Thursday, July 30, 2020

New Apple Watch Reignites Concerns over Cell Phone Radiation





Are Contemporary Smartwatches and Mobile Phones Safe for Patients With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices?

Philipp Lacour, Abdul ShokorParwani, Franziska Schuessler, Felix Hohendanner, Frank  R. Heinzel, Tobias D.Trippel, Leif-Hendrik Bold, Burkert Pieske, Florian Blaschke. Are Contemporary Smartwatches and Mobile Phones Safe for Patients With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices? JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology. 29 July 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.04.033.

Abstract

Objectives   Given the increasing prevalence of mobile phone and smartwatch use, this study tested patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) for the incidence and consequence of contemporary mobile phone and smartwatch-produced electromagnetic interferences.

Background  Electromagnetic interferences can be hazardous for patients with CIEDs.

Methods  In total, 148 patients with CIEDs and leads from 4 different manufacturers were subjected to 1,352 tests. Analyzed CIEDs included 51 pacemakers, 5 cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemakers, 46 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, 43 cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators, and 3 implantable loop recorders. To analyze a possible influence of certain distances between the mobile phone (iPhone 6) and the smartwatch (Apple Watch A1553) to the CIED, both were placed either directly above implanted devices or at the right wrist. All possible activations of the iPhone and the Apple Watch, including the standby, dialing, and connecting modes (telephone connection and Internet access) were tested. In addition, we studied incidence and characteristics of interferences with interrogation telemetry.

Results  In this study, only a single case of mobile phone–induced electromagnetic interference on a dual-chamber pacemaker was observed. Utilizing wanded telemetry, iPhone induced interferences were found in 14% of the patients. However, none of the patients showed any interference with the Apple Watch.

Conclusions  The risk of electromagnetic interferences of the iPhone 6 and the Apple Watch with CIEDs is low. However, close proximity of the iPhone 6 to implanted devices can cause telemetry interferences.



==

September 25, 2017  (Updated with Series 4 Watches, Sep 13, 2018)

The San Francisco Chronicle published an article today, "New Apple Watch reignites concerns over radiation" (Catherine Ho, September 25, 2017).

Since the new Apple Watch can operate like a cell phone, some public health researchers and medical experts have raised concerns about the potential health risks from exposure to the radiation emitted by this device.
"There is no definitive data from federal health regulators showing a direct link between cell phone radiation — also known as radio frequency radiation — and health problems in humans. But recent research indicates that exposure to cell phone radiation is the likely cause of malignant growths in the brains and hearts of male rats, and can cause neurological damage in rats born to mothers that were exposed to the radiation during pregnancy."
The article mentions my successful lawsuit against the California Department of Public Health. It also discusses the cell phone radiation and cancer study conducted by the National Toxicology Program.
“ 'That’s going to up the exposure and probably increase the risk to the user over the long term,' said Joel Moskowitz, a researcher at UC Berkeley’s School of Public Health. 'I don’t think there’s anyone who can say definitively this is going to hurt the user. But many scientists would say we don’t have enough information to claim these devices are safe.' ”
"We have evidence that levels of radiation far weaker than those of a cell phone can be damaging to human sperm as well as to the progeny produced by animals that are pregnant and exposed to this throughout their pregnancy.”Devra Davis, Environmental Health Trust
Neither Apple nor the CTIA would comment on the story.


The article is available at http://bit.ly/aplwatch3.

--

Specific Absorption Rates (SARs) for the Apple Watch (Series 3)

Before reading what Apple reports (below), I suggest you read the following posts on my website which discuss why the SAR is not a reliable measure of the potential health risks from using a wireless device on or near your body.



Apple Watch Series 4 RF Exposure Information

Apple Watch has been tested and meets applicable limits for radio frequency (RF) exposure.

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) refers to the rate at which the body absorbs RF energy. SAR limits depend on whether Apple Watch is used against the head or on the wrist. In the U.S, and some countries, the SAR limit is 1.6 watts per kilogram averaged over 1 gram of tissue for use against the head and 4.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use on the wrist. In other countries, the SAR limit is 2.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use against the head and 4.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use on the wrist.

The SAR distribution at the exposed side of the head or body was measured at a distance no greater than 5.0 mm from the inner surface of the shell. 

Devices that are designed to be worn on the wrist may operate in speaker mode for voice communication, with the device worn on the wrist and positioned next to the mouth. When next-to-mouth SAR evaluation is required, the device is positioned at 10 mm from a flat phantom filled with head tissue-equivalent medium. The device is evaluated with wrist bands strapped together to represent normal use conditions. 

Devices that are designed or intended for use on extremities or mainly operated in extremity only exposure conditions; i.e., hands, wrists, feet and ankles, may require extremity SAR evaluation. When the device also operates in close proximity to the user’s body, SAR compliance for the body is also required. When extremity SAR evaluation is required, the device is evaluated with the back of the device touching the flat phantom, which is filled with body tissue-equivalent medium. The device was evaluated with Sport wristband unstrapped and touching the phantom. For Metal Loop and Metal Links wristbands, the device was evaluated with wristbands strapped and the distance between wristbands and the phantom was minimized to represent the spacing created by actual use condition.

Although this device has been tested to determine SAR in each band of operation, not all bands are available in all areas. Bands are dependent on your service provider’s wireless networks.

Looking across the Series 4 models, the highest cellular transmission SAR was 0.37 watts per kilogram (W/kg); the highest Wi-Fi SAR was 0.17 W/kg; the highest Bluetooth SAR was 0.13 W/kg, and the highest simultaneous transmission SAR (cellular plus Wi-Fi) was 0.50 W/kg.

The highest tested SAR values for each Series 4 model of the Apple Watch were as follows:


Model A1975
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =           0.25 W/kg
Wi-Fi =              0.14 W/kg
Bluetooth =       0.11 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.39 W/kg

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =           0.34 W/kg
Wi-Fi =              0.11 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.40 W/kg

Model A1976
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =           0.25 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             <0.1  W/kg
Bluetooth =       0.10 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.35 W/kg

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =           0.27 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             <0.1 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.32 W/kg


Model A1977
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =           0.37 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             0.13  W/kg
Bluetooth =      <0.1  W/kg
simultaneous =  0.50 W/kg

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =           0.26 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             <0.1 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.32 W/kg


Model A1978
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =              No cellular
Wi-Fi =              0.17 W/kg
Bluetooth =       0.13  W/kg
simultaneous =    Not applicable

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =             No cellular
Wi-Fi =              0.10 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =     Not applicable


Model A2007
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =           0.37 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             0.13  W/kg
Bluetooth =      <0.1  W/kg
simultaneous =  0.50 W/kg

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =           0.26 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             <0.1 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.32 W/kg


Model A2008
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =           0.36 W/kg
Wi-Fi =              0.14 W/kg
Bluetooth =       0.10  W/kg
simultaneous =  0.50 W/kg

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =           0.31 W/kg
Wi-Fi =              0.11 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.42 W/kg


Apple Watch Series 3 RF Exposure Information


Apple has posted information on its website about the Specific Absorption Rate or SAR for the Series 3 Apple Watches.

Apple Watch has been tested and meets applicable limits for radio frequency (RF) exposure.

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) refers to the rate at which the body absorbs RF energy. SAR limits depend on whether Apple Watch is used against the head or on the wrist. In some countries, the SAR limit is 1.6 watts per kilogram averaged over 1 gram of tissue for use against the head and 4.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use on the wrist. In other countries, the SAR limit is 2.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use against the head and 4.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use on the wrist.

During testing, Apple Watch radios are set to their highest transmission levels and placed in positions that simulate use against the head, with 10 mm separation, and on the wrist, with no separation. When placing Apple Watch near your face, keep at least 10 mm of separation to ensure exposure levels remain at or below the as-tested levels.

Although this device has been tested to determine SAR in each band of operation, not all bands are available in all areas. Bands are dependent on your service provider’s wireless networks.

The highest tested SAR values were as follows:

GPS and Cellular Models:

Model A1860

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.53
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.18

Model A1889

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.29
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.15

Model A1890

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.16
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.14

Model A1861

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.52
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.34

Model A1891

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.35
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.18

Model A1892

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.25
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.14

GPS –only Models:

Model A1858

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.17
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.034

Model A1859

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.11
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.023

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Berkeley Cell Phone "Right to Know" Ordinance: Media Coverage

Updates on the 
Berkeley cell phone "right to know" ordinance:  


Since July, 2014, more than 250 news stories have been published regarding the cell phone “right to know” ordinance that the Berkeley City Council unanimously adopted on May 12, 2015.

An Associated Press (AP) story published on June 11, 2015 appeared on more than 100 web sites throughout the U.S. including the New York Times, the Washington Post, and ABC News. An AP story published on September 22, 2015 appeared on more than 155 new sites in the U.S. and Canada.

News stories about the ordinance have appeared in thirteen other nations: Australia, Canada, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Lithuania, New Zealand, Switzerland, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and Vietnam.

For updates about the status of the ordinance and the lawsuit filed by the CTIA--The Wireless Association in the industry's effort to kill this landmark consumer disclosure law see http://bit.ly/berkeleycellordinance.

Following are links to the English language news media coverage (Updated 7/23/2020):

ABA Journal (Sep 22, 2015)
ABC 7 News (San Francisco) (Jul 15, 2014)
ABC 7 News (San Francisco) (Aug 20, 2015)
ABC 7 News (San Francisco) (Sep 13, 2016)
Apple Daily (Taiwan) (Mar 23, 2016
Apple Daily (Taiwan) (Mar 23, 2016)
Ars Technica (Jun 9, 2015)
Ars Technica (Aug 20, 2015)
Ars Technica (Sep 21, 2015)
Ars Technica (Jan 28, 2016)
Ars Technica (Sep 13, 2016)
Ars Technica (Apr 21, 2017)
Associated Press (Jun 11, 2015) - published on more than 100 news sites
Associated Press (Sep 22, 2015) - published on more than 155 news sites in US & Canada
Associated Press (Jan 28, 2016)
Australian Mobile Telecommunications Association (Nov 13, 2014)
BannedBook.org (in Mandarin) (July 15, 2014)
Bay City News (Sep 22, 2015)
Bayvoice.net (in Mandarin) (July 14, 2014)
Berkeley Daily Planet (Sep 21, 2015)
Berkeley Daily Planet (Sep 13, 2016)
Berkeley Daily Planet (Oct 11, 2017)
Berkeley High Jacket (Dec 20, 2014)
Berkeley High Jacket (Jan 16, 2020)
Berkeley Patch (Bay City News) (Sep 13, 2016)
Berkeleyside  Op-Ed  (Oct 17, 2014)
Berkeleyside (Nov 18, 2014)
Berkeleyside (Nov 26, 2014)
Berkeleyside Op-Ed (May 5, 2015)
Berkeleyside (May 13, 2015)
Berkeleyside (Jun 8, 2015)
Berkeleyside (Aug 21, 2015)
Berkeleyside (Sep 22, 2015)
Berkeleyside (Jan 29, 2016)
Berkeleyside (Dec 13, 2019)
Bloomberg News Radio (mp3: 0:06:55 - 0:08:35) (Jul 15, 2014)
Bloomberg Law (Jul 2, 2019)
Bloomberg Politics (Nov 26, 2014)
Bloomberg BNA (Sep 22, 2015)
Bloomberg BNA (Oct 20, 2016)
Breitbart News (Jul 15, 2014)
Breitbart News (Jun 10, 2015)
Business Insider (Jul 15, 2014)
Business Insider India (Jul 15, 2014)
California City News (Dec 1, 2014)
California Healthline (Jul 16, 2014)
California Healthline (Sep 23, 2015)
California Magazine (Aug 19, 2014)
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC)--The National (Mar 23, 2017)
CBC Marketplace (Mar 24, 2017) (22 minute video)
CBS News (May 12, 2015)
CBS News (May 13, 2015)
CBS News (Jun 8, 2015)
CBS Sacramento (Jan 28, 2016)
CBS SF Bay Area (Aug 22, 2014)
CBS SF Bay Area (Jul 16, 2014)
CBS SF Bay Area (May 13, 2015)
CBS SF Bay Area (May 20, 2015)
CBS SF Bay Area (Jun 8, 2015)
CBS SF Bay Area (Jul 27, 2015)
CBS SF Bay Area (Sep 13, 2016)
CBS SF Bay Area (Oct 11, 2017)
CBS SF Bay Area (Sep 20, 2018)
CBS This Morning (Jul 27, 2015)
Channel One News (May 17, 2017)
Chico Enterprise-Record (Nov 21, 2014)
City of Berkeley (press release) (Dec 13, 2019)
c|net (Jun 28, 2018)
c|net (Jul 2, 2019)
CNN (Jul 28, 2015)
CIO India (Jun 9, 2015)
Computerworld (Jun 8, 2015)
Computerworld Australia (Jun 8, 2015)
Computerworld New Zealand (Jun 8, 2015)
Consumer Reports (Sep 24, 2015)
Contra Costa Times (Nov 21, 2014) (Oakland Tribune, Nov 24, 2014)
Contra Costa Times (Oct 7, 2015)
Contra Costa Times (Jan 28, 2016)
Contra Costa Times (Mar 8, 2016)
Courthouse News Service (Jun 9, 2015)
Courthouse News Service (Aug 20, 2015)
Courthouse News Service (Sep 22, 2015)
Courthouse News Service (Jan 22, 2016)
Courthouse News Service (Jan 28, 2016)
Courthouse News Service (Sep 13, 2016)
Courthouse News Service (Apr 21, 2017)
Courthouse News Service (Oct 11, 2017)
Courthouse News Service (Jul 2, 2019)
Courthouse News Service (Jul 23, 2020)
Court Listener (copy of ruling) (Jul 2, 2019)
CTV News video (Canada) (May 17, 2015)
CTV News story (Canada) May 17, 2015)
Daily Beast (May 13, 2015)
Daily Californian  (Jul 16, 2014)
Daily Californian (Nov 19, 2014)
Daily Californian (Jun 9, 2015)
Daily Californian (Sep 22, 2015)
Daily Californian (Feb 1, 2016)
Daily Californian (Sep 14, 2016)
Daily Californian (Apr 25, 2017)
Daily Californian (Sep 22, 2018)
Daily Californian (Dec 12, 2019)
Daily Online Examiner (May 12, 2017)
Data Driven Investor (Medium.com) (Jul 2, 2019)
Davis Enterprise  (Jul 22, 2014)
Delfi Sveikata (Lithuania) (May 21, 2015)
Digital News Daily (Oct 11, 2017)
Digital Trends (Aug 1, 2015)
Discovery News (May 20, 2015)
East Bay Express (Jul 15, 2014)
East Bay Times (Apr 22, 2017)
East Bay Times (Oct 12, 2017)
East Bay Times (Jan 17, 2018)
ECN Magazine (Jun 10, 2015)
Ecosalon (Jul 18, 2014)
Epoch Times (May 12, 2015)
FairWarning (Jul 11, 2018)
FairWarning (Sep 4, 2018)
Fierce Wireless (Jun 9, 2015)
Fierce Wireless (Sep 22, 2015)
FindLaw (Apr 26, 2017)
First World News Channel (Sep 13, 2016)
Forbes (Oct 13, 2015)
Fox Business (Sep 22, 2015)
Fusion (May 3, 2016)
Governing (Dec 11, 2019)
Government Technology (Jul 3, 2019)
GSMA (wireless industry assn.) (Nov 24, 2014)
GSMA (May 25, 2015)
GSMA (Jul 13, 2015)
GSMA (Oct 29, 2015)
The Guardian (London, UK) May 15, 2015)
Headlines and Global News (Jul 17, 2014)
Healthcare Global (Dec 1, 2014)
The Hill (Jun 5, 2015)
The Hill (Sep 22, 2015)
Huffington Post (Paul Brodeur), (Jul 27, 2015)
Inside Towers (Sep 30, 2016)
Inside Towers (Dec 11, 2019)
Kachwanya (Kenya) (Aug 6, 2015)
KALW  Crosscurrents   (audio - Sep 24, 2014)
KALW (audio) (Oct 8, 2015)
KFMB (CBS8, San Diego), Sep 27, 2016
KGO 810  Radio News (San Francisco) (Jul 15, 2014)
Kim Komando podcast (Apr 6, 2017)
KIMT (Iowa, Minnesota) (May 18, 2015)
KKSF AM Talk 919 (San Francisco) (audio) (Jul 15, 2014)
KPAX (Missoula, MT, CBS News8) (May 12, 2015)
KPFA Radio (May 13, 2015)
KPFA Pacifica Evening News (42:13 - 44:30)(Sep 30, 2016)
KQED Forum (Lawrence Lessig interview: 48:00 - 50:00) (Jan 8, 2015)
KQED Forum (Joel Moskowitz & Allan Balmain, 9:30 - 10 AM) (May 18, 2015)
KRON4 (Sep 22, 2015)
KRON4 (Sep 13, 2016)
KTVU (Fox News) (May 13, 2015)
KTVU (Fox News) Sep 13, 2016)
Law 360 (Jun 9, 2015)
Law 360 (Sep 22, 2016)
Law 360 (Jan 28, 2016)
Law 360 (Mar 2, 2016)
Law 360 (Apr 5, 2016)
Law 360 (May 13, 2016)
Law 360 (Aug 12, 2016)
Law 360 (Aug 29, 2016)
Law 360 (Sep 13, 2016)
Law 360 (Apr 21, 2017)
Law 360 (Jul 2, 2019)
Law 360 (Nov 1, 2019)
Law 360 (Dec 9, 2019)
Law 360 (Jun 23, 2020)
Law 360 (Jul 23, 2020)
Legal Newsline (Jun 23, 2020)
Legal Reader (Sep 24, 2015)
Lexology (Apr 28, 2017)
Litigation Update - State Bar of California (Nov, 2017)
Mobile Commerce News (Aug 7, 2015)
Mobile Today (Iran) (Sep 13, 2016)
Mother Jones (May 11, 2015)
Mother Jones (May 13, 2015)
Multichannel (Jun 23, 2020)
NBC Bay Area (Mar 28, 2015)
NBC Bay Area (May 12, 2015)
NBC Bay Area (Jun 8, 2015)
NBC Bay Area (Aug 20, 2015)
NBC Bay Area (Mar 21, 2016)
NBC Bay Area (Sep 13, 2016)
NBC Sacramento/SF Gate (Apr 8, 2017)
Newser (Jun 10, 2015)
News Inferno (Jul 16, 2014)
Newsweek (Nov 3, 2016)
Newsweek en Espanol (Nov 4, 2016)
New York Magazine (Jul 24, 2015)
New York Times (Jun 11, 2015) - AP article
New York Times (Jul 21, 2015) (my comments on NYT article)
PC Advisor (UK) (Jun 8, 2015)
PC World (Jun 8, 2015)
PC World (Jul 10, 2015)
Public Health Watchdog (Jul 17, 2014)
Public Knowledge (May 25, 2016)
Public News Service (Aug 20, 2015)
Public News Service (Sep 29, 2016)
Public News Service (Jul 22, 2020)
RCR Wireless News (Jun 9, 2015)
RCR Wireless News (Jun 11, 2015)
The Recorder (Jun 8, 2015)
The Recorder (Aug 20, 2015)
The Recorder (Aug 21, 2015)
The Recorder (Sep 21, 2015)
The Recorder (Sep 13, 2016)
The Recorder (Apr 21, 2017)
The Recorder (Oct 11, 2017)
The Recorder (Jul 2, 2019)
Reuters (Apr 24, 2017)
Reuters (Dec 9, 2019)
RT (May 12, 2015)
RT (Jul 31, 2015)
RYOT News (May 14, 2015)
Sacramento Bee (Apr 6, 2017)
San Francisco Appeal (Sep 21, 2015)
San Francisco Chronicle  (Jul 15, 2014)
San Francisco Chronicle (Sep 25, 2015)
San Francisco Chronicle (Mar 2, 2017)
San Francisco Chronicle (Jun 28, 2018)
San Francisco Chronicle (Jul 2, 2019)
San Francisco Chronicle (Dec 9, 2019)
San Francisco Chronicle (Op-ed) (Jul 21, 2020)
San Jose Mercury News (May 13, 2015)
San Jose Mercury News (Jun 9, 2015)
San Jose Mercury News (Sep 22, 2015)
San Jose Mercury News (Oct 7, 2015)
San Jose Mercury News (Jan 17, 2018)
Science Times (May 13, 2015)
Seattle Times (Jul 14, 2014)
SF Gate / SF Chronicle (Jun 8, 2015)
SF Gate (Aug 20, 2015)
SF Gate (Sep 21, 2015)
SF Gate (Jan 28, 2016)
SF Gate (Mar 23, 2016)
SF Gate (Sep 13, 2016)
SF Gate (Apr 21, 2017)
SF Gate (Jul 2, 2019)
SoundofHope.org (Beijing; in Mandarin)  (Jul 15, 2014)
Sputnik International (Jul 31, 2015)
Sputnik News (May 17, 2015)
Telecommunications Reports (Jul 13, 2018)
ThinkProgress (Jul 22, 2015)
TIME Magazine (May 12, 2015)
TreeAngle (Indonesia) (Sep 23, 2015)
Truthout (Jul 31, 2019)
Tuoi Tre (Vietnam) (Mar 23, 2016)
UK Progressive Magazine (May 19, 2015)
Voice of America (Jun 5, 2015)
Wall Street Journal (Sep 22, 2015)
WCTV News (CBS2, Tallahassee, FL) (May 12, 2015)
WCVB News (ABC5, Boston)  (Jul 15, 2014)
WDTV News (CBS5, West Virginia) (May 12, 2015)
WFMY News (CBS2, Greensboro, NC) (May 12, 2015)
WIVB News (CBS4, Buffalo, NY) (May 13, 2015)
WKBN News (Youngstown, OH) (May 12, 2015)
WREQ News (CBS3 Memphis,TN) (May 12, 2015)
WTSP News (CBS10, Tampa Bay, FL) (May 12, 2015)
Yahoo! Finance (Sep 27, 2016)
Yahoo! News (CBS) (Jul 16, 2014)
Yahoo! News (CBS) (May 12, 2015)
YourLawyer.com  (Jul 17, 2014)