Feb 4, 2023 Update
This document contains abstracts for 290 studies published since 1997 that assessed the effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure on free radical-related cellular processes.
See pages 164-187 for the Table that summarizes key details about each study.
1. Of the 290 studies published since 1997, 263 studies (91%) reported statistically significant effects of radiofrequency radiation on free radical-related cellular processes; only 27 studies (9%) found no significant effects.
2. Change in cellular free radical status is a consistent effect of radiofrequency radiation exposure.
3. Effects can occur at low specific absorption rates (SAR) or power density of exposure. Seventy studies are marked LI for low intensity (≤ 0.4 W/kg). Of the 70 low intensity exposure studies, 68 studies (91%) reported significant effects on free radical-related cellular processes.
4. Effects have been reported at different frequencies, exposure duration, and modulations, and in different biological systems, cell lines, and animal species. These data support the assertion that “Radiofrequency radiation affects cellular free radical processes.”
5. Most of the studies are live animal (in vivo) studies with long-term exposure, e.g., daily exposure up to several months.
6. Some studies used mobile phones or RFR-emitting devices for exposure (see Table). The SAR and characteristics of RFR in these studies are not well defined. However, these studies should not be overlooked because they represent real-life exposure scenarios. Waveform modulations of RFR during wireless communication usage probably play an important role in biological effects which are not revealed in studies that used a simple form of radiation (e.g., continuous-wave or GSM) and spatially uniform fields. Researchers in bioelectromagnetics should realize that the perfect RFR exposure system simulating real life exposures simply does not exist.
To download the 187-page document (pdf): https://bit.ly/RFR-oxidative-Lai-2023
Government and industry-linked scientists often claim that research on the effects of exposure to EMF is inconsistent, and that more research is needed before health warnings are issued or regulatory exposure limits are strengthened.
Cell phones and other wireless devices also produce static and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. ELF was classified by the IARC as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2B) a decade before RFR received this classification.
68% (n=291) of 423 genetic effects studies published since 1990 reported significant effects.
Extremely low frequency and static electromagnetic fields::
91% (n=283) of 311 neurological studies published since 2007 reported significant effects.