Wednesday, December 12, 2018

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Recent News

Ronald Melnick, Ph.D. There's a clear cell phone-cancer link, but FDA is downplaying itThe Hill, Nov 13, 2018.
  Dr. Melnick was the senior toxicologist who led the design of the National Toxicology Program cell phone radiation studies.

Joyce Nelson. 5G Corporate Grail: Smart cities/dumb people?  Watershed Sentinel, Nov 5, 2018.
  "There’s a lot of hype about 5G, the fifth-generation wireless technology that is being rolled out in various “5G test beds” in major cities ...But it’s hard to see why we should be excited."

Annelie Fitzgerald. Mobile Phone Cover-up? Gov’t advisory body disbanded – inaccurate and misleading conclusions remain. TruePublica (UK), Oct 17, 2018.
   UK disbanded advisory group on non-ionizing radiation (AGNIR) after group issued inaccurate assessment of wireless radiation science subject to conflicts of interest. Public Heath England still relies on AGNIR report.

Martin Röösli. Mobile phone radiation may affect memory performance in adolescents. Medical Xpress. July 20, 2018.
  Radio frequency radiation may have adverse effects on memory performance of specific brain regions exposed during mobile phone use.

Ronnie Cohen. Do cellphones cause cancer? Government study reveals 'stunningly important findings. Newsweek, July 19, 2018.
  Current cellphone safety regulations are based on a premise that is now arguably false: that cellphone radiation can cause harm only by heating tissue.

Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. The inconvenient truth about cancer and mobile phones.The Guardian, July 14, 2018.
  We dismiss claims about mobiles being bad for our health – but is that because studies showing a link to cancer have been cast into doubt by the industry?

Reynard Loki. Our cellphone addiction is turning wireless tech into an invisible weapon that’s destroying wildlife. Salon, July 14, 2018.
  Electromagnetic radiation from Wi-Fi and cell towers poses a “credible risk” to birds, mammals, insects and plants

Lynne Peeples. Should cell phone providers warn customers of health risks? Berkeley says yesMcClatchy News Washington Bureau, July 11, 2018.
  Although the scientific community has not reached consensus, the California health department said research indicates long-term, extensive cellphone use may affect health.

Lynne Peeples. Wireless industry using First Amendment as a cudgel in its battle against safety warningsFairWarning, July 11, 2018.
  Complete version of the article. News websites published the McClatchy version.

Microwave News. "'Clear evidence' of cell phone cancer risk, say leading pathologists." April 9, 2018.
  Why the peer review panel and NTP interpreted the same animal data differently. 

Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. "How big wireless made us think that cell phones are safe: A special investigation.The Nation, March 29, 2018.
  The disinformation campaign—and massive radiation increase—behind the 5G rollout.

Recent Posts on EMR Safety

Effects of Cell Phone Use on Adolescents 
 Research on adolescents suggests that cell phone use disturbs sleep and has adverse effects on memory and cognitive processes, and on the endocrine system.

Worldwide Radio Frequency Radiation Exposure Limits versus Health Effects

  "Wireless radiation exposure limits and a summary of biologic and health effect studies by exposure level."

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?
  "Both oncologic and non-cancerous chronic effects have been suggested."

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields 
  Compilation of over 500 abstracts of scientific papers published since August, 2016.

Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality
  Research that examines the effects of wireless radiation on sperm. Eight review papers and more than 40 recent studies.

Thyroid Cancer & Mobile Phone Use
  The evidence is mounting from epidemiologic and biologic studies that heavy cell phone use may cause thyroid cancer.

NTP Cell Phone Radiation Study: Final Reports
  A $30 million study by the National Toxicology Program found that long-term exposure to cell phone radiation caused cancer in male rats and DNA damage in mice and rats.
  
National Toxicology Program: Peer & public review of cell phone radiation study.
  Former NTP scientist defends study; expert reviewers argue that results call for stronger RF exposure guidelines & IARC should upgrade cancer risk.

National Toxicology Program (NTP) Finds Cell Phone Radiation Causes Cancer
  Experts convened by NTP found "clear evidence" of cancer from cell phone radiation. Official summary now available.

ICNIRP’s Exposure Guidelines for Radio Frequency Fields
  ICNIRP requests public input on its radio frequency radiation exposure guidelines. Former NTP scientist critiques ICNIRP.

5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype
  News stories debunk exaggerated benefits of 5G cellular technology.

PowerWatch: 1,670 Scientific Papers on EMF
  This list is a compilation of citations for 1,670 peer-reviewed papers about EMF published in scientific journals from 1979 through 2018.


Special Issue: Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Biology & Medicine
  Nine EMF papers published in a special issue of the International Journal of Radiation Biology.

Recent Research on Wi-Fi Effects
  Compilation of recent studies on biologic and health effects from exposure to Wi-Fi radiation.

Research on Smart Phone and Internet Addiction
  Recent studies on dependence or addiction to mobile devices, gaming, or the internet.

  New real-world study of cell phone radiation confirms recommendations in the Department's cell phone safety guidance.

iPhone XS and XR: Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) or RF Exposure
  What are the SAR values for iPhone’s new smart phones? How should consumers use this information?

Hybrid & Electric Cars: Electromagnetic Radiation Risks
  Modern automobiles increasingly incorporate EMF-emitting devices that pose a risk to human health.

Wireless Radiation TV News
  Links to over 150 televised news stories about wireless radiation health risks.

 Recent research and policy developments regarding electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

  City Council reaffirms its commitment to defend landmark cell phone "right to know" ordinance against telecom industry lawsuit in the federal courts.

New Apple Watch Reignites Concerns over Cell Phone Radiation
  How much wireless radiation (cellular, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) is emitted by smart watches? 

Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US: Role of Cell Phone & Cordless Phone Use
 The CDC reported that brain cancer incidence among youth 0-20 years of age increased between 2001 and 2014. Also thyroid cancer and lymphoma.

Scientific Evidence of Harm from Cell Phone Radiation: Two Years of Research
  An annotated bibliography which contains 92 papers published in scientific journals during the last two years that report evidence of harm from cell phone radiation exposure.

International Perspective on Health Effects of Low Intensity Non-Ionizing Radiation
  There is an urgent need to recognize hazards associated with excessive exposure to non-thermal levels of electromagnetic fields.

International Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields & Wireless Technology
  242 scientists from 41 nations including 38 from the U.S. have signed the Appeal.

Key Cell Phone Radiation Research Studies

Female Infertility and Cell Phone Radiation
  Research that investigates the effects of wireless radiation on female fertility.

Pregnancy & Wireless Radiation Risks
  Compilation of studies that found harmful effects from fetal exposure to wireless radiation.

5G Moratorium Website Launched
  Official website for 5G Appeal: Over 200 scientists doctors have signed Appeal.

Electromagnetic Fields Threaten Wildlife
 Research review: EMF is potential risk to insect and bird orientation and plant health.

EMF Health Impacts and Policy Change Webinar
  Drs. Frank Barnes, De-Kun Li, & Joel Moskowitz discuss EMF research and implications for policy change. Sponsored by Collaborative for Health & the Environment.

Ramazzini Institute Cell Phone Radiation Study Replicates NTP Study
  Ramazzini Institute replicates heart cancer results from NTP cell phone radiation study.

Effects of Cell Phone Use on Adolescents

Telecommunication devices use, screen time and sleep in adolescents

Cabre-Riera A, Torrent M, Donaire-Gonzalez D, Vrijheid M, Cardis E, Guxens M. Telecommunication devices use, screen time and sleep in adolescents. Environmental Research. Available online 1 November 2018.  
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.10.036

Highlights

• Telecommunication and other screen devices use was collected in adolescents
• Both subjective and objective sleep measures were assessed
• Tablet use and mobile phone dependency were associated with poorer sleep
• Frequency of cordless phone calls was associated with poorer sleep
• Public health recommendations on telecommunication devices use should be a priority

Abstract

Purpose To investigate the association between telecommunication and other screen devices and subjective and objective sleep measures in adolescents at 17–18 years.

Methods Cross-sectional study on adolescents aged 17–18 years from a Spanish population-based birth cohort established in Menorca in 1997–1998. Information on devices use was collected using self-reported questionnaires. Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale was used to assess mobile phone use dependency. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess subjective sleep (n=226). ActiGraph wGT3X-BT for 7 nights was used to assess objective sleep (n=110).

Results One or more cordless phone calls/week was associated with a lower sleep quality [Prevalence Ratio PR 1.30 (95%CI 1.04; 1.62)]. Habitual and frequent problematic mobile phone use was associated with a lower sleep quality [PR 1.55 (95%CI 1.03; 2.33) and PR 1.67 (95%CI 1.09; 2.56), respectively]. Higher tablet use was associated with decreased sleep efficiency and increased minutes of wake time after sleep onset [β −1.15 (95%CI −1.99; −0.31) and β 7.00 (95%CI 2.40; 11.60) per increase of 10 minutes/day of use, respectively]. No associations were found between other devices and sleep measures.

Conclusions Tablet use, mobile phone use dependency, and frequency of cordless phone were related to an increase of subjective and objective sleep problems in adolescents. These results seem to indicate that sleep displacement, mental arousal, and exposure to blue light emission might play a more important role on sleep than a high RF-EMF exposure to the brain. However, more studies are needed assessing personal RF-EMF levels to draw conclusions.

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Cohort study of adolescents' memory performance & brain dose of microwave radiation from wireless EMF

Foerster M., Thielens A., Joseph W., Eeftens M., Röösli M. (2018) A prospective cohort study of adolescents' memory performance and individual brain dose of microwave radiation from wireless communication. Environmental Health Perspectives.126(7):077007. doi: 10.1289/EHP2427.


Abstract

BACKGROUND: The potential impact of microwave radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by wireless communication devices on neurocognitive functions of adolescents is controversial. In a previous analysis, we found changes in figural memory scores associated with a higher cumulative RF-EMF brain dose in adolescents.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to follow-up our previous results using a new study population, dose estimation, and approach to controlling for confounding from media usage itself.

METHODS: RF-EMF brain dose for each participant was modeled. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted on verbal and figural memory score changes over 1 y and on estimated cumulative brain dose and RF-EMF related and unrelated media usage (n=669–676). Because of the hemispheric lateralization of memory, we conducted a laterality analysis for phone call ear preference. To control for the confounding of media use behaviors, a stratified analysis for different media usage groups was also conducted.

RESULTS: We found decreased figural memory scores in association with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in estimated cumulative RF-EMF brain dose scores: −0:22 (95% CI: −0:47, 0.03; IQR: 953 mJ=kg per day) in the whole sample, −0:39 (95% CI: −0:67, −0:10; IQR: 953 mJ=kg per day) in right-side users (n=532), and −0:26 (95% CI: −0:42, −0:10; IQR: 341 mJ=kg per day) when recorded network operator data were used for RF-EMF dose estimation (n=274). Media usage unrelated to RF-EMF did not show significant associations or consistent patterns, with the exception of consistent (nonsignificant) positive associations between data traffic duration and verbal memory.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings for a cohort of Swiss adolescents require confirmation in other populations but suggest a potential adverse effect of of RF-EMF brain dose on cognitive functions that involve brain regions mostly exposed during mobile phone use. 

Conclusion

We found preliminary evidence suggesting that RF-EMF may affect brain functions such as figural memory in regions that are most exposed during mobile phone use. Our findings do not provide conclusive evidence of causal effects and should be interpreted with caution until confirmed in other populations. Associations with media use parameters with low RF-EMF exposures did not provide clear or consistent support of effects of media use unrelated to RF-EMF (with the possible exception of consistent positive associations between verbal memory and data traffic duration). It is not yet clear which brain processes could be potentially affected and what biophysical mechanism may play a role. Potential long-term risk can be minimized by avoiding high brain-exposure situations as occurs when using a mobile phone with maximum power close to the ear because of, for example, bad network quality.

Note: The original study appears below (Schoeni et al., 2015).

Open access paper: https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP2427/

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Decreases in sleep duration among U.S. adolescents 2009-2015 & association with new media screen time

Twenge JM, Krizan Z, Hisler G. Decreases in self-reported sleep duration among U.S. adolescents 2009-2015 and association with new media screen time. Sleep Med. 2017 Nov;39:47-53. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2017.08.013.

Highlights

• More adolescents in 2015 (vs. 2009) slept less than 7 h a night on most nights.
• Electronic device and social media use also increased in 2009–2015.
• Electronic device and social media use increases the odds of short sleep duration. 
• Smartphones may be the cause of the increase in self-reported short sleep duration.

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Insufficient sleep among adolescents carries significant health risks, making it important to determine social factors that change sleep duration. We sought to determine whether the self-reported sleep duration of U.S. adolescents changed between 2009 and 2015 and examine whether new media screen time (relative to other factors) might be responsible for changes in sleep.

METHODS:We drew from yearly, nationally representative surveys of sleep duration and time use among adolescents conducted since 1991 (Monitoring the Future) and 2007 (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control; total N = 369,595).

RESULTS: Compared to 2009, adolescents in 2015 were 16%-17% more likely to report sleeping less than 7 h a night on most nights, with an increase in short sleep duration after 2011-2013. New media screen time (electronic device use, social media, and reading news online) increased over this time period and was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration, with a clear exposure-response relationship for electronic devices after 2 or more hours of use per day. Other activities associated with short sleep duration, such as homework time, working for pay, and TV watching, were relatively stable or reduced over this time period, making it unlikely that these activities caused the sudden increase in short sleep duration.

CONCLUSIONS: Increased new media screen time may be involved in the recent increases (from 35% to 41% and from 37% to 43%) in short sleep among adolescents. Public health interventions should consider electronic device use as a target of intervention to improve adolescent health.


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The effects of EMF on the endocrine system in children and adolescents

Sangün Ö, Dündar B, Çömlekçi S, Büyükgebiz A. The effects of electromagnetic field on the endocrine system in children and adolescents. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2015 Dec;13(2):531-45.

Abstract


Children are exposed to various kind of non-ionizing radiation in their daily life involuntarily. The potential sensitivity of developing organism to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) signals, the higher estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) values of children and greater lifetime cumulative risk raised the scientific interest for children's vulnerability to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). In modern societies, children are being exposed to EMFs in very early ages. There are many researches in scientific literature investigating the alterations of biological parameters in living organisms after EMFs. Although the international guidelines did not report definite, convincing data about the causality, there are unignorable amount of studies indicating the increased risk of cancer, hematologic effects and cognitive impairment. Although they are less in amount; growing number of studies reveal the impacts on metabolism and endocrine function. Reproductive system and growth look like the most challenging fields. However there are also some concerns on detrimental effects of EMFs on thyroid functions, adrenal hormones, glucose homeostasis and melatonin levels. It is not easy to conduct a study investigating the effects of EMFs on a fetus or child due to ethical issues. Hence, the studies are usually performed on virtual models or animals. Although the results are conflicting and cannot be totally matched with humans; there is growing evidence to distress us about the threats of EMF on children.

http://1.usa.gov/1QhY253


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Does exposure to environmental RF EMF cause cognitive & behavioral effects in 10-year-old boys?

Calvente, I., Pérez-Lobato, R., Núñez, M.-I., Ramos, R., Guxens, M., Villalba, J., Olea, N. and Fernández, M. F. (2016), Does exposure to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields cause cognitive and behavioral effects in 10-year-old boys?. Bioelectromagnetics, 37: 25–36. doi: 10.1002/bem.21951.

Abstract


The relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields from non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association of environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure with neurobehavioral function of children.

A subsample of 123 boys belonging to the Environment and Childhood cohort from Granada (Spain), recruited at birth from 2000 through 2002, were evaluated at the age of 9–11 years. Spot electric field measurements within the 100 kHz to 6 GHz frequency range, expressed as both root mean-square (S
RMS) and maximum power density (SMAX) magnitudes, were performed in the immediate surrounds of children's dwellings. Neurocognitive and behavioral functions were assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used, adjusting for potential confounders.

All measurements were lower than reference guideline limits, with median S
RMS and SMAX values of 285.94 and 2759.68 μW/m2, respectively. Most of the cognitive and behavioral parameters did not show any effect, but children living in higher RF exposure areas (above median SRMS levels) had lower scores for verbal expression/ comprehension and higher scores for internalizing and total problems, and obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders, in comparison to those living in areas with lower exposure. These associations were stronger when SMAX values were considered.

Although some of our results may suggest that low-level environmental RF-EMF exposure has a negative impact on cognitive and/or behavior development in children; given limitations in the study design and that the majority of neurobehavioral functioning tasks were not affected, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn.


http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bem.21951/abstract

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November 19, 2015

Two recently published studies on adolescents report harmful effects of mobile phone use. A cross-sectional study found that adolescents who were awakened by a mobile phone at least once a month during the night were more likely to report tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being. A prospective cohort study found that greater wireless radiation exposure predicted lower memory test performance.

Symptoms & cognitive functions in adolescents in relation to mobile phone use

Schoeni A, Roser K, Röösli M. Symptoms and cognitive functions in adolescents in relation to mobile phone use during night. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 29;10(7):e0133528. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133528.

Abstract

Many adolescents tend to leave their mobile phones turned on during night, accepting that they may be awakened by an incoming text message or call. Using self-reported and objective operator recorded mobile phone use data, we thus aimed to analyze how being awakened during night by mobile phone affects adolescents' perceived health and cognitive functions.

In this cross-sectional study, 439 adolescents completed questionnaires about their mobile phone use during night, health related quality of life and possible confounding factors. Standardized computerized cognitive tests were performed to assess memory and concentration capacity. Objective operator recorded mobile phone use data was further collected for 233 study participants. Data were analyzed by multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders including amount of mobile phone use.

For adolescents reporting to be awakened by a mobile phone during night at least once a month the odds ratio for daytime tiredness and rapid exhaustibility were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.02-3.39) and 2.28 (95% CI: 0.97-5.34), respectively. Similar results were found when analyzing objective operator recorded mobile phone use data (tiredness: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.94-2.82 and rapid exhaustibility: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.01-5.36). The cognitive tests on memory and concentration capacity were not related to mobile phone use during night. Overall, being awakened during night by mobile phone was associated with an increase in health symptom reports such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being, but not with memory and concentration capacity.

Prevention strategies should focus on helping adolescents set limits for their accessibility by mobile phone, especially during night.

Conclusion

Among Swiss adolescents, we have observed that nocturnal mobile phone use was associated with an increase in health symptom reports such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being, but not with memory and concentration capacity. More studies to investigate these associations are necessary and education in sleep behaviour may be inevitable since the mobile phone is now the most familiar lifestyle factor for adolescents.

Public Health prevention strategies should focus on helping adolescents set limits for their accessibility by mobile phone, especially during night.

Open Access Paper: http://1.usa.gov/1NeP2lJ

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Memory performance, wireless communication & RF EMF exposure: Prospective cohort study in adolescents

Schoeni A, Roser K, Röösli M. Memory performance, wireless communication and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: A prospective cohort study in adolescents. Environ Int. 2015 Oct 13;85:343-351. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.025.

Highlights

• This is a prospective cohort study with approx. one year of follow-up.
• Self-reported and operator recorded mobile phone use data were collected.
• The cumulative RF-EMF dose for the brain and for the whole body was calculated.
• Associations were stronger for RF-EMF dose than for use of wireless devices.
• RF-EMF exposure might impair memory performance in adolescents.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate whether memory performance in adolescents is affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from wireless device use or by the wireless device use itself due to non-radiation related factors in that context.

METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study with 439 adolescents. Verbal and figural memory tasks at baseline and after one year were completed using a standardized, computerized cognitive test battery. Use of wireless devices was inquired by questionnaire and operator recorded mobile phone use data was obtained for a subgroup of 234 adolescents. RF-EMF dose measures considering various factors affecting RF-EMF exposure were computed for the brain and the whole body. Data were analysed using a longitudinal approach, to investigate whether cumulative exposure over one year was related to changes in memory performance. All analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders.

RESULTS: The kappa coefficients between cumulative mobile phone call duration and RF-EMF brain and whole body dose were 0.62 and 0.67, respectively for the whole sample and 0.48 and 0.28, respectively for the sample with operator data. In linear exposure-response models an interquartile increase in cumulative operator recorded mobile phone call duration was associated with a decrease in figural memory performance score by -0.15 (95% CI: -0.33, 0.03) units. For cumulative RF-EMF brain and whole body dose corresponding decreases in figural memory scores were -0.26 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.10) and -0.40 (95% CI: -0.79, -0.01), respectively. No exposure-response associations were observed for sending text messages and duration of gaming, which produces tiny RF-EMF emissions.

CONCLUSIONS: A change in memory performance over one year was negatively associated with cumulative duration of wireless phone use and more strongly with RF-EMF dose. This may indicate that RF-EMF exposure affects memory performance.

http://1.usa.gov/1M6BCHW


Excerpts

... From a public health point of view potential effects of chronic exposure are more relevant, which needs to be investigated with epidemiological studies. So far there has only been one community-based epidemiological study investigating effects of mobile phone use on adolescents' memory. Abramson et al. (2009) showed in a cross-sectional analysis of 317 seventh grade students from Australia that mobile phone use was associated with faster and less accurate response on a number of tasks involving the memory. Since similar associations were found in relation to the number of SMS (short text messages), which produces negligible RF-EMF exposure, they speculated that these behaviours may have been learned through the frequent use of a mobile phone and may not be the consequence of mobile phone radiation. In a follow-up investigation one year later, in 236 of these students, an increase in mobile phone use was associated with a reduction in response time in one out of three tests involving the memory (Thomas et al., 2010). This study relied on self-reported mobile phone use only, which has been shown to be inaccurate. Adolescents tend to substantially overestimate their amount of mobile phone use (Aydin et al., 2011; Inyang et al., 2009).

Regular mobile phone use may affect adolescents in various ways. Thus, the main challenge for research consists in differentiating between RF-EMF radiation effects and other non-RF-EMF related effects from mobile phone use. For instance, frequent texting or gaming on a mobile phone may facilitate cognitive processes (Abramson et al., 2009). It was also observed, that calling and sending texts during night was associated with poor perceived health symptoms such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being (Schoeni et al., 2015; Van den Bulck, 2007). Other studies showed that frequent mobile phone use was associated with anxiety (Jenaro et al., 2007), unhealthy lifestyle (Ezoe et al., 2009), depression (Yen et al., 2009) and psychological distress (Beranuy et al., 2009). Thus, to address RF-EMF effects of wireless communication devices, the development of a RF-EMF dose measure, which incorporates all exposure relevant factors, is inevitable.


Memory performance was assessed with a standardized, computerized cognitive test battery (IST, Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000R (Liepmann et al., 2006)). Verbal and figural memory was measured with the subtest of the IST. In the verbal memory task, word groups have to be memorized in one minute time. After 1 min the study participants give an account of the word groups that have been memorized. In total 10 points can be achieved by remembering the correct word groups. In the figural memory task, pairwise symbols have to be memorized in one minute time. After 1 min one part of the pairwise symbols is shown and the matching part has to be found. A total of 13 points can be achieved. For both the verbal and figural tests, 2 min is given to complete the test. Memory performance is considered as the right number of remembered word groups or symbols, respectively. For the statistical analyses of verbal and figural memory the continuous test score values
were used as outcome. Every test was conducted once at baseline and once at follow-up investigation.

In this study we considered objectively recorded data on mobile phone use collected from the Swiss mobile phone operators as well as self-reported data on wireless communication devices usage obtained from a written questionnaire referring to the 6 months period prior to each examination. In terms of RF-EMF related exposure measures we inquired about call duration with own or any other mobile phone (referred to as duration mobile phone calls), call duration with cordless (fixed line) phone and duration of data traffic on the mobile phone, e. g. for surfing and streaming. The duration of gaming on computers and TV and number of all kind of text messages (SMS, WhatsApp etc.) are not, or only marginally relevant for RF-EMF exposure and were thus inquired to be used as negative exposure control variables in the analyses.

Informed consent to obtain objectively recorded mobile phone use data from the mobile phone operators was given by 234 out of 439 study participants and their parents. This included duration of each call and on which network (GSM or UMTS) it started, number of SMS (text messages) sent per day and amount of volume of data traffic (MB/day). Data were obtained for up to 18 months, 6 months before baseline until follow-up investigation.

A particular strength of this study is the longitudinal design. To the best of our knowledge this is the first longitudinal study on memory performance in adolescents using not only mobile phone call duration as an exposure proxy, but calculating RF-EMF dose measures derived from objectively recorded operator data and propagation modelling. Compared to a cross-sectional design where changes over time cannot be assessed andwhere reverse causality is of concern, longitudinal studies allow for more robust conclusions.

.. Most relevant contributors for the brain dose are calls on the GSM network (on average 93.3% for the whole sample based on self-reported data and 58.7% for the sample with operator data using operator recorded information) followed by calls with the cordless phones (4.2% and 21.0%, respectively). For the whole body dose, calls on the GSM network (on average 66.9% for the whole sample and 19.5% for the sample with operator data), the use of computer/laptop/tablet connected to WLAN (12.0% and 29.1%, respectively) and data traffic on mobile phones over WLAN (8.1% and 22.3%, respectively) counted for the most part. Less important for the dose measures were exposure from radio and TV broadcast transmitters (brain dose: 0.1% and 0.4%, respectively; whole body dose: 0.3% and 0.9%, respectively) and mobile phone base stations (brain dose: 0.6% and 3.5%, respectively; whole body dose: 2.0% and 4.8%, respectively).

... media usage measures which are not, or only marginally associated with RF-EMF were not associated with figural memory performance (e.g. sending text messages, playing games, and duration/volume of data traffic on the mobile phone). On the other hand, mobile and cordless phone use,which involves RF-EMF exposure, tended to be negatively correlated, although not statistically significant, whereas the dose measures were significantly correlated in many models. The relative high correlation between dose measures and self-reported and objectively recorded mobile phone call duration respectively, limits the possibility to disentangle effects due to RF-EMF exposure or due to other factors associated with mobile phone use.

Since we found stronger associations between RF-EMF doses and figural memory but not verbal memory, one could speculate that this might be due to different brain areas involved in the verbal and figural memory tasks. The type of information being processed determines the brain activity during encoding and retrieval and as a consequence brain activity patterns during figural memory tasks differ fromthose observed during verbal memory tasks. During figural memory processes, encoding elicits bilateral prefrontal activity and retrieval increases the activity in bilateral or right-sided temporal regions and in bilateral prefrontal regions (Beason-Held et al., 2005; Roland and Gulyas, 1995; Wagner et al., 1998). During verbal encoding increases in prefrontal and temporal brain activity in the left hemisphere can be seen (Heun et al., 2000; Iidaka et al., 2000; Reber et al., 2002; Strandberg et al 2011) and during verbal retrieval the activity in bilateral or rightsided prefrontal regions, bilateral or left-sided temporal regions and the anterior cingulate are increased (Beason-Held et al., 2005; Buckner et al., 1998; Cabeza et al., 1997). Stronger overall effects observed for figural memory processes predominantly involving the right hemisphere compared to the verbal memory tasks mostly involving the left hemisphere is compatible with the fact that 81.2% of the study participants reported at follow-up to mainly use mobile phones on the right side but only 18.8% on the left side or with no laterality preference. Strikingly, our laterality analyses indicated indeed stronger associations for right side users for the figural memory task whereas the reverse pattern was seen for the verbal task. However, the sample size of the laterality analysis was small for the subgroup with left side or no side preference for mobile phone use (n= 80).

We considered a number of potential confounders and adjusted model estimates were relatively similar to the crude model estimates, which indicates that confounding seems not to have a substantial impact on the results. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that we have missed a relevant confounder ....

Conclusion

The observed striking pattern with more consistent associations for RF-EMF dose measures compared to usage measures and no indications of associations for negative control exposure variables may indicate that RF-EMF exposure affects the figural memory of adolescents. However, given the complex correlation structure for various exposure measures and the uncertainty in the RF-EMF dose calculation, the observed associations need to be interpreted with caution.

Monday, December 10, 2018

Wireless Radiation TV News

Which wireless radiation risks 
are covered most by TV news in the U.S.?

Since June, 2014, television stations in the U.S have aired more than 200 news stories about health risks from wireless radiation exposure. Almost half of the stories focus on radiation risks from use of a cell phone, including risks to children. About 30% of stories discussed cell tower radiation risks. More than a dozen stories focus on cell towers or Wi-Fi in schools. Other technologies of concern include wireless smart meters and Wi-Fi-emitting devices. 

CBS and its affiliates have provided the most news coverage about wireless radiation and health. Besides CBS national news coverage, almost all major CBS stations have run stories including stations in Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, Chicago, Denver, Des Moines, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Portland, Raleigh, Sacramento, San Antonio, San Francisco, Spokane, and Washington, DC. 

CBS was the only television network to cover the two major wireless policy developments in 2015 (the International EMF Scientist Appeal and the Berkeley cell phone "Right to Know" ordinance), and the only network to cover the release of the California Department of Public Health's cell phone safety guidance in 2017. 

CBS's 60 Minutes has won every broadcast journalism award. In June, 2017, the show aired a story on smartphone addiction,"Hooked on Your Phone?", and in December, 2018, a story on the adverse effects of digital device use on children, "Phones, Tablets, and their Impact on Kids' Brains."  However, 60 Minutes has yet to examine the health risks from the wireless radiation produced by these devices. With the publication of Norm Alster's book,"Captured agency: How the Federal Communications Commission is dominated by the industries it presumably regulates," it is time for 60 Minutes to do an investigative story about why our government has not updated the obsolete wireless regulations adopted in 1997 that fail to protect us from harmful levels of wireless radiation.

The above statistics are based upon Google searches for TV news stories about wireless radiation health risks where a video was posted online; thus, the actual amount of TV news coverage is underestimated.

Links to the TV new stories appear below.


Updated: Dec 5, 2018

Hannah Hilyard, KCCI (Des Moines, IA), Dec 5, 2018

CBS Philadelphia, May 29, 2018

CBS Pittsburgh, Mar 29, 2018

Richie Garza, KTVL (Medford, OR), May 25, 2018

Robert Richardson, WNCN (Raleigh, NC), Mar 28, 2018

I-Team Report: Cell Phone Dangers
Colette Boyd, WNEW (Saginaw, MI), Feb 14, 2018

Do Cellphones Cause Cancer?
Emily Turner, CBS San Francisco, Nov 15, 2017
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Nov 14, 2017
Jennifer McLogan, CBS New York, Oct 19, 2017

Lemor Abrams, CBS Sacramento, Jul 12, 2017
Phil Matier, CBS San Francisco, June 28, 2017
CBS SF Bay Area, Sep 13, 2016

Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Sep 7, 2016

Jon Delano, CBS Pittsburgh, Sep 1, 2016

Mt. Tabor neighbors fight plans for cell towers
Chris Holmstrom, KOIN (Portland, OR), Aug 31, 2016

Addressing health concerns of new KUB smart meters
Heather Burian, WVLT (Knoxville, TN), May 31, 2016


Study reignites concern about cell phones and cancer
Paula Cohen, CBS News, May 27, 2016

WiFi in schools: Is it hurting your child?
Paul Joncich, KLAS (Las Vegas, NV), May 10, 2016

New Research Links Cell Phones To Health Issues In Children
Ami Yensi, CBS Baltimore, May 3, 2016

Cell tower proposed behind middle school causing controversy
WDRW (Columbia County, GA), May 3, 2016

Protester Claims Vice President Biden's Son Died from Cell Phone-Related Brain Cancer 
CBS SF Bay Area, Feb 28, 2016

Could Your Cell Phone Be Harming You?
Tess Leonhardt, WDTV (Bridgeport, WV), Feb 21, 2016

Notre Dame researchers target cell phone radiation
Zach Crenshaw, WSBT (Mishiwaka, IN), Jan 27, 2016

Bay Area Residents Worried About Radiation Face Uphill Battle Fighting Cell Towers
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Jan 12, 2016

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, Live 5 News (Charleston, SC), Nov 6, 2015

SF Residents Battle Wireless Firms Over Super Bowl Building Boom In Neighborhood Cell Antenna Systems
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Oct 31, 2015

Montgomery County parents concerned about wireless routers in schools
Mola Lenghi, WUSA9 (Maryland), Oct 20, 2015

Mark Ackerman, CBS Denver, Jul 9, 2015

Are Wi-Fi Signals Making You Sick?
Marissa Bailey, CBS Chicago, July 1, 2015

People Believe Wi-Fi Is Making Them Sick
Dr. Mallika Marshall, CBS Boston, Jun 8, 2015

Seen At 11: Is Wi-Fi Making You Sick?
CBS New York, May 20, 2015

Why I Declared Our Bedroom A Wireless-Free Zone
Julie Watts, CBS SF Bay Area, May 20, 2015

Special Report: Upgrade Outage
WMMT (Kalamazoo, MI), May 19, 2015

Berkeley Passes Nation’s First Radiation Warning For New Cellphones
CBS SF Bay Area, May 13, 2015
CBS News, May 13, 2015

Elizabeth Hinson, CBS National, May 12, 2015 (last updated May 14, 2015)
       KMOV (St. Louis, MO)
       KPAX (Missoula, MT)
       WCTV (Tallahassee, FL)
       WDTV  (Weston, West Virginia)
       WFMY (Greensboro, NC)
       WIVB (Buffalo, NY)
       WKBN (Youngstown, OH)
       WREQ (Memphis,TN)
       WTSP (Tampa Bay, FL)

Can you get radiation poisoning from your cellphone?
CBS News, May 12, 2015

Woman Cuts Family Off From WiFi Over Health Concerns
Gerri Constant, CBS Los Angeles, May 5, 2015

CBS New York, Mar 6, 2015

Samantha Cortese, KESQ (Palm Desert, CA), Feb 18, 2015 (also ABC affiliate)

In-depth investigation: Examining reports of a cancer cluster at La Quinta Middle School
Natalie Brunnell, KESQ (Palm Desert, CA), Feb 12, 2015 (also ABC affiliate)

KENS (San Antonio, TX), Nov 18, 2015

Cell phone towers raise new concerns about safety
Jason Barry, KPHO (Phoenix), Nov 10, 2015 (updated Nov. 25)

FPL, Foes Of Smart Meters Square Off
CBS Miami, Sep 30, 2014

CBS Pittsburgh, Sep 15, 2014

Brain Cancer Warning Stickers Proposed For Cellphones Sold In Berkeley
CBS SF Bay Area, Aug 22, 2014



Chris Hrapsky, KARE (Minneapolis, MN), Nov 21, 2018
People concerned about 5G as FCC approves installation
Allie Potter, KVOA (Tucson, AZ), Nov 16, 2018

Bob Segall, WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Oct 5, 2018
Rayvan Vares, KOBI (Medford, OR), Sep 22, 2018

Not in my backyard: Are cell towers coming to your neighborhood?
Nate Morabito, WCNC (Charlotte, NC), Jul 27, 2018

Pacific Power Installing Smart Meters in Jackson County
Elizabeth Ruiz, KOBI (Medford, OR), Jul 2, 2018

Palo Alto City Leaders Approve Verizon Cell Towers
Ian Cull, NBC Bay Area, May 22, 2018

Natassia Paloma, KTSM (El Paso, TX), Apr 17, 2018

New Study Links Cancer to Cell Phone Use
Tami Tremblay, KTVB (Boise, ID), Feb 8, 2018

New study reigniting cell phone, cancer debate
Rob Hughes, WCNC (Charlotte, NC), Feb 6, 2018


Study of rats reveals cellphone radiation risk is low
Erika Edwards, NBC Connecticut (West Hartford, CT), Feb 5, 2018
NBC Southern California, Feb 5, 2018

Aiken County Planning Commission recommends denying request for new cell phone tower
Ben Billmyer & Lia Fernandez, WRDW (Aiken County, SC), Jan 18, 2018


New guidance issued for avoiding cell phone radiation
Bob Segall, WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Dec 26, 2017

How worried do we need to be about cell phone radiation?
Sean Franklin, WBIR (Knoxville, TN), Dec 22, 2017

Health officials release guidelines on dangerous cellphone radiation
Madeline Cuddihy, WXIA (Atlanta, GA), Dec 19, 2017

Debate over Cell Towers in Hillsborough
NBC Bay Area, Dec 18, 2017

Proposed bill would cover potential injuries from microwaves, cellphones
Elisha Machado, WWLP (Springfield, MA), Nov 28, 2017

New cellphone tower has some residents concerned
Kaylie Spotts, WNWO (Whitehouse, OH), Sep 4, 2017

Controversial T-Mobile cell phone tower back on Roswell's agenda
Christopher Hopper, WXIA (Atlanta, GA), Jul 11, 2017

Texas teen electrocuted after cell phone incident in bathtub
Presley Fowler, KCBD (Lubbock, Tx), Jul 11, 2017

2 students get cancer; Ripon parents want cell towers removed from schools
Natalie Brunell, KCRA (Sacramento, CA), Jun 20, 2017

Government Study Links Cellphone Radiation to Cancer
NBC Nightly News with Lester Holt, May 27, 2017

Greenbelt Residents Worried About Health Effects of Cellphone Tower
Darcy Spencer, NBC Washington (DC), Apr 25, 2017

Cellphone safety tips to limit radiation exposure
Natalie Brunell, KCRA (Sacramento, CA), Apr 9, 2017

Sign puts Berkeley in center of cellphone debate
Natalie Brunell, KCRA (Sacramento, CA), Apr 9, 2017

How to reduce electromagnetic fields created by electricity
Meredyth Censullo, KFLA (Tampa, FL), Mar 31, 2017

Cell Phone Cancer Debate Heats up With Document Release
Scott Budman, NBC Bay Area, Mar 3, 2017


State health officials accused of keeping cell phone dangers secret
Vicki Gonzalez, KCRA (NBC Sacramento), Mar 3, 2017

Jeff Gillan, KSNV (NBC Las Vegas), Mar 3, 2017

Researchers: Long-term cell phone use may increase your risk for a brain tumor
Bob Segall, WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Feb 21, 2017


Special Report: The Facts about Smart Meters
Joy Wang, WILX (Lansing, MI), Feb 12, 2017

Board denies proposed Greendale cell tower
Rebecca Klopf, WTMJ (Milwaukee, WI), Feb 7, 2017

Radiation-blocking underwear and five other crazy CES gadgets
Matt Granite, WGRZ (Buffalo, NY), Jan 7, 2016
Mark Matthews & Stephen Ellison, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Sep 13, 2016

Jackie Bensen, NBC Washington (DC), Sep 2, 2016

Government study links cell phone radiation to cancer
Maggie Fox, NBC News, May 27, 2016

Piper Glenn residents cite eagles in cell tower fight
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Mar 21, 2016

BGE makes case for another rate hike
George Lettis, WBAL (Baltimore, MD), Mar 18, 2016

North Kingstown teacher says she's being fired because she believes WiFi is health hazard
Brian Crandall, WJAR (Providence, RI), Feb 23, 2016

Kids Face Potential Radiation Danger Using Cell Phones
Shanay Campbell, WSAV (Savannah, GA), Nov 6, 2015

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, WMBF (Myrtle Beach, SC), Nov 6, 2015

Pediatricians express concern over growing cellphone use, radiation exposure for children
Meghan McRoberts, WPTV (West Palm Beach, FL), Nov 6, 2015

Potential radiation danger to kids using cell phones

Shannon Wolfson, KXAN (Austin, TX), Nov 5, 2015

Pediatricians' new warning: Limit children's exposure to cellphones
Danielle Dellorto, NBC Today Show, Nov 5, 2015


Report Examines Cell Phone Radiation
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area, Sep 24, 2015

Group wants cell towers gone
Barry Sims, WBAL (Anne Arundel County, MD), Sep 22, 2015

Neighborhood fights possible new cell tower on church property
Forrest Sanders, WSMV (Nashville, TN), Jul 30, 2015

Residents protest cell tower installation citing health concerns
Sophia Kunthara and Melissa Etezadi, NBC Southern California, Jul 20, 2015


Wireless companies sue Berkeley over cellphone radiation warning ordinance
Tamara Palmer, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Jun 8, 2015

Berkeley approves "Right to Know" cell phone radiation warning ordinance
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area 
 (San Jose, CA), May 12, 2015

West Seattle residents protest new cell phone antennas
Alex Rozier, KING (Seattle, WA), May 7, 2015

Bay Area documentary "Mobilize" examines cell phone dangers
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area 
 (San Jose, CA), Mar 28, 2015


Tonya Simpson & Diane Wilson, WTVD (Raleigh, NC), Oct 1, 2018
Jennifer Emert, WLOS (Asheville, NC), Sep 27, 2018
Vic Lee, KGO (San Mateo, CA), Sep 20, 2018

WJLA (Washington, DC), Apr 6, 2018

Tiffany Neely, KAIT (Jonesboro, AR), Apr 3, 2018

Does cell phone radiation cause cancer? Scientists gather at RTP to discuss
Sam Benson Smith & Zak Dalheimer, KESQ (Thousand Palms, CA), Feb 15, 2018

Katie Marzullo, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Dec 9, 2017

Can mobile phone use lead to health problems?
Abigail Elise, WISN (Milwaukee, WI), May 14, 2017

Long Island Residents Outraged by Cellphone Towers in Front of Homes
N.J. Burkett, WABC (New York, NY), May 11, 2017 

Cell phones and cancer, is there a connection?
Kerri O'Brien, WRIC (Richmond, VA), Mar 20, 2017

CA Health Dept. Releases Report Saying Cellphone Use May Cause Cancer
Lyanne Melendez, KGO (San Franciscom CA), Mar 3, 2017


Parents fight plan to put cell tower near playground at Virginia elementary school
Richard Reeve, Jay Goldberg, WJLA (Washington, DC), Sep 28, 2016

San Jose residents fight cellphone tower proposal over radiation concerns
Lisa Amin Gulezian, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Aug 13, 2016

Alpine residents outraged over EMF levels from Sunrise Powerlink
Ariel Wesler, KGTV (San Diego, CA), Feb 24, 2016


Notre Dame researchers making a faster and safer phone
Brandon Pope, WBND (South Bend, IN), Feb 5, 2016

New concerns over kids and electronics
Shannon Murray, KVUE (Austin, TX), Dec 3, 2015

Parents upset over cell tower possibly being installed near Weho school
Mayde Gomez, KABC (Los Angeles, CA), Dec 1, 2015

City leaders, neighbors raise concerns about cell towers
Kayla Moody, WHAS (Louisville, KY), Oct 28, 2015

Cell phone industry sues city of Berkeley
Lyanne Melendez, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Aug 20, 2015

Alki Beach residents protest plan for cell antennas near school
Theron Zahn, KOMO (Seattle, WA), May 7, 2015

Lake Ronkonkomo residents speak out against proposed cell tower in neighborhood
Kristin Thorne, WABC (New York, NY), Apr 29, 2015

Workers say cell tower sites putting them at risk
Cristin Severance, KGTV (San Diego, CA), Mar 19, 2015 (updated Mar 24, 2015)

Ann Arbor family has power shut off by DTE in dispute over installing new SMART meter on their home
Dave LewAllen, WXYZ (Detroit, MI), Mar 18, 2015

WZZM (Lansing, MI), Dec 2, 2014

WFTV (Orlando, FL), Dec 2, 2014

KSAT (San Antonio), Sep 22, 2014 (updated Sep 23, 2014



Fox News

Town of Union Residents "Devastated" Over Possibility of Cell Tower in Neighborhood
Amanda Pitts, WICZ (Binghamton, NY), Jun 4, 2018

Parents worry cellphone tower could expose children to radiation
Keagan Harsha, KDVR (Denver, CO), Apr 23, 2018


Montgomery County residents fighting rezoning to allow new 5G cell towers
WTTG (Washington, D.C.), April 4, 2018

Could your cell phone be endangering your health?
Jeff Abell, WBFF (Baltimore, MD), Feb 20, 2018

Opposition to cell towers in Hillsborough
Tom Vacar, KTVU (Oakland, CA), Dec 19, 2017

Health officials warn sleeping near cell phone could cause cancer and infertility
Darren Sweeney, WJW (Cleveland, OH), Dec 18, 2017

Family chooses to live with no power rather than a DTE Smart Meter
Danielle Miller, KSAZ (Phoenix, AZ), Feb 22, 2016

Cell phones and fertility
Dr. Devi Nampiaparampil, WNYW (New York City, NY), Feb 21, 2016

Health concerns over Wi-Fi technology exposures in schools
Laura Evans, WTTG (Washington, DC), Feb 15, 2016

Cell Phone Dangers?
Stacey Delikat, WNYW (New York City, NY), Jan 16, 2016

High Point neighbors speak out against cell tower project
Jeremy Finley, WBRC (Franklin, TN), Nov 23, 2015

Pediatricians express concern over growing cellphone use, radiation exposure for children
WFLX (West Palm Beach, FL), Nov 6, 2015

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, Fox Carolina News (Greenville, SC), Nov 6, 2015

Amber Lee, KTVU (Oakland, CA), May 12, 2015

How to spot potential radiation hiding in your home

Fox News (national), Feb 1, 2015

Experts: Why wearable tech could pose health risks
Brooke Crothers, Fox News (national), Oct 20, 2014
Jacqueline Howard, CNN, Feb 7, 2018
Electrosensitivity, Vital Signs with Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Oct 24, 2017 (also CNN International)

Cell phone radiation increases cancers in rats, but should we worry?
Carina Storrs, CNN, May 27, 2016

Kelly Wallace, CNN, May 3, 2016


Other TV News

U.S. Sen. Blumenthal briefing on concerns with possible health risks posed by 5G wireless technology
Congressional news briefing, Connecticut Network (Hartford, CT), Dec 3, 2018

Senator Blumenthal pushes to investigate link between 5G wireless tech and cancer
Hector Ramirez, WTNH (New Haven, CT), Dec 3, 2018

Brandon Berg, KY3 (Springfield, MO), Nov 16, 2018

Sara Girard, WINK (Fort Myers, FL), Nov 7, 2018

Shennikia Grimshaw, WDVM (Montgomery County, MD), Sep 25, 2018

Concern grows over cellphone towers on Crown Heights building
Gabe Slate, KRON, (San Francisco, CA), Apr 17, 2018

Homeowners file lawsuit over potential wireless transmitter health risks
Shari Einhorn, News 12 Long Island, NY, Oct 19, 2017

WGN (Chicago, IL), Jun 6, 2017
WQAD (Moline, IL), Jun 6, 2017

Can Wireless Technology Make You Sick?
Azia Celestino, Channel One News, May 18, 2017

Cell Phone Radiation Warning Law Causes Controversy
Azia Celestino, Channel One News, May 17, 2017

No Wi-Fi or cellphones allowed in the ‘Quietest Town in America’
Julie Unruh, WGN (Chicago, IL), May 15, 2017
CBC Marketplace, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Mar 24, 2017

Berkeley's Cellphone Crusade
The National, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Mar 23, 2017

California Department of Public Health releases draft of document warning against cellphone radiation
Gabe Slate, KRON (San Francisco, CA), Mar 3, 2017

Smart meter opt out fees could be nixed in legislative session

Emily Ikeda, WHAG (Montgomery County, MD), Feb 2, 2017

City Light takes feedback on opt-out for smart meters
Joel Moreno, KOMO (Seattle, WA), Aug 12, 2016

KXII (Denison, TX), Jun 26, 2014