 cv at a 1.0-s speed for 60 s. Genomic DNA was isolated from rats’ cerebral cortex, while target gene and internal control primers (GAPDH) were synthesized for tumor suppressor (p53) gene expression and electrophoresed on a 1.2% agarose gel. We found that CT irradiation had gross effects on platelets, white blood cell counts, memory, hepatic and testicular histoarchitectures compared to the 5 GHz-only group. However, there was a loss of p53 (exons 5–7) gene bands in electrophoresed data with increased micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte count in the 5 GHz group. Regardless of the interferential interaction in the combination group, the deleterious effects of non-ionizing and ionizing irradiation in the single and combined exposure groups predict functional abnormalities and dysregulated cellular processes from high electromagnetic fields exposure in biological systems.


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Impact of GSM-EMW exposure on the markers of oxidative stress in fetal rat liver

Salameh M, Zeitoun-Ghandou S, Sabra L. et al. Impact of GSM-EMW exposure on the markers of oxidative stress in fetal rat liver. Sci Rep 13, 17806 (2023). doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-44814-z.

Abstract

The current study investigated the effects of 24 h/day prenatal exposure to global system for mobile communication electromagnetic fields (GSM-EMFs), 900 MHZ-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR), on oxidative stress (OS) status, apoptotic, and inflammatory changes in liver of rats during their fetal development period. Fifty-two Sprague–Dawley pregnant rats were equally divided into control and exposed groups. Whole embryos were removed at 7.5 dpc (days post coitus), while liver tissues were extracted from embryos at 11.5, 15.5, and 19.5 dpc. For exposed animals, results showed an increased OS reflected by high levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a decrease in cytosolic superoxide dismutase (cytoSOD) activity, in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (mitoSOD) levels and catalase (CAT) mRNA expression but also in hepatic nuclear factor erythroïd 2-related Factor 2 (Nrf-2), protein kinase B (Akt1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA expression at 15.5 dpc. Moreover, GSM-EMR exposure was shown to significantly decrease mitoSOD and CAT activities at almost all studied ages. Thus, rat embryos may be protected by their mothers from OS, apoptotic, and pro-inflammatory responses till a sensitive developmental stage, during a continuous prenatal EMR exposure. This protection could be then created from the embryos themselves.


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Lipoic acid inhibits cognitive impairment induced by multiple cell phones in young male rats: role of Sirt1 and Atg7 pathway

El-Kafoury BMA., Abdel-Hady EA, El Bakly W. et al. Lipoic acid inhibits cognitive impairment induced by multiple cell phones in young male rats: role of Sirt1 and Atg7 pathway. Sci Rep 13, 18486 (2023). doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-44134-2

Abstract

The utilization of digital technology has grown rapidly in the past three decades. With this rapid increase, cell phones emit electromagnetic radiation; that is why electromagnetic field (EMF) has become a substantial new pollution source in modern civilization, mainly having adverse effects on the brain. While such a topic attracted many researchers’ scopes, there are still minimal discoveries made regarding chronic exposure to EMF. The extensive use of cell phones may affect children's cognition even indirectly if parents and guardians used their phones repeatedly near them. This study aims to investigate possible lipoic acid (LA) effects on cognitive functions and hippocampal structure in young male rats exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from multiple cell phones. Forty young male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups: control, multiple cell phones-exposed and lipoic acid-treated rats. By the end of the experimental period, the Morris water maze was used as a cognitive test. The rats were sacrificed for the collection of serum and hippocampal tissue. These serum samples were then utilized for assessment of Liver function tests. The level of glutamate, acetylcholine (Ach) and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated, in addition to evaluating the expression of autophagy-related protein-7 (Atg7) and Sirt1 genes. The left hippocampal specimens were used for histopathological studies. Results showed that multiple cell phone-exposed rats exhibited shorter latency time to reach the platform by the fifth day of training; additionally, there was a reduction in consolidation of spatial long-term memory. Correspondingly, there was an elevation of hippocampal Ach, glutamate, and MDA levels; accompanied by up-regulation of hippocampal Sirt1 and Atg7 gene expression. Compared to the EMF-exposed group, LA administration improved both learning and memory, this was proved by the significant decline in hippocampal MDA and Ach levels, the higher hippocampal glutamate, the downregulated hippocampal Sirt1 gene expression and the upregulated Atg7 gene expression. In conclusion, EMF exposure could enhance learning ability; however, it interfered with long-term memory consolidation shown by higher hippocampal Ach levels. Lipoic acid treatment improved both learning and memory by enhancing autophagy and hippocampal glutamate level and by the reduced Ach levels and Sirt1 gene expression.


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Mobile telephony radiation exerts genotoxic action and significantly enhances the effects of gamma radiation in human cells

Panagopoulos DJ. Mobile telephony radiation exerts genotoxic action and significantly enhances the effects of gamma radiation in human cells. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2023 Dec 8. doi: 10.4149/gpb_2023036.

Abstract

I previously reported induction of chromosomal damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) induced by: a) Mobile telephony (MT) electromagnetic fields (EMFs)/electromagnetic radiation (EMR), b) a high caffeine dose, and c) the combination of the two stressors. HPBLs from the same subjects exposed to gamma radiation at doses 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 Gy, displayed more aberrations than those exposed to MT EMFs or the high caffeine dose in a dose-dependent manner. When the cells exposed to these gamma radiation doses were pre-exposed to a single 15-min MT EMF exposure, the number of aberrations increased significantly more than the sum number of aberrations induced by the individual stressors in all subjects. Thus, MT EMF exposure at a power density ~136 times below the latest International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) exposure limit, apart from the fact that it is genotoxic by itself, significantly enhanced the genotoxic action of gamma radiation. Since gamma radiation at similar doses is applied for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, people should be aware of the increased risk during treatment periods. Comparison of the genotoxic action between MT EMF and gamma radiation shows that the ICNIRP limits are, at least, ~4.5×104 times less stringent than the limits for gamma radiation.


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Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of pure aluminum: an experimental assessment for 5G (Sub-6GHZ)

Sorgucu, U. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of pure aluminum: an experimental assessment for 5G (SUB 6GHZ). J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 34, 2325 (2023). doi: 10.1007/s10854-023-11686-y.

Abstract

This article investigates the feasibility of using pure aluminium for electromagnetic shielding in the 5G frequency region. With the growing proliferation of 5G wireless technologies, concerns over the potential health effects of electromagnetic interference have emerged, and effective shielding solutions are needed. The study examines the shielding effectiveness of pure aluminium at various thicknesses and frequencies, using experimental measurement method. The results indicate that pure aluminium is an effective shielding material in the 5G frequency range, with shielding effectiveness increasing with thickness. As known, aluminium is a cost-effective, easily available and applicable material which can be used alternatively to other shielding materials. In addition to its physical and commercial properties, aluminum has been used as a shielding material in the literature for many frequency regions due to its shielding properties. Electromagnetic shielding efficiencies of aluminium sheets designed in different ways have been measured in this study. The paper concludes that pure aluminium can be a viable solution for electromagnetic shielding in 5G applications. The study highlights the importance of considering shielding effectiveness when designing and implementing 5G systems, and underscores the potential of pure aluminium as a shielding material.

Conclusion

The SE of aluminium has been evaluated for a frequency range where 5G (sub 6 GHz) applications will be implemented. In this respect, it is considered a serious contribution to the literature. The SE of aluminium has been analysed for a wide spectrum from 3.3 to 6 GHz. In addition, the effect of thickness of the aluminium sheets was also investigated as part of this study. For this purpose, single-layer, double-layer and triple-layer aluminium sheets were formed and measured. The experimental results obtained within the scope of this paper show that;

  • Aluminium shows an SE in the range of 45–90 dB for the 5G range.

  • The shielding performance of aluminium decreases with increasing frequency.

  • As the thickness of the aluminium sheet increases, the shielding performance increases.

  • The SE of aluminium is particularly effective in the 4.5 and 5.1 GHz frequency ranges.

  • Considering the physical advantages of aluminium, it can be used in 5G applications to be carried out in these regions.

  • The absorption characteristic of aluminium is more dominant than the reflection characteristic in the 5G frequency range below 6 GHz. The average absorption is between 20 and 60 dB, while the reflection characteristic is between 10 and 20 dB.

The EMC characteristics of different metals and their layered forms will be the subject of future studies at the 5G frequency range.


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Low-frequency electric fields at smartphone surface

Voccio J, Seredinski A, Song J, Khabari A, Chuery M, Oshman H, Mujica PS. Low-frequency electric fields at smartphone surface. AIP Advances 1 November 2023; 13 (11): 115213. doi: 10.1063/5.0169965

Abstract

Mobile phones, tablets, and other devices with capacitive touchscreens are ubiquitous in modern society. Consequently, the battery health of such devices along with the potential public health impacts of their typical use is of high importance. Here, we investigate the AC electric field present near the touchscreen surface during device charging. Using a Trifield TF2 meter for magnitude and a Faraday pickup coil for frequency, we study the AC electric field at the surface of an Apple iPhone 8 mobile phone in the 0–200 kHz range, well below the uplink/downlink bands used for cellular signals. We find the addition of the frequency content throughout this range and with integrated magnitude of the order of 500 V/m rms under certain phone charging conditions. Our findings suggest that the field is being generated by the lithium-ion battery. We note also that these AC electric fields are not present when the device is charged from a portable power bank.


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Residential exposure to magnetic fields from transformer stations and risk of childhood leukemia

Malavolti M, Malagoli C, Wise LA, Poli M, Notari B, Taddei I, Fabbi S, Teggi S, Balboni E, Pancaldi A, Palazzi G, Vinceti M, Filippini T. Residential exposure to magnetic fields from transformer stations and risk of childhood leukemia. Environ Res. 2023 Dec 23:118043. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2023.118043.

Highlights

A few children may be exposed to magnetic fields due to transformer stations at home.

Transformer stations show little association with overall childhood leukemia risk.

Children aged ≥5 years might have an increased leukemia risk from such exposure.

Abstract

Background: Several studies have documented an increased risk of leukemia among children exposed to magnetic fields, with some evidence of dose-response relation. However, findings in some studies have been inconsistent, and data on the effects of different sources of exposure are lacking. In this study, we evaluated the relation of childhood leukemia risk to exposure to magnetic fields from transformer stations.

Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study in a pediatric population of two Northern Italian provinces of Modena and Reggio Emilia. We included 182 registry-identified childhood leukemia cases diagnosed during 1998-2019 and 726 population controls match on age, sex and province. We assessed exposure by calculating distance from childhood residence to the nearest transformer station within a geographical information system, computing disease odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. We evaluated exposure using two buffers (15m and 25m radius) and assessed two case groups: leukemia (all subtypes) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Results: Residing within 15 m of a transformer station (vs. ≥15 m) was not appreciably associated with risk of leukemia (all subtypes) or ALL. We found similar results using a less stringent exposure buffer (25 m). Among children aged ≥5 years, the multivariable ORs were 1.3 (95% CI 0.1-12.8) for leukemia and 1.3 (95% CI 0.1-12.4) for ALL using the 15 m buffer, while they were 1.7 (95% CI 0.4-7.0) for leukemia and 0.6 (95% CI 0.1-4.8) for ALL using the 25 m buffer.

Conclusions: While we found no overall association between residential proximity to transformer stations and childhood leukemia, there was some evidence for elevated risks of childhood leukemia among children aged ≥5 years. Precision was limited by the low numbers of exposed children.


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Biological Effects of Magnetic Storms and ELF Magnetic Fields

Sarimov RM, Serov DA, Gudkov SV. Biological Effects of Magnetic Storms and ELF Magnetic Fields. Biology. 2023; 12(12):1506. doi: 10.3390/biology12121506

Simple Summary

The study of the biological effects of time-varying magnetic fields has attracted more and more attention from researchers, and the number of publications on this topic is growing every year. In this article, we plan to briefly introduce the reader to the results of research, ideas, and discussions on the biological effects of time-varying magnetic fields. This article is illustrated with a large number of generalizing figures and contains a lot of factual data. This review presents the main biological effects observed during magnetic storms and in laboratory studies. The general concepts of studying the influence of magnetic storms on humans are described. Possible approaches to modeling magnetobiological effects at different levels of the organization of living things are presented. The results of the impact of anthropogenic fields on humans (epidemiological studies) are presented. The mechanisms of action of time-varying magnetic fields on living objects are discussed. Dependences of quantitative characteristics of the biological action of time-varying magnetic fields on their frequency, induction, and duration are discussed. The information presented in this manuscript may be valuable for a wide range of readers in the initial assessment of the risks associated with the influence of time-varying magnetic fields on the body.

Abstract

Magnetic fields are a constant and essential part of our environment. The main components of ambient magnetic fields are the constant part of the geomagnetic field, its fluctuations caused by magnetic storms, and man-made magnetic fields. These fields refer to extremely-low-frequency (<1 kHz) magnetic fields (ELF-MFs). Since the 1980s, a huge amount of data has been accumulated on the biological effects of magnetic fields, in particular ELF-MFs. However, a unified picture of the patterns of action of magnetic fields has not been formed. Even though a unified mechanism has not yet been generally accepted, several theories have been proposed. In this review, we attempted to take a new approach to analyzing the quantitative data on the effects of ELF-MFs to identify new potential areas for research. This review provides general descriptions of the main effects of magnetic storms and anthropogenic fields on living organisms (molecular–cellular level and whole organism) and a brief description of the main mechanisms of magnetic field effects on living organisms. This review may be of interest to specialists in the fields of biology, physics, medicine, and other interdisciplinary areas.

Conclusions and Prospects

ELF-MFs with a frequency of <1 kHz have a wide range of biological effects on living systems. These fields include fluctuations of the GMF during a magnetic storm and background TVMF generated by electrical equipment, transport, etc. Among the main effects of magnetic storms on humans, changes in the cardiovascular system are primarily noted. Anthropogenic ELF-MFs affect the functioning of the cardiovascular system and may also be associated with the risk of developing some kinds of cancer. ELF-MFs studied in the laboratory had the most diverse effects on the circulatory, nervous, immune, endocrine, and musculoskeletal systems of humans and animals, as well as on plants and insects. We attempted to search for patterns connecting the MF spectral content and the level of the biological effect. It was found that most of the effects are localized in amplitude–frequency “windows”; maxima are observed in the areas of cyclotron resonances of mono- and divalent ions, industrial MFs, and magnetic storms. The analysis approach we used can be expanded by introducing additional parameters (field direction, presence of rotation, the shape of a single signal, etc.). The results obtained may be of fundamental value and find practical application in biology, medicine, and agriculture.


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On the quantum nature of magnetic phenomena in biology

Binhi V, Rubin AB. On the quantum nature of magnetic phenomena in biology. Physics of biology and medicine (2023). 1:44-73. doi: 10.7256/2730-0560.2023.1.40435 

Abstract

The review discusses the microscopic mechanisms of the action of weak magnetic fields on organisms. Magnetobiology distinguishes between magnetoreception, i.e., the effect of a magnetic field on specialized receptors, and a nonspecific response that develops without such receptors. The nonspecific effects of weak magnetic fields are highly general and universal: they occur in all organisms. Often these effects are disguised as the result of the action of uncontrolled random factors, appear as an increased scatter of measurements, and accompanied by low reproducibility. The nature of nonspecific magnetic effects, as is shown in this review, is related to the quantum dynamics of the magnetic moments of electrons, magnetic nuclei, and, possibly, rotations of molecular groups. Among the most substantiated is the spin-chemical mechanism, first of all. Its known low sensitivity to weak magnetic fields can be increased by including spin-correlated radical pairs in the enzymes that catalyze biopolymer processes, e.g., ribosomal ones. We show that research on the effects of significantly weakened magnetic fields compared with the geomagnetic field on cellular processes has prospects for various practical applications. The mechanisms proposed to explain nonspecific effects, but turned out to be untenable, are listed.

Conclusion 

Quantum nonspecific effects of weak MP have a general and universal character — they always occur in all organisms. These effects are invisible when small. When they are not small and could be noticeable, they, by virtue of their randomness, disguise themselves as the result of the action of uncontrolled random factors. This manifests itself in the form of non—reproducibility, - heterogeneity of the array of measurements or specifically increased random spread. Unlike magnetoreception — the action of weak MP on specialized receptors of some organisms — magnetic nonspecific effects do not receive the attention of researchers. The molecular physical mechanisms of non-specific effects remain largely unclear, although the understanding of their nature is gradually deepening. Knowledge of molecular mechanisms would significantly reduce the level of randomness of non-specific effects, i.e. increase their reproducibility, and find many useful applications for them. Among the promising ones are mechanisms based on the quantum dynamics of magnetic moments, primarily the magnetochemical mechanism, or RPM. The low sensitivity of RPM in the region of weak MP is compensated by the possible inclusion of spin-correlated radical pairs in the work of biopolymer enzymes, in particular ribosomal translation enzymes. This makes it possible to increase the magnetic sensitivity of the RPM by two or three orders of magnitude due to a statistical increase in the probability of local errors of cellular translation. Thus, the main problem of magnetobiology can be considered solved, since a consistent explanation of the biological effects of weak MP appears. The mechanisms of mixing the quantum levels of magnetic moments and the molecular gyroscope also have a certain explanatory potential in relation to the effects of MP. This paper also lists mechanisms that have been proposed at various times to explain the nonspecific biological effects of weak MP, but have proved to be untenable for one reason or another. These include induction and resonance mechanisms, as well as mechanisms based on the dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles. In general, all mechanisms that use classical, rather than quantum, physics to describe microscopic processes are untenable, for example, those that use the idea of the Lorentz force. It is shown that the study of the effect of hypoMP on cellular processes under conditions of compensation or screening of laboratory magnetic fluctuations has good prospects for a variety of practical applications.


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Electromagnetic Exposure Level of a Pure Electric Vehicle Inverter Based on a Real Human Body

Dong X, Gao Y, Lu M. The Electromagnetic Exposure Level of a Pure Electric Vehicle Inverter Based on a Real Human Body. Applied Sciences. 2024; 14(1):32. doi: 10.3390/app14010032

Abstract

In order to quantitatively analyze the electromagnetic exposure dose of an inverter in a pure electric vehicle to the driver’s body and assess the safety of the electromagnetic exposure, based on a real human anatomy model in the virtual home project, a real human model with several organs and tissues, including muscles, bones, a heart, lungs, a liver, kidneys, a bladder, a skull, a scalp, white matter, and a cerebellum, was constructed. The inverter of a pure electric vehicle is considered to be the electromagnetic exposure source; for this study, an equivalent electromagnetic environment model composed of a real human body, an inverter, and a vehicle body was built. The distribution of induced fields in the driver’s tissues and organs was calculated and analyzed using the finite element method. The results show that the distribution of the magnetic flux density, induced electric field, and induced current density in the driver’s body was affected by the spatial distance of the inverter. The farther the distance was, the weaker the value was. Specifically, due to the different dielectric properties of the different tissues, the induced field in the different tissues was significantly different. However, the maximum magnetic flux density over the space occupied by the driver’s body and induced electric field in the driver’s trunk and central nervous system satisfied the exposure limits of the International Commission on Non-Ionization Radiation Protection, indicating that the electromagnetic environments generated by the inverter proposed in this paper are safe for the vehicle driver’s health. The numerical results of this study could also effectively supplement the study of the electromagnetic environments of pure electric vehicles and provide some references for protecting the drivers of pure electric vehicles from electromagnetic radiation.

Conclusions

Based on the numerical results, we found that although the B-field in the central region of the inverter exceeds the reference level of the ICNIRP for general public exposure, when the distance from the inverter is increased, the B-field values sharply decrease. The maximum B-field over the space occupied by the driver’s body and the E-field in the driver’s trunk and CNS are all below the exposure limits defined by the ICNIRP for general public exposure. The electromagnetic environment generated by the inverter adopted in this study (12 kW, Semikron, Germany), at its rated state in the paper, is therefore safe and would not affect the PEV driver’s health. Additionally, the results of this study could effectively supplement research regarding the electromagnetic environment of PEVs and provide references for the formulation of industry standards for electromagnetic exposure and the design of vehicles that are safe in terms of electromagnetic exposure.


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Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on glioblastoma cells (U -118 MG)

Nowak-Terpiłowska A, Górski R, Marszałek M, Wosiński S, Przesmycki R, Bugaj M, Nowosielski L, Baranowski M, Zeyland J. Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on glioblastoma cells (U -118 MG). Ann Agric Environ Med. 2023 Dec 22;30(4):763-772.

Abstract

Introduction and objective: Mobile phones and Wi-Fi are the most commonly used forms of telecommunications. Initiated with the first generation, the mobile telephony is currently in its fifth generation without being screened extensively for any biological effects that it may have on humans or on animals. Some studies indicate that high frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phone and Wi-Fi connection can have a negative effect upon human health, and can cause cancer, including brain tumour.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on the proliferation and morphology of normal (human embryonic kidney cell line Hek-293) and cancer cells (glioblastoma cell line U-118 MG).

Material and methods: The cell cultures were incubated in RF-EMF at the frequency of 2.4 GHz, with or without dielectric screen, for 24, 48 and 72h. In order to analyse the influence of the electromagnetic field on cell lines, Cytotoxicity test Cell Counting Kit-8 was performed. To protect cells against emission of the electromagnetic field, a dielectric screen was used.

Results: It was found that 2.4 GHz RF electromagnetic field exposure caused a significant decrease in viability of U-118 MG and Hek-293 cells. The impact of the electromagnetic field was strongest in the case of cancer cells, and the decrease in their survival was much greater compared to the healthy (normal) cells of the Hek-293 line.

Conclusions: Results of the study indicate that using a radio frequency electromagnetic field (2.4 GHz) has a clearly negative effect on the metabolic activity of glioblastoma cells. RF-EMF has much less impact on reducing the viability of normal cells (Hek -293) than cancer cells.


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[Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic field on rat working memory and investigation of neural mechanisms]

Wang L, Li S, Li T, Zheng W, Li Y, Xu G. [Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic field on rat working memory and investigation of neural mechanisms]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2023 Dec 25;40(6):1135-1141. Chinese. doi: 10.7507/1001-5515.202303032.

With the widespread use of electrical equipment, cognitive functions such as working memory (WM) could be severely affected when people are exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields (EMF) for long term. However, the effects of EMF exposure on WM and its neural mechanism remain unclear. In the present paper, 15 rats were randomly assigned to three groups, and exposed to an EMF environment at 50 Hz and 2 mT for a different duration: 0 days (control group), 24 days (experimental group I), and 48 days (experimental group II). Then, their WM function was assessed by the T-maze task. Besides, their local field potential (LFP) in the media prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was recorded by the in vivo multichannel electrophysiological recording system to study the power spectral density (PSD) of θ and γ oscillations and the phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) intensity of θ-γ oscillations during the T-maze task. The results showed that the PSD of θ and γ oscillations decreased in experimental groups I and II, and the PAC intensity between θ and high-frequency γ (hγ) decreased significantly compared to the control group. The number of days needed to meet the task criterion was more in experimental groups I and II than that of control group. The results indicate that long-term exposure to EMF could impair WM function. The possible reason may be the impaired communication between different rhythmic oscillations caused by a decrease in θ-hγ PAC intensity. This paper demonstrates the negative effects of EMF on WM and reveals the potential neural mechanisms from the changes of PAC intensity, which provides important support for further investigation of the biological effects of EMF and its mechanisms.


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Glioblastoma behavior study under different frequency electromagnetic field

Xiang XW, Liu HT, Tao XN, Zeng YL, Liu J, Wang C, Yu SX, Zhao H, Liu YJ, Liu KF. Glioblastoma behavior study under different frequency electromagnetic field. iScience. 2023 Nov 23;26(12):108575. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2023.108575.

Abstract

The tumor-treating fields (TTFields) technology has revolutionized the management of recurrent and newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) cases. To ameliorate this treatment modality for GBM and other oncological conditions, it is necessary to understand the biophysical principles of TTFields better. In this study, we further analyzed the mechanism of the electromagnetic exposure with varying frequencies and electric field strengths on cells in mitosis, specifically in telophase. In reference to previous studies, an intuitive finite element model of the mitotic cell was built for electromagnetic simulations, predicting a local increase in the cleavage furrow region, which may help explain TTFields' anti-proliferative effects. Cell experiments confirmed that the reduction in proliferation and migration of glioma cell by TTFields was in a frequency- and field-strength-dependent manner. This work provides unique insights into the selection of frequencies in the anti-proliferative effect of TTFields on tumors, which could improve the application of TTFields.


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Response of photosynthesis and electrical reactions of wheat plants upon the action of magnetic fields in the Schumann resonance frequency band

Grinberg M, Ilin N, Nemtsova Y, Sarafanov F, Ivanova A, Dolinin A, Pirogova P, Vodeneev V, Mareev E. Response of photosynthesis and electrical reactions of wheat plants upon the action of magnetic fields in the Schumann resonance frequency band. Plant Signal Behav. 2024 Dec 31;19(1):2294425. doi: 10.1080/15592324.2023.2294425.

Abstract

Alternating magnetic fields (MF) with Schumann resonance frequencies accompanied the development of living organisms throughout evolution, but today it remains unclear whether they can have a special biological effect in comparison with surrounding non-resonant frequencies. This work shows some stimulating effect of extremely low-frequency MFs on morphometric parameters and the activity of physiological processes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is shown that the MF effect is more pronounced for transient processes - photosynthesis reactions and changes in electrical potential caused by turning on light. For light-induced electrical reactions, the dependence of the severity of the effect on the frequency of the applied MF was demonstrated. It is shown that the most pronounced effect occurs in the 14.3 Hz field, which corresponds to the second harmonic of the Schumann resonance. The predominant sensitivity of signal-regulatory systems gives reason to assume the influence of MFs with Schumann resonance frequencies on the interaction of plants with environmental factors under conditions of a changed electromagnetic environment. Such conditions can occur, for example, with an increase in lightning activity caused by climate change, which serves as the basis for the generation of Schumann resonances, and with the development of artificial ecosystems outside the Earth's atmosphere.


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Model of a Predictive Neural Network for Determining the Electric Fields of Training Flight Phases

Michalowska J. Model of a Predictive Neural Network for Determining the Electric Fields of Training Flight Phases. Energies. 2024; 17(1):126. doi: 10.3390/en17010126.

Abstract

Tests on the content of the electrical component of the electromagnetic field (EMF) were carried out with an NHT3DL broadband meter by Microrad using a 01E (100 kHz ÷ 6.5 GHz) measuring probe. Measurements were made during training flights (Cessna C172, Cessna C152, Aero AT3, and Technam P2006T aircrafts). A neural network was used, the task of which was to learn to predict the successive values of average (ERMS) and instantaneous (EPEAK) electromagnetic fields used here. Such a solution would make it possible to determine the most favorable routes for all aircrafts. This article presents a model of an artificial neural network which aims to predict the intensity of the electrical component of the electromagnetic field. In order to create the developed model, that is, to create a training sequence for the model, a series of measurements was carried out on four types of aircraft (Cessna C172, Cessna C152, Aero AT3, and Technam P2006T). The model was based on long short-term memory (LSTM) layers. The tests carried out showed that the accuracy of the model was higher than that of the reference method. The developed model was able to estimate the electrical component for the vicinity of the routes on which it was trained in order to optimize the exposure of the aircraft to the electrical component of the electromagnetic field. In addition, it allowed for data analysis of the same training flight routes. The reference point for the obtained electric energy results were the normative limits of the electromagnetic field that may affect the crew and passengers during a flight. Monitoring and measuring the electromagnetic field generated by devices is important from an environmental point of view, as well as for the purposes of human body protection and electromagnetic compatibility. In order to improve reliability in general aviation and to adapt to the proposed requirements, aviation training centers are obliged to introduce systems for supervising and analyzing flight parameters.


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Effect of 2850 MHz electromagnetic field radiation on the early growth, antioxidant activity, and secondary metabolite profile of red and green cabbage

Handa AP, Vian A, Singh HP et al. Effect of 2850 MHz electromagnetic field radiation on the early growth, antioxidant activity, and secondary metabolite profile of red and green cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.). Environ Sci Pollut Res (2023). doi: 10.1007/s11356-023-31434-3.

Abstract

The proliferation of wireless and other telecommunications equipment brought about by technological advances in the communication industry has substantially increased the radiofrequency radiation levels in the environment. The emphasis is, therefore, placed on investigating the potential impacts of radiofrequency radiation on biota. In this work, the impact of 2850 MHz electromagnetic field radiation (EMF-r) on early development, photosynthetic pigments, and the metabolic profile of two Brassica oleracea L. cultivars (red and green cabbage) was studied. On a daily basis for seven days, seedlings were exposed to homogeneous EMF-r for one, two, and four hours, and observations were carried out at 0-h, 1-h, and 24-h following the final dose. Irrespective of the duration of harvest, exposure to EMF-r resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in both root (from 6.3 cm to 4.0 cm in red; 6.1 cm to 3.8 cm in green) and shoot lengths (from 5.3 cm to ⁓3.1 cm in red; 5.1 cm to 3.1 cm in green), as well as a decrease in biomass (from 2.9 mg to ⁓1.1 mg in red; 2.5 to 0.9 mg in green) of the seedlings when compared to control samples. Likewise, the chlorophyll (from 6.09 to ⁓4.94 mg g−1 d.wt in red; 7.37 to 6.05 mg g−1 d.wt. in green) and carotenoid (from 1.49 to 1.19 mg g−1 d.wt. in red; 1.14 to 0.51 mg g−1 d.wt. in green) contents of both cultivars decreased significantly when compared to the control. Additionally, the contents of phenolic (28.99‒45.52 mg GAE g−1 in red; 25.49‒33.76 mg GAE g−1 in green), flavonoid (21.7‒31.8 mg QE g−1 in red; 12.1‒19.0 mg QE g−1 in green), and anthocyanin (28.8‒43.6 mg per 100 g d.wt. in red; 1.1‒2.6 mg per 100 g d.wt. in green) in both red and green cabbage increased with exposure duration. EMF-r produced oxidative stress in the exposed samples of both cabbage cultivars, as demonstrated by dose-dependent increases in the total antioxidant activity (1.33‒2.58 mM AAE in red; 1.29‒2.22 mM AAE in green), DPPH activity (12.96‒78.33% in red; 9.62‒67.73% in green), H2O2 content (20.0‒77.15 nM g−1 f.wt. in red; 14.28‒64.29 nM g−1 f.wt. in green), and MDA content (0.20‒0.61 nM g−1 f.wt. in red; 0.18‒0.51 nM g−1 f.wt. in green) compared to their control counterparts. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutases (3.83‒8.10 EU mg−1 protein in red; 4.19‒7.35 EU mg−1 protein in green), catalases (1.81‒7.44 EU mg−1 protein in red; 1.04‒6.24 EU mg−1 protein in green), and guaiacol peroxidases (14.37‒47.85 EU mg−1 protein in red; 12.30‒42.79 EU mg−1 protein in green), increased significantly compared to their control counterparts. The number of polyphenols in unexposed and EMF-r exposed samples of red cabbage was significantly different. The study concludes that exposure to 2850 MHz EMF-r affects the early development of cabbage seedlings, modifies their photosynthetic pigments, alters polyphenol content, and impairs their oxidative metabolism.