Tuesday, October 16, 2018

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Recent News

Martin Röösli. Mobile phone radiation may affect memory performance in adolescents. Medical Xpress. July 20, 2018.
  Radio frequency radiation may have adverse effects on memory performance of specific brain regions exposed during mobile phone use.

Ronnie Cohen. Do cellphones cause cancer? Government study reveals 'stunningly important findings. Newsweek, July 19, 2018.
  Current cellphone safety regulations are based on a premise that is now arguably false: that cellphone radiation can cause harm only by heating tissue.

Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. The inconvenient truth about cancer and mobile phones.The Guardian, July 14, 2018.
  We dismiss claims about mobiles being bad for our health – but is that because studies showing a link to cancer have been cast into doubt by the industry?

Reynard Loki. Our cellphone addiction is turning wireless tech into an invisible weapon that’s destroying wildlife. Salon, July 14, 2018.
  Electromagnetic radiation from Wi-Fi and cell towers poses a “credible risk” to birds, mammals, insects and plants

Lynne Peeples. Should cell phone providers warn customers of health risks? Berkeley says yesMcClatchy News Washington Bureau, July 11, 2018.
  Although the scientific community has not reached consensus, the California health department said research indicates long-term, extensive cellphone use may affect health.

Lynne Peeples. Wireless industry using First Amendment as a cudgel in its battle against safety warningsFairWarning, July 11, 2018.
  Complete version of the article. News websites published the McClatchy version.

Microwave News. "'Clear evidence' of cell phone cancer risk, say leading pathologists." April 9, 2018.
  Why the peer review panel and NTP interpreted the same animal data differently. 

Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. "How big wireless made us think that cell phones are safe: A special investigation.The Nation, March 29, 2018.
  The disinformation campaign—and massive radiation increase—behind the 5G rollout.




Recent Posts on EMR Safety

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields 
  Compilation of over 500 abstracts of scientific papers published since August, 2016.

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?
 "Both oncologic and non-cancerous chronic effects have been suggested."

5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype
  News stories debunk exaggerated benefits of 5G cellular technology.

Cell Phone Safety Guidance from the California Public Health Department
  New real-world study of cell phone radiation confirms recommendations in the Department's cell phone safety guidance.

Hybrid & Electric Cars: Electromagnetic Radiation Risks
  Modern automobiles increasingly incorporate EMF-emitting devices that pose a risk to human health.

Wireless Radiation TV News
  Links to over 150 televised news stories about wireless radiation health risks.

  Former NTP scientist defends study; expert reviewer suggests results call for stronger RF exposure guidelines; IARC should upgrade cancer risk.

National Toxicology Program: Peer & public review of cell phone radiation study.
  Experts convened by NTP found "clear evidence" of cancer from cell phone radiation. Official summary now available.

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
 Recent research and policy developments regarding electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

  City Council reaffirms its commitment to defend landmark cell phone "right to know" ordinance against telecom industry lawsuit in the federal courts.

iPhone XS and XR: Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) or RF Exposure
  What are the SAR values for iPhone’s new smart phones? How should consumers use this information?

New Apple Watch Reignites Concerns over Cell Phone Radiation
  How much wireless radiation (cellular, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) is emitted by smart watches? 

ICNIRP’s Exposure Guidelines for Radio Frequency Fields
  ICNIRP requests public input on its radio frequency radiation exposure guidelines. Former NTP scientist critiques ICNIRP.

Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US: Role of Cell Phone & Cordless Phone Use
 The CDC reported that brain cancer incidence among youth 0-20 years of age increased between 2001 and 2014. Also thyroid cancer and lymphoma.

Scientific Evidence of Harm from Cell Phone Radiation: Two Years of Research
  An annotated bibliography which contains 92 papers published in scientific journals during the last two years that report evidence of harm from cell phone radiation exposure.

International Perspective on Health Effects of Low Intensity Non-Ionizing Radiation
  There is an urgent need to recognize hazards associated with excessive exposure to non-thermal levels of electromagnetic fields.

Effects of Cell Phone Use on Adolescents
  Research on adolescents suggests that cell phone use has adverse effects on cognitive processes and memory and the endocrine system and disturbs sleep.

International Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields & Wireless Technology
  242 scientists from 41 nations including 38 from the U.S. have signed the Appeal.

Key Cell Phone Radiation Research Studies

Recent Research on Wi-Fi Effects
  Compilation of recent studies on biologic and health effects from exposure to Wi-Fi radiation.

Female Infertility and Cell Phone Radiation
  Research that investigates the effects of wireless radiation on female fertility.

Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality
  Research that examines the effects of wireless radiation on sperm.

Pregnancy & Wireless Radiation Risks
  Compilation of studies that found harmful effects from fetal exposure to wireless radiation.

5G Moratorium Website Launched
  Official website for 5G Appeal: Over 200 scientists doctors have signed Appeal.

Electromagnetic Fields Threaten Wildlife
 Research review: EMF is potential risk to insect and bird orientation and plant health.

EMF Health Impacts and Policy Change Webinar
  Drs. Frank Barnes, De-Kun Li, & Joel Moskowitz discuss EMF research and implications for policy change. Sponsored by Collaborative for Health & the Environment.

Ramazzini Institute Cell Phone Radiation Study Replicates NTP Study
  Ramazzini Institute replicates heart cancer results from NTP cell phone radiation study.

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?

See the bottom of this page for additional resources.


Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G 
Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose

Neufeld E, Kuster N. Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Phys. 2018 Sep 21. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000930.

Abstract

Extreme broadband wireless devices operating above 10 GHz may transmit data in bursts of a few milliseconds to seconds. Even though the time- and area-averaged power density values remain within the acceptable safety limits for continuous exposure, these bursts may lead to short temperature spikes in the skin of exposed people. In this paper, a novel analytical approach to pulsed heating is developed and applied to assess the peak-to-average temperature ratio as a function of the pulse fraction α (relative to the averaging time [INCREMENT]T; it corresponds to the inverse of the peak-to-average ratio). This has been analyzed for two different perfusion-related thermal time constants (τ1 = 100 s and 500 s) corresponding to plane-wave and localized exposures. To allow for peak temperatures that considerably exceed the 1 K increase, the CEM43 tissue damage model, with an experimental-data-based damage threshold for human skin of 600 min, is used to allow large temperature oscillations that remain below the level at which tissue damage occurs. To stay consistent with the current safety guidelines, safety factors of 10 for occupational exposure and 50 for the general public were applied. The model assumptions and limitations (e.g., employed thermal and tissue damage models, homogeneous skin, consideration of localized exposure by a modified time constant) are discussed in detail. 

The results demonstrate that the maximum averaging time, based on the assumption of a thermal time constant of 100 s, is 240 s if the maximum local temperature increase for continuous-wave exposure is limited to 1 K and α ≥ 0.1. For a very low peak-to-average ratio of 100 (α ≥ 0.01), it decreases to only 30 s. The results also show that the peak-to-average ratio of 1,000 tolerated by the International Council on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30247338


5G wireless telecommunications expansion: 
Public health and environmental implications

Russell CL. 5G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. Environmental Research. Available online 11 April 2018. In press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016.

Abstract

The popularity, widespread use and increasing dependency on wireless technologies has spawned a telecommunications industrial revolution with increasing public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a variety of devices and infrastructure. On the horizon, a new generation of even shorter high frequency 5G wavelengths is being proposed to power the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT promises us convenient and easy lifestyles with a massive 5G interconnected telecommunications network, however, the expansion of broadband with shorter wavelength radiofrequency radiation highlights the concern that health and safety issues remain unknown. Controversy continues with regards to harm from current 2G, 3G and 4G wireless technologies. 5G technologies are far less studied for human or environmental effects.

It is argued that the addition of this added high frequency 5G radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome both from both physical and mental health perspectives.

Radiofrequency radiation (RF) is increasingly being recognized as a new form of environmental pollution. Like other common toxic exposures, the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR) will be problematic if not impossible to sort out epidemiologically as there no longer remains an unexposed control group. This is especially important considering these effects are likely magnified by synergistic toxic exposures and other common health risk behaviors. Effects can also be non-linear. Because this is the first generation to have cradle-to-grave lifespan exposure to this level of man-made microwave (RF EMR) radiofrequencies, it will be years or decades before the true health consequences are known. Precaution in the roll out of this new technology is strongly indicated.

This article will review relevant electromagnetic frequencies, exposure standards and current scientific literature on the health implications of 2G, 3G, 4G exposure, including some of the available literature on 5G frequencies. The question of what constitutes a public health issue will be raised, as well as the need for a precautionary approach in advancing new wireless technologies.

Conclusion

Although 5G technology may have many unimagined uses and benefits, it is also increasingly clear that significant negative consequences to human health and ecosystems could occur if it is widely adopted. Current radiofrequency radiation wavelengths we are exposed to appear to act as a toxin to biological systems. A moratorium on the deployment of 5G is warranted, along with development of independent health and environmental advisory boards that include independent scientists who research biological effects and exposure levels of radiofrequency radiation. Sound regulatory policy regarding current and future telecommunications initiative will require more careful assessment of risks to human health, environmental health, public safety, privacy, security and social consequences. Public health regulations need to be updated to match appropriate independent science with the adoption of biologically based exposure standards prior to further deployment of 4G or 5G technology.

Considering the current science, lack of relevant exposure standards based on known biological effects and data gaps in research, we need to reduce our exposure to RF EMR where ever technically feasible. Laws or policies which restrict the full integrity of science and the scientific community with regards to health and environmental effects of wireless technologies or other toxic exposures should be changed to enable unbiased, objective and precautionary science to drive necessary public policies and regulation. Climate change, fracking, toxic emissions and microwave radiation from wireless devices all have something in common with smoking. There is much denial and confusion about health and environmental risks, along with industry insistence for absolute proof before regulatory action occurs (Frentzel-Beyme, 1994; Michaels 2008). There are many lessons we have not learned with the introduction of novel substances, which later became precarious environmental pollutants by not heeding warning signs from scientists (Gee, 2009). The threats of these common pollutants continue to weigh heavily on the health and well being of our nation. We now accept them as the price of progress. If we do not take precautions but wait for unquestioned proof of harm will it be too late at that point for some or all of us?



Related Posts


The human skin as a sub-THz receiver - Does 5G pose a danger to it or not?

Betzalel N, Ben Ishai P, Feldman Y. The human skin as a sub-THz receiver - Does 5G pose a danger to it or not? Environ Res. 2018 May;163:208-216. 

Highlights

• The sweat duct is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band, reflectance depends on perspiration.
• We outline the background for non-thermal effects based on the structure of sweat ducts.
• We have introduced a realistic skin EM model and found the expected SAR for the 5G standard.


Abstract

In the interaction of microwave radiation and human beings, the skin is traditionally considered as just an absorbing sponge stratum filled with water. In previous works, we showed that this view is flawed when we demonstrated that the coiled portion of the sweat duct in upper skin layer is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band. 

Experimentally we showed that the reflectance of the human skin in the sub-THz region depends on the intensity of perspiration, i.e. sweat duct's conductivity, and correlates with levels of human stress (physical, mental and emotional). Later on, we detected circular dichroism in the reflectance from the skin, a signature of the axial mode of a helical antenna. The full ramifications of what these findings represent in the human condition are still unclear. We also revealed correlation of electrocardiography (ECG) parameters to the sub-THz reflection coefficient of human skin. In a recent work, we developed a unique simulation tool of human skin, taking into account the skin multi-layer structure together with the helical segment of the sweat duct embedded in it. The presence of the sweat duct led to a high specific absorption rate (SAR) of the skin in extremely high frequency band. 

In this paper, we summarize the physical evidence for this phenomenon and consider its implication for the future exploitation of the electromagnetic spectrum by wireless communication. Starting from July 2016 the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has adopted new rules for wireless broadband operations above 24 GHz (5 G). This trend of exploitation is predicted to expand to higher frequencies in the sub-THz region. One must consider the implications of human immersion in the electromagnetic noise, caused by devices working at the very same frequencies as those, to which the sweat duct (as a helical antenna) is most attuned. 

We are raising a warning flag against the unrestricted use of sub-THz technologies for communication, before the possible consequences for public health are explored.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29459303

Excerpt

The need for high data transmission rates, coupled with advances in semiconductor technology, is pushing the communications industry towards the sub-THz frequency spectrum. While the promises of a glorious future, resplendent with semi-infinite data streaming, may be attractive, there is a price to pay for such luxury. We shall find our cities, workspace and homes awash with 5 G base stations and we shall live though an unprecedented EM smog. The benefits to our society of becoming so wired cannot ignore possible health concerns, as yet unexplored. There is enough evidence to suggest that the combination of the helical sweat duct and wavelengths approaching the dimensions of skin layers could lead to non-thermal biological effects. Such fears should be investigated and these concerns should also effect the definition of standards for the application of 5G communications.


Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink

Nasim I, Kim S. Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink. Submitted on 10 Nov 2017 to IEEE International Communications Conference. arXiv:1711.03683v1.

Abstract

While cellular communications in millimeter wave (mmW) bands have been attracting significant research interest, their potential harmful impacts on human health are not as significantly studied. Prior research on human exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields in a cellular communications system has been focused on uplink only due to the closer physical contact of a transmitter to a human body. However, this paper claims the necessity of thorough investigation on human exposure to downlink RF fields, as cellular systems deployed in mmW bands will entail (i) deployment of more transmitters due to smaller cell size and (ii) higher concentration of RF energy using a highly directional antenna. In this paper, we present human RF exposure levels in downlink of a Fifth Generation Wireless Systems (5G). Our results show that 5G downlink RF fields generate significantly higher power density (PD) and specific absorption rate (SAR) than a current cellular system. This paper also shows that SAR should also be taken into account for determining human RF exposure in the mmW downlink.


Towards 5G Communication Systems: 
Are there Health Implications?

Di Ciaula A. Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications? Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Feb 2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.01.011.

Highlights
• RF-EMF exposure is rising and health effects of are still under investigation.
• Both oncologic and non-cancerous chronic effects have been suggested.
• 5G networks could have health effects and will use MMW, still scarcely explored.
• Adequate knowledge of RF-EMF biological effects is also needed in clinical practice.
• Underrating the problem could lead to a further rise in noncommunicable diseases.
Abstract

The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance. 


In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW). 

Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics. 

Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402696


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Aug 18, 2017 (Updated Sep 27, 2017)

Scientists and Physicians Oppose
"Small Cell" Antenna Bill (Calif. SB 649)

I have been hearing from scientists around the world who are deeply concerned about the deployment of fifth generation (5G) wireless technology without adequate research on the health effects of exposure to this type of radio frequency radiation.

Following is a sample of letters sent to California Governor Brown asking him to veto SB 659, a "small cell" antenna bill written by the cellular industry that paves the way for deployment of 5G wireless technology across the state.

Professor Beatrice Golomb, MD, PhD, a professor of medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Golomb's letter begins with the following warning:
"I urge in the strongest terms that you vigorously oppose California SB 649.
If this bill passes, many people will suffer greatly, and needlessly, as a direct result. 
This sounds like hyperbole. It is not.
My research group at UC San Diego alone has received hundreds of communications from people who have developed serious health problems from electromagnetic radiation, following introduction of new technologies. Others with whom I am in communication, have independently received hundreds of similar reports. Most likely these are a tip of an iceberg of tens or perhaps hundreds of thousands of affected person. As each new technology leading to further exposure to electromagnetic radiation is introduced – and particularly introduced in a fashion that prevents vulnerable individuals from avoiding it – a new group become sensitized to health effects. This is particularly true for pulsed signals in the radiowave and microwave portion of the spectrum, the type for which the proposed bill SB 640 will bypass local control."
In the letter, Dr. Golomb summarizes the research on the effects of exposure to radio frequency radiation and advocates for "safer, wired and well shielded technology – not more wireless." 

Appended to the letter are 360 references to the scientific literature.

The letter can be downloaded at: http://bit.ly/SB649Golomb822.


Professor Martin Pall, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences at Washington State University, explains in his letter to the Governor his peer-reviewed research which has documented ...
"exquisite sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the voltage sensors in each cell, such that the force impacting our cells at the voltage sensor has massive impact on the biology in the cells of our bodies."
"This new understanding [1-7] means we can debunk the claims of the wireless industry that there cannot be a mechanism for effects produced by these weak EMFs. The 20 years plus of industry propaganda claims are false. Rather the thousands of studies showing diverse health impacts of these EMFs can be explained. We now have a mechanism, one that is supported by both the biology and the physics, both of which are pointing in exactly the same direction."
"5G will be much more active in activating the VGCCs and producinghealth impacts because of its rapid absorption by materials in the body, because of its very rapid pulsations and because of the huge number antennae they are planning to put up, at least 200 times the number of antennae from all current cell phone towers. What this means is that the impacts on the outer one to two inches of our bodies will be massive."

His letter discusses the potential health impacts on humans and on agriculture with exposure to 5G radiation.

The letter can be downloaded at: http://bit.ly/SB649Pall


Dr. Michael Lipsett, MD, JD, a retired public health physician with extensive experience in environmental health, mentions in his letter the recent demand for a 5G moratorium by more than 180 scientists and physicians and the study of cell phone radiation conducted by the National Toxicology Program

He points out that while individuals can take precautions to reduce their exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by wireless devices, this is not feasible with exposure from cell antennas. He notes that ...
"laboratory and human health investigations designed and conducted by independent researchers have reported associations linking exposure to radiation from cell phones or similar devices with multiple adverse effects (e.g., headaches, impacts on brain function, memory, learning and sleep; decreased sperm counts and quality) as well as with DNA damage and tumors of the brain and nervous system."
"Potential health impacts of wireless communication have been ignored or obscured for decades by the telecommunications industry, which has implied that cell phones and other devices are safe because they comply with federal safety standards. However, these standards were established more than 20 years ago and were based on assumptions that have since been called into question by health research studies. The push to establish a 5G network, exemplified by SB 649, is based on a similarly unproven assumption: i.e., that round-the-clock exposure to 5G frequencies will not affect human health or the environment.
Establishment of a 5G network will be irreversible, as will the pattern of near-universal exposure of California residents to high-frequency, as-yet-untested 5G electromagnetic radiation."
The letter can be downloaded at: http://bit.ly/LipsettSB649.

--

June 23, 2017


EMF Scientist Appeal Advisors Call for Moratorium on Policies 
for 5G “Small Cell” Antennas


The advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal submitted a letter to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in opposition to a proposed change in FCC rules that would allow rapid deployment of 5th generation (5G) wireless infrastructure throughout the nation. A copy of the Appeal was appended to the letter.

5G involves transmission of millimeter waves which operate at much higher frequencies than currently used for cellular transmission (30 to 300 gigahertz). Because the range of these signals is limited (i.e., less than a football field), hundreds of thousands of new “small cell” antennas will be required in the U.S. The wireless industry wants to install these not-so-small cellular antennas on existing public utility poles.

The FCC intends to streamline the approval of these antennas which would further undermine the regulatory authority of cities and states over cell towers.

Meanwhile the wireless industry is lobbying for legislation in many states across the country that would limit local authority over cell antenna deployment.

Due to the concern that the FCC’s new rules will result in increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), the Appeal’s advisors oppose the new rules and call for a “public health review of the growing body of scientific evidence that includes reports of increasing rates of cancer and neurological diseases that may be caused by exposure to EMF from wireless sources.”

The Appeal reflects the concerns of 225 EMF experts from 41 nations about the impact of EMF exposure on public health. All of the experts who signed this appeal have published research in peer-reviewed scientific journals about the biologic or health effects of EMF.

According to the Appeal’s signatories, current national and international EMF exposure guidelines are obsolete and inadequate to protect human health and the environment. The FCC’s radio frequency guidelines were adopted in 1996.

The letter (dated June 9, 2017) is signed by the five advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal: Drs. Martin Blank, Magda Havas, Henry Lai, and Joel Moskowitz, and Elizabeth Kelley.

For more information:

FCC filing detail   (June 9, 2017)

--

May 8, 2017


A 5G Wireless Future: 
Will it give us a smart nation or contribute to an unhealthy one?

Dr. Cindy Russell, The (SCCMA) Bulletin, Jan/Feb 2017
Safety testing for 5G is the same as other wireless devices. It is based on heat. This is an obsolete standard and not considering current science showing cellular and organism harm from non-thermal effects. There is a large gap in safety data for 5G biological effects that has been demonstrated in older studies including military.
Recommendations
1. Do not proceed to roll out 5G technologies pending pre-market studies on health effects.
2. Reevaluate safety standards based on long term as well as short term studies on biological effects.
3. Rescind a portion of Section 704 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 which preempts state and local government regulation for the placement, construction, and modification of personal wireless service facilities on the basis of the environmental effects so that health and environmental issues can be addressed.
4. Rescind portions of The Spectrum Act which was passed in 2012 as part of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act, which strips the ability city officials and local governments to regulate cellular communications equipment, provides no public notification or opportunity for public input and may potentially result in environmental impacts.
5. Create an independent multidisciplinary scientific agency tasked with developing appropriate safety regulations, pre-market testing and research needs in a transparent environment with public input.
6. Label pertinent EMF information on devices along with appropriate precautionary warnings.
Dr. Russell provides a brief review of the research on millimeter wave bioeffects in this article: http://bit.ly/5GRussell.

--

Aug 17, 2016 (Updated Aug 19)

5G cellular technology will employ much higher frequency microwaves than current cell phone technologies: 2G, 3G, and 4G.  These microwaves, known as millimeter waves, won't penetrate building materials like the current technology which is why industry may need one cell antenna base station for every 12 homes. 
But millimeter waves can affect your eyes and penetrate your skin.

When the Los Angeles Times reporter contacted me for the story below, I did a quick search and found several recently published articles examining biological effects of millimeter waves (see references below). This form of microwave radiation is most likely to affect our skin and neuronal cells in the upper dermis.

Moreover, widespread adoption of 5G cellular technology in the U.S. may have profound effects on our ecosystem by altering bacteria, possibly creating harmful bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.

History has proved that we cannot trust the FCC and the FDA to protect our health from microwave radiation exposure.


I submitted an open letter to the FCC in July calling for "an independent review of the biologic and health research to determine whether the RF standards should be modified before allowing additional spectrum to be used for new commercial applications."

Moreover, the FCC has ignored the 800-plus submissions that call upon the agency to adopt rigorous radio frequency standards to protect the public’s health. Instead the agency maintains its 20-year old exposure guidelines that control only for heating or thermal risks. The FDA has ignored the thousands of studies that find nonthermal biologic effects, and the human studies that find a wide range of health effects including increased cancer risk and reproductive harm from exposure to low intensity microwaves.
In my opinion, precaution is warranted before unleashing 5G technology on the world. I suspect most of the 221 scientists who signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal (referenced in the article below), would support this assertion.

However, more research is also needed as specific characteristics of the millimeter waves (e.g., pulsing, modulation) to be employed in 5G cellular technology may be more important than the frequency or intensity of the waves in terms of biologic and health effects. The research funding must be independent of industry as conflicts of interest have been found to undermine the science in this field.
For an unbiased summary of the partial findings of the National Toxicology Program study of cancer risk from 2G cell phone radiation, see http://www.saferemr.com/2016/05/national-toxicology-progam-finds-cell.html.

--

 Low-intensity millimeter waves 
used for pain therapy have side effects

The Russians have pioneered millimeter wave therapy (MWT) using low intensity millimeter waves to reduce pain including headaches, joint pain, and postoperative pain.

Although the following review paper documents some positive effects from short-term exposure to MWT, the authors note that there are side effects including fatigue, sleepiness, and paresthesia (an abnormal sensation, tingling or pricking [“pins and needles”] caused by pressure on or damage to peripheral nerves). 

"We conclude that there is promising data from pilot case series and small-scale randomized controlled trials for analgesic/hypoalgesic effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves in frequency range 30–70 GHz. Large-scale randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of this non-invasive therapeutic technique are necessary." 
"In the studies reviewed the authors did not report any health-related side effects of MWT. Slight paresthesias, previously mentioned in several case reports and non-controlled case series (10,11), appeared in almost 50% of patients in studies where the effects of MWT were carefully described (21,27,28,31). The paresthesias were of short duration and reported as pleasant (‘warmth’) or neutral. General fatigue and sleepiness during the treatment sessions in almost 80% of the patients was a rather desirable side effect of MWT, as also described in previous reviews on biomedical effects of MWT (10,11,21,27,28)."
From: Usichenko TI, Edinger H, Gizhko VV, Lehmann C, Wendt M, Feyerherd F. Low-intensity electromagnetic millimeter waves for pain therapy. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):201-7. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1475937/
Little research is available on long-term exposure to millimeter waves (see below). Most of the studies referred to in this review paper did not modulate or pulse the carrier waves which will be required for information-carrying millimeter waves employed in 5G technologies. Prior research suggests that such waves will be more biologically active than pure sine waves.

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Effects of Millimeter Waves Radiation on Cell Membrane - A Brief Review

Ramundo-Orlando A.  Effects of millimeter waves radiation on cell membrane - A brief review.  J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves. 2010; 30 (12): 1400-1411.

Abstract

The millimeter waves (MMW) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, extending from 30 to 300 GHz in terms of frequency (corresponding to wavelengths from 10 mm to 1 mm), is officially used in non-invasive complementary medicine in many Eastern European countries against a variety of diseases such gastro duodenal ulcers, cardiovascular disorders, traumatism and tumor. On the other hand, besides technological applications in traffic and military systems, in the near future MMW will also find applications in high resolution and high-speed wireless communication technology. This has led to restoring interest in research on MMW induced biological effects. In this review emphasis has been given to the MMW-induced effects on cell membranes that are considered the major target for the interaction between MMW and biological systems.


Excerpts

 “Several studies on the effects induced by millimeter radiation on biological systems have been reported in the literature. Diverse effects have been observed on cell free systems, cultured cells, isolated organs of animals and humans. The subject has been extensively reviewed by Motzkin [17] and more recently by Pakhomov [3]. At the cellular level these effects are mainly on the membrane process and ion channels, molecular complexes, excitable and other structures. Many of these effects are quite unexpected from a radiation penetrating less than 1 mm into biological tissues [3, 18, 19]. However none of the findings described in the above reviews has been replicated in an independent laboratory, thus they cannot be considered as established biological effects.”

“…a large number of cellular studies have indicated that MMW may alter structural and functional properties of membranes (Table 2).”

Conclusion

“In this review emphasis has been given to the low-level MMW effects on cell membranes. Above all, it should be mentioned that the reported effects are of a non-thermal character, that is, the action of radiation does not produce essential heating of the biological system or destroy its structure. In this context it appears that no permanent structural change of lipid bilayer could arise under low level (less than 10 mW/cm2) millimeter waves irradiation.

On the other hand, MMW radiation may affect intracellular calcium activities, and, as a consequence, several cellular and molecular processes controlled by Ca2+ dynamics themselves. The effects of MMW radiation on ion transport may be the consequence of a direct effect on membrane proteins as well as on phospholipid domain organization. Water molecules seem to play an important role in these biological effects of MMW radiation. Unfortunately, detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating physiological responses to MMW exposure remain largely unknown.

Usually the search at a molecular level is simpler if we can reduce the complexity of our biological samples. This is the case for cell membranes by using model systems. They can be formed by a simple lipid bilayer without interfering components and they give independence from biological activity that can create complication in searching for electromagnetic fields bioeffects. The emphasis is on the search for molecular mechanisms of the membrane effect induced by MMW with different frequencies and power density. Furthermore, replication studies are needed including good temperature control and appropriate internal control samples. It is also advantageous if the future studies are multidisciplinary, invoking an integration of high quality exposure and effects methodologies.

Clearly a significant amount of accurate experimental work is still required in order to fully understand the interactions between MMW radiation and cell membrane.”



Additional Resources (Updated 5/29/2018)

The roll out of 5G wireless service is 'a massive health experiment,' public health expert warns as cell companies install 800,000 towers across the US
Natalie Rahhal, Daily Mail, May 29, 2018

The 5G telecommunication technology--emitted millimeter waves: Lack of research on bioeffects
Dariusz Leszczynski, PhD, Presentation at 5th Asian & Oceanic IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection, Melbourne, Australia, May 22, 2018

NEPA rollback now official for small wireless projects
Sobczyk N, GreenWire, May 3, 2018

Jim Puzzanghera, Los Angeles Times, Aug 8, 2016



Monday, October 15, 2018

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August, 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

Since I have received numerous requests to post the abstracts on this website, I have compiled the collection into a document. The complete collection of abstracts from more than 500 papers can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:



Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the compilation.

See EMF-Portal for a searchable database of EMF studies. The Portal contains over 26,000 publications and 6,000 summaries of scientific studies on the effects of EMF. The Portal is a project of RWTH University Hospital in Aachen, Germany.

Latest edition

Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose

Neufeld E, Kuster N. Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Phys. 2018 Sep 21. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000930.

Abstract

Extreme broadband wireless devices operating above 10 GHz may transmit data in bursts of a few milliseconds to seconds. Even though the time- and area-averaged power density values remain within the acceptable safety limits for continuous exposure, these bursts may lead to short temperature spikes in the skin of exposed people. In this paper, a novel analytical approach to pulsed heating is developed and applied to assess the peak-to-average temperature ratio as a function of the pulse fraction α (relative to the averaging time [INCREMENT]T; it corresponds to the inverse of the peak-to-average ratio). This has been analyzed for two different perfusion-related thermal time constants (τ1 = 100 s and 500 s) corresponding to plane-wave and localized exposures. To allow for peak temperatures that considerably exceed the 1 K increase, the CEM43 tissue damage model, with an experimental-data-based damage threshold for human skin of 600 min, is used to allow large temperature oscillations that remain below the level at which tissue damage occurs. To stay consistent with the current safety guidelines, safety factors of 10 for occupational exposure and 50 for the general public were applied. The model assumptions and limitations (e.g., employed thermal and tissue damage models, homogeneous skin, consideration of localized exposure by a modified time constant) are discussed in detail. The results demonstrate that the maximum averaging time, based on the assumption of a thermal time constant of 100 s, is 240 s if the maximum local temperature increase for continuous-wave exposure is limited to 1 K and α ≥ 0.1. For a very low peak-to-average ratio of 100 (α ≥ 0.01), it decreases to only 30 s. The results also show that the peak-to-average ratio of 1,000 tolerated by the International Council on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines.


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Temperature Increase and Specific Absorption Rate Distribution in Human Breast from Cell Phone Radiation

Kunter, FC, Gündüz C, Seker SS. Temperature increase and Specific Absorption Rate distribution in human breast from cell phone radiation.J Med Imaging Health Informatics. 8(6):1186-1191. DOI: 10.1166/jmihi.2018.2418. Aug 2018.

Abstract

This study describes the cell phone radiation effect on the healthy and unhealthy female breast tissue to establish safety criteria and to detect the cancerous tissue. A computational modeling is performed at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz with a sphere shaped breast and cancerous tissue in different configurations. Thermal investigation is performed through the heat transfer equation to determine temperature and specific absorption rate elevation in the female breast tissue. First, healthy breast tissue is excited with an antenna of which distances to the breast is varying. Next, the distribution of temperature and specific absorption rate are estimated on the different radius of cancerous breast tissue which is located at the center and at the bottom of the breast, respectively. The simulated temperature and the specific absorption rate values imply that the values are ascending with the size of the tumor whereas descending as the source is positioned further.


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Personal Exposure to RF EMF among Australian Adults

Zeleke BM, Brzozek C, Bhatt CR, Abramson MJ, Freudenstein F, Wiedemann P, Geza Benke G. Personal Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields among Australian Adults. Published Oct 12, 2018 Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2234;
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102234

(This article belongs to the Special Issue
Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine: From Mechanisms to Biomedical Applications)

Abstract
The measurement of personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) is important for epidemiological studies. RF-EMF exposure can be measured using personal exposimeters that register RF-EMFs over a wide range of frequency bands. This study aimed to measure and describe personal RF-EMF exposure levels from a wide range of frequency bands. Measurements were recorded from 63 participants over an average of 27.4 (±4.5) hours. RF-EMF exposure levels were computed for each frequency band, as well as from downlink (RF from mobile phone base station), uplink (RF from mobile phone handsets), broadcast, and Wi-Fi. Participants had a mean (±SD) age of 36.9 ± 12.5 years; 66.7% were women; and almost all (98.2%) from urban areas. A Wi-Fi router at home was reported by 61 participants (96.8%), with 38 (61.2%) having a Wi-Fi enabled smart TV. Overall, 26 (41.3%) participants had noticed the existence of a mobile phone base station in their neighborhood. On average, participants estimated the distance between the base station and their usual residence to be about 500 m. The median personal RF-EMF exposure was 208 mV/m. Downlink contributed 40.4% of the total RF-EMF exposure, followed by broadcast (22.4%), uplink (17.3%), and Wi-Fi (15.9%). RF-EMF exposure levels on weekdays were higher than weekends (p < 0.05). Downlink and broadcast are the main contributors to total RF-EMF personal exposure. Personal RF-EMF exposure levels vary according to day of the week and time of day.


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Estimation of TETRA radio use in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study of the British police forces

Vergnaud AC, Aresu M, Kongsgård HW, McRobie D, Singh D, Spear J, Heard A, Gao H, Carpenter JR, Elliott P. Estimation of TETRA radio use in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study of the British police forces. Environ Res. 2018 Nov;167:169-174. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.07.015.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Airwave Health Monitoring Study aims to investigate the possible long-term health effects of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) use among the police forces in Great Britain. Here, we investigate whether objective data from the network operator could be used to correct for misreporting in self-reported data and expand the radio usage availability in our cohort.

METHODS: We estimated average monthly usage of personal radio in the 12 months prior to enrolment from a missing value imputation model and evaluated its performance against objective and self-reported data. Factors associated with TETRA radio usage variables were investigated using Chi-square tests and analysis of variance.

RESULTS: The imputed data were better correlated with objective than self-reported usage (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.72 vs. 0. 52 and kappa 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.55, 0.56] vs. 0.46 [0.45, 0.47]), although the imputation model tended to under-estimate use for higher users. Participants with higher personal radio usage were more likely to be younger, men vs. women and officer vs. staff. The median average monthly usage level for the entire cohort was estimated to be 29.3
min (95% CI: [7.2, 66.6]).

CONCLUSION: The availability of objective personal radio records for a large proportion of users allowed us to develop a robust imputation model and hence obtain personal radio usage estimates for ~50,000 participants. This substantially reduced exposure misclassification compared to using self-reported data and will allow us to carry out analyses of TETRA usage for the entire cohort in future work.


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Nonparticipation selection bias in the MOBI-Kids Study

Turner MC, Gracia-Lavedan E, Momoli F, Langer CE, Castaño-Vinyals G, Kundi M, Maule M, Merletti F, Sadetzki S, Vermeulen R, Albert A, Alguacil J, Aragones N, Badia F, Bruchim R, Carretero G, Kojimahara N, Lacour B, Morales-Suarez-Varela M, Radon K, Remen T, Weinmann T, Yamaguchi N, Cardis E. Nonparticipation selection bias in the MOBI-Kids Study. Epidemiology. Oct 1, 2018. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000932.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: MOBI-Kids is a 14-country case-control study designed to investigate the potential effects of electromagnetic field exposure from mobile telecommunications devices on brain tumor risk in children and young adults conducted from 2010-2016. This work describes differences in cellular telephone use and personal characteristics among interviewed participants and refusers responding to a brief non-respondent questionnaire. It also assesses the potential impact of non-participation Drafts selection bias on study findings.
METHODS: We compared non-respondent questionnaires completed by 77 case and 498 control refusers with responses from 683 interviewed cases and 1,501 controls (suspected appendicitis patients) in six countries (France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, and Spain). We derived selection bias factors and estimated inverse probability of selection weights for use in analysis of MOBI-Kids data.
RESULTS: The prevalence of ever regular use was somewhat higher among interviewed participants than non-respondent questionnaire respondents aged 10-14 years (68% vs 62% controls, 63% vs 48% cases); in those 20-24 years, the prevalence was ≥ 97%. Interviewed controls and cases in the 15-19- and 20-24-year age groups were more likely to have a time since start of use of 5+ years. Selection bias factors generally indicated a small underestimation in cellular telephone odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0.96-0.97 for ever regular use and 0.92-0.94 for time since start of use (5+ years), but varied in alternative hypothetical scenarios considered.
CONCLUSIONS: Although limited by small numbers of non-respondent questionnaire respondents, findings generally indicated a small underestimation in cellular telephone ORs due to selective non-participation.


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Letter to the Editor concerning the paper “A novel database of bio-effects from non-ionizing radiation”

Drießen S, Dechent D, Graefrath D, Petri A-K, Bodewein L, Emonds T, Kraus T. Letter to the Editor concerning the paper “A novel database of bio-effects from non-ionizing radiation." Reviews on Environmental Health. Oct 11, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2018-0056

Excerpts

Over the past decade my colleagues and I have provided the EMF-Portal, a database on non-ionizing electromagnetic fields, launched by RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Today, the database of the EMF-Portal consists of more than 27,000 scientific publications, and the number is growing every day. The World Health Organization has also honored our EMF platform for many years and recommends it as a reference database.

Over the last 10 years, the EMF-Portal was mainly funded by German institutions, in spite of the fact that about 80% of our users are from other countries. However, because the debate in Germany about electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency area has greatly decreased, we no longer have the same financial resources at our disposal as in previous years. As a result, we had to stop reviewing and uploading new articles about radiofrequency and mobile communications. Papers on biological effects caused by extremely low frequency fields (<10 MHz) have never been affected by this decision and have been continuously imported into the EMF-Portal. All this information is available on our homepage.
In the meantime, thanks to the financial support of our valuable users, we were able once again, to import articles from the radiofrequency range into the EMF-Portal (up to April 30, 2018). We hope to find a solution that allows for this service to continue past this date.

In addition, we would like to make a comment about the “effect/no effect” feature in the ORSAA database presented by the authors. According to Table 2 in their article, every study is indicated as an “effect study” if an observed change of status occurred in one or more parameters examined. Thus, as an example, the study by Sommer et al. (2) on lymphoma development is counted as an “effect study”, because the body weight of the investigated animals increased, although survival rate and lymphoma incidence did not differ between exposed mice and mice in the control group.

In our opinion, such a global categorization biases studies towards an “effect study” classification although the main outcome was “no effect”. Results of this analysis, as presented in their article, where 3 times more biological “Effect” than “No Effect” papers have been identified, might rather indicate this strong bias. For us, this is a real shortcoming in a self-declared non-biased database. To prevent such a bias and to promote a critical and differentiated discussion, we have decided not to offer such a feature in the EMF-Portal.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30307899

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Probing Origins of 1,800 MHz RF EMR Induced Damage in Mouse Immortalized Germ Cells and Spermatozoa in vitro

Houston BJ, Nixon B, King BV, Aitken RJ, De Iuliis GN. Probing the origins of 1,800 MHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation induced damage in mouse immortalized germ cells and spermatozoa in vitro. Front. Public Health. 2018 Sep 21.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00270

As the use of mobile phone devices is now highly prevalent, many studies have sought to evaluate the effects of the radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on both human health and biology. While several such studies have shown RF-EMR is capable of inducing cellular stress, the physicobiological origin of this stress remains largely unresolved. To explore the effect of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, we exposed cultured mouse spermatogonial GC1 and spermatocyte GC2 cell lines, as well as cauda epididymal spermatozoa to a waveguide generating continuous wave RF-EMR (1.8 GHz, 0.15 and 1.5 W/kg). This study demonstrated that a 4 h exposure is capable of inducing the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in populations of GC1 (7 vs. 18%; p < 0.001) and GC2 cells (11.5 vs. 16 %; p < 0.01), identifying Complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) as the potential source of electrons producing ROS. Assessing the generation of ROS in the presence of an antioxidant, penicillamine, as well as measuring lipid peroxidation via 4-hydroxynonenal levels, indicated that the elevated incidence of ROS generation observed under our exposure conditions did not necessarily induce an overt cellular oxidative stress response. However, exposure to RF-EMR at 0.15 W/kg for 3 h did induce significant DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa (that was no longer significant after 4 h), assessed by the alkaline comet assay (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this fragmentation was accompanied by an induction of oxidative DNA damage in the form of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, which was significant (p < 0.05) after spermatozoa were exposed to RF-EMR for 4 h. At this exposure time point, a decline in sperm motility (p < 0.05) was also observed. This study contributes new evidence toward elucidating a mechanism to account for the effects of RF-EMR on biological systems, proposing Complex III of the mitochondrial ETC as the key target of this radiation.


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The effect of 2.45 GHz non-ionizing radiation on the structure and ultrastructure of the testis in juvenile rats


Šimaiová V, Almášiová V, Holovská K, Kisková T, Horváthová F, Ševčíková Z, Tóth Š, Raček A, Račeková E, Beňová K, Dvořák P, Cigánková V. The effect of 2.45 GHz non-ionizing radiation on the structure and ultrastructure of the testis in juvenile rats. Histol Histopathol. 2018 Sep 27:18049. doi: 10.14670/HH-18-049.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, mobile devices that emit non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) are predominantly used by juveniles and pubescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of whole body pulsed EMR on the juvenile Wistar albino rat testis at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm².

METHODS: The investigated animals (n=24) were divided into two control and two EMR groups (5 and 6 week old rats; 6 rats per group). Both EMR groups were irradiated continually for 3 weeks (2h/day) from postnatal days 14 and 21, respectively.

RESULTS: EMR caused an irregular shape of seminiferous tubules with desquamated immature germ cells in the lumen, a large number of empty spaces along the seminiferous epithelium and dilated and congested blood vessels in the interstitial tissue of the testis. The cytoplasm of Sertoli cells showed strong vacuolization and damaged organelles, with the cytoplasm full of different heterophagic and lipid vacuoles or the cytoplasm of spermatocytes with swollen mitochondria in both irradiated groups. A significant increase in the total tubular area of seminiferous tubules was observed in both EMR groups compared with controls (P<0.001). A significant increase in the TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei (P<0.01) was accompanied by a significant rise in both Cu-Zn-SOD (P<0.01) and Mn-SOD (P<0.001) positive cells in the 6 week old experimental rats compared to control animals.

CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed a harmful effect of non-ionizing radiation on the structure and ultrastructure of the juvenile rat testis.


All experimental rats were exposed to whole-body pulsed non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/ cm² in a purpose-designed chamber (Fig. 1). The uniformity of the electromagnetic field was monitored with a spectral analyser.

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The effect of 20-week continuous 60Hz magnetic field exposure on testicular function in Sprague-Dawley rats

Park S, Kim YJ, Kim MS, Kim HS, Kim MW, Kang YM, Lee SK, Choi KC, Kim N, Gimm YM, Kim YW. The effect of 20-week continuous 60
Hz magnetic field exposure on testicular function in Sprague-Dawley rats. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Oct 5. doi: 10.1002/bem.22146.

Abstract

Accumulating evidence does not yet confirm the effect of power line frequency magnetic field (MF) on human health and fertility. We recently reported that, at continuous 60
Hz MF exposure in mice, the dose given as magnetic flux density (tesla; T) and duration of exposure was related to induce testicular germ cell apoptosis. We aimed to characterize the effect of a 20-week continuous exposure to 60Hz MF on the motility, morphology, and number of sperm as well as the apoptosis of testicular germ cell in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 20 weeks to 60Hz MF of 2, 20, or 200μT for 24h/day with rats exposed to sham conditions, serving as the control. The exposure to 60Hz MF of 2 and 20μT had no effects on testicular in this study. The exposure to 60Hz MF of 200μT for 20 weeks induced increases of the apoptotic cells (P<0.001) in germ cells and decreases of sperm numbers (P<0.05). However, the MF did not significantly affect the body or testis mass, seminiferous tubule diameter, or the motility or morphology of sperm. This study concluded that exposure to 60Hz MF of 200μT can increase testicular germ cell apoptosis, especially spermatogonia, and reduce sperm count. Also compared to previous mice studies, rats are less sensitive than mice to exposure to 60Hz MF.


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Effects of exposure to ELF-EMF on spatial & passive avoidance learning & memory, anxiety-like behavior & oxidative stress in male rats

Asaad Karimi S, Salehi I, Shykhi T, Zare S, Komaki A. Effects of exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on spatial and passive avoidance learning and memory, anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in male rats. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Oct 2. pii: S0166-4328(18)31074-X. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.10.002.

Abstract

There are many controversies about the safety of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on body health and cognitive performance. In the present study, we explored the effects of ELF-EMF on oxidative stress and behaviors of rats. Seventy-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into following groups, control, sham exposure group and the ELF-EMF exposure groups (1 µT, 100 µT, 500 µT, and 2000 µT). After 60 days exposure (2
h/day), elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM) and Passive avoidance learning (PAL) tasks were used to evaluate the anxiety-like behavior, spatial and passive learning and memory, respectively. Some days after behavioral examination, oxidative stress markers were measured. During spatial reference memory test, animals in ELF-EMF exposure groups (100, and 2000 µT) spent more time in target zone (F (4, 55)=5.699, P=0.0007, One-way ANOVA). In PAL retention, the step through latency in the retention test (STLr) in ELF-EMF exposure groups (100,500, and 2000 µT) was significantly greater than control group (F (4, 55)=29.13, P<0.0001, One-way ANOVA). In EPM test, ELF-EMF exposure (500 and 2000 µT) decreased the percentage of the entries into the open arms (F (4, 55)=26.31, P<0.0001, one-way ANOVA). ELF-EMF exposure (100, and 500 µT) increased Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (F (4, 25)=79.83, P<0.0001, One-way ANOVA). Our results may allow the conclusion that exposure to ELF-EMFs can improve memory retention (but not acquisition) in the adult male rats. Although exposure to ELF-EMFs could be a factor in the development of anxious state or oxidative stress.


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Low-intensity EMFs induce human cryptochrome to modulate intracellular reactive oxygen species

Sherrard RM, Morellini N, Jourdan N, El-Esawi M, Arthaut LD, Niessner C, Rouyer F, Klarsfeld A, Doulazmi M, Witczak J, d'Harlingue A, Mariani J, Mclure I, Martino CF, Ahmad M. Low-intensity electromagnetic fields induce human cryptochrome to modulate intracellular reactive oxygen species. PLoS Biol. 2018 Oct 2;16(10):e2006229. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2006229.

Abstract

Exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs), which increasingly pollute our environment, have consequences for human health about which there is continuing ignorance and debate. Whereas there is considerable ongoing concern about their harmful effects, magnetic fields are at the same time being applied as therapeutic tools in regenerative medicine, oncology, orthopedics, and neurology. This paradox cannot be resolved until the cellular mechanisms underlying such effects are identified. Here, we show by biochemical and imaging experiments that exposure of mammalian cells to weak pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) stimulates rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a potentially toxic metabolite with multiple roles in stress response and cellular ageing. Following exposure to PEMF, cell growth is slowed, and ROS-responsive genes are induced. These effects require the presence of cryptochrome, a putative magnetosensor that synthesizes ROS. We conclude that modulation of intracellular ROS via cryptochromes represents a general response to weak EMFs, which can account for either therapeutic or pathological effects depending on exposure. Clinically, our findings provide a rationale to optimize low field magnetic stimulation for novel therapeutic applications while warning against the possibility of harmful synergistic effects with environmental agents that further increase intracellular ROS.
Author summary

Repetitive low-intensity magnetic stimulation has been used in the treatment of disease for over 50 years. Associated benefits have included alleviation of depression, memory loss, and symptoms of Parkinson disease, as well as accelerated bone and wound healing and the treatment of certain cancers, independently of surgery or drugs. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that repetitive magnetic field exposure in human cells stimulates production of biological stress response chemicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). At moderate doses, we find that reactive oxygen actively stimulates cellular repair and stress response pathways, which might account for the observed therapeutic effects to repetitive magnetic stimulation. We further show that this response requires the function of a well-characterized, evolutionarily conserved flavoprotein receptor known as cryptochrome, which has been implicated in magnetic sensing in organisms ranging from plants to flies, including migratory birds. We conclude that exposure to weak magnetic fields induces the production of ROS in human cells and that this process requires the presence of the cryptochrome receptor.

Editor’s Note:

This Short Report received positive reviews by experts. The Academic Editor has written an accompanying Primer that we are publishing alongside this article (
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000018). The linked Primer presents a complementary expert perspective; it discusses considerations about the status of knowledge and experimental systems in the field that encourage cautious interpretation.

Open access paper:
https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2006229

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Cryptochrome: The magnetosensor with a sinister side?

Landler L, Keays DA (2018) Cryptochrome: The magnetosensor with a sinister side? PLoS Biol 16(10): e3000018. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000018.

No abstract.


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Coupling of oxidative stress responses to tricarboxylic acid cycle & prostaglandin E2 alterations in Caenorhabditis elegans under ELF-EMF

Sun Y, Shi Z, Wang Y, Tang C, Liao Y, Yang C, Cai P. Coupling of oxidative stress responses to tricarboxylic acid cycle and prostaglandin E2 alterations in Caenorhabditis elegans under extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct 11:1-8. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2019.1524943.

Abstract

PURPOSE:  With all-pervasive presence of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) in modern life, ELF-EMF has been regarded as an essential factor which may induce changes in many organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the physiological responses of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to 50
Hz, 3mT ELF-EMF exposure.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Worms were exposed to ELF-EMF from the egg stage until reaching the fourth larva (L4) stage. After exposure, expressions of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes were examined by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. Two lipid metabolites were detected by GC-MS. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was detected by dichlorofluorescein staining and worm antioxidant system was investigated by enzymatic activity analysis, including detection of the superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT) activity and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC).

RESULTS:  The TCA cycle enzyme, fumarase was found with decreased expression under ELF-EMF exposure. And arachidonic acid (ArA) and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) showed elevated concentrations, with increased expression of prostaglandin E2 synthase (PGES-2) in ELF-EMF exposed worms. Significant elevation of ROS level was identified accompanied with the significant depression of T-AOC in response to ELF-EMF.

CONCLUSIONS:  Our results suggested that exposure to 50
Hz, 3mT ELF-EMF in C. elegans can elicit disruptions of the TCA cycle metabolism and PGE2 formation, coupling ELF-EMF-induced oxidative stress responses. Our study probably will attract increasing attentions to the controllable application of ELF-EMF associated with health and disease.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30307357

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Effects of weak static magnetic fields on the gene expression of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana

Dhiman SK, Galland P. Effects of weak static magnetic fields on the gene expression of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. J Plant Physiol. 2018 Sep 3;231:9-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2018.08.016.

Abstract

Magnetic-field reception of animals and plants is currently discussed in the framework of a cryptochrome-based radical-pair mechanism. Efforts to unravel magnetoreception in plants suffered historically from several shortcomings, most prominently, the conspicuous absence of detailed stimulus-response relationships. To determine the sensitivity of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana to weak static magnetic fields we generated stimulus-response curves between near zero and 188 μT for the transcript levels of the genes rbcl, cab4, pal4 and ef1. The moderate magneto-responsiveness of dark-grown seedlings was greatly enhanced under blue light, and for rbcl and pal4 also under red light. The stimulus-response curves obtained under blue light of constant photon-fluence rate displayed multiple maxima and thus a pattern fundamentally different from that prevalent in plant and animal physiology. A double mutant lacking cryptochromes 1 and 2 displayed altered stimulus-response curves without losing, however, magneto-responsiveness completely. A reversal of the magnetic field direction substantially affected the gene expression and the quantity of CAB-protein (chlorophyll a,b-binding protein). The majority of our results are at variance with the notion of cryptochromes acting as the only magnetic-field sensors. They do not, however, exclude the possibility that cryptochromes participate in the magnetic field reception of Arabidopsis. The findings have the unexpected implication that cryptochrome- and phytochrome-mediated plant responses can be modulated by the strength and the orientation of the local geomagnetic field.


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Some recommendations for experimental work in magnetobiology, revisited

Makinistian L, Muehsam DJ, Bersani F, Belyaev I. Some recommendations for experimental work in magnetobiology, revisited. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Oct 10. doi: 10.1002/bem.22144.

No abstract.


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Weak power frequency magnetic fields induce microtubule cytoskeleton reorganization depending on epidermal growth factor receptor & calcium signaling

Wu X, Du J, Song W, Cao M, Chen S, Xia R. Weak power frequency magnetic fields induce microtubule cytoskeleton reorganization depending on the epidermal growth factor receptor and the calcium related signaling. PLoS One. 2018 Oct 12;13(10):e0205569. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205569.

Abstract

We have shown previously that a weak 50 Hz magnetic field (MF) invoked the actin-cytoskeleton, and provoked cell migration at the cell 
level, probably through activating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) related motility pathways. However, whether the MF also affects the microtubule (MT)-cytoskeleton is still unknown. In this article, we continuously investigate the effects of 0.4 mT, 50 Hz MF on the MT, and try to understand if the MT effects are also associated with the EGFR pathway as the actin-cytoskeleton effects were. Our results strongly suggest that the MF effects are similar to that of EGF stimulation on the MT cytoskeleton, showing that 1) the MF suppressed MT in multiple cell types including PC12 and FL; 2) the MF promoted the clustering of the EGFR at the protein and the cell levels, in a similar way of that EGF did but with higher sensitivity to PD153035 inhibition, and triggered EGFR phosphorylation on sites of Y1173 and S1046/1047; 3) these effects were strongly depending on the Ca2+ signaling through the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) phosphorylation and elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ level. Strong associations were observed between EGFR and the Ca2+ signaling to regulate the MF-induced-reorganization of the cytoskeleton network, via phosphorylating the signaling proteins in the two pathways, including a significant MT protein, tau. These results strongly suggest that the MF activates the overall cytoskeleton in the absence of EGF, through a mechanism related to both the EGFR and the LTCC/Ca2+ signaling pathways.