Thursday, October 18, 2018

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Recent News

Martin Röösli. Mobile phone radiation may affect memory performance in adolescents. Medical Xpress. July 20, 2018.
  Radio frequency radiation may have adverse effects on memory performance of specific brain regions exposed during mobile phone use.

Ronnie Cohen. Do cellphones cause cancer? Government study reveals 'stunningly important findings. Newsweek, July 19, 2018.
  Current cellphone safety regulations are based on a premise that is now arguably false: that cellphone radiation can cause harm only by heating tissue.

Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. The inconvenient truth about cancer and mobile phones.The Guardian, July 14, 2018.
  We dismiss claims about mobiles being bad for our health – but is that because studies showing a link to cancer have been cast into doubt by the industry?

Reynard Loki. Our cellphone addiction is turning wireless tech into an invisible weapon that’s destroying wildlife. Salon, July 14, 2018.
  Electromagnetic radiation from Wi-Fi and cell towers poses a “credible risk” to birds, mammals, insects and plants

Lynne Peeples. Should cell phone providers warn customers of health risks? Berkeley says yesMcClatchy News Washington Bureau, July 11, 2018.
  Although the scientific community has not reached consensus, the California health department said research indicates long-term, extensive cellphone use may affect health.

Lynne Peeples. Wireless industry using First Amendment as a cudgel in its battle against safety warningsFairWarning, July 11, 2018.
  Complete version of the article. News websites published the McClatchy version.

Microwave News. "'Clear evidence' of cell phone cancer risk, say leading pathologists." April 9, 2018.
  Why the peer review panel and NTP interpreted the same animal data differently. 

Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. "How big wireless made us think that cell phones are safe: A special investigation.The Nation, March 29, 2018.
  The disinformation campaign—and massive radiation increase—behind the 5G rollout.




Recent Posts on EMR Safety

Special Issue: Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Biology & Medicine
  Nine EMF papers published in a special issue of the International Journal of Radiation Biology.

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields 
  Compilation of over 500 abstracts of scientific papers published since August, 2016.

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?
 "Both oncologic and non-cancerous chronic effects have been suggested."

5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype
  News stories debunk exaggerated benefits of 5G cellular technology.

Research on Smart Phone and Internet Addiction
  Recent studies on dependence or addiction to mobile devices, gaming, or the internet.

  New real-world study of cell phone radiation confirms recommendations in the Department's cell phone safety guidance.

Hybrid & Electric Cars: Electromagnetic Radiation Risks
  Modern automobiles increasingly incorporate EMF-emitting devices that pose a risk to human health.

Wireless Radiation TV News
  Links to over 150 televised news stories about wireless radiation health risks.

  Former NTP scientist defends study; expert reviewer suggests results call for stronger RF exposure guidelines; IARC should upgrade cancer risk.

National Toxicology Program: Peer & public review of cell phone radiation study.
  Experts convened by NTP found "clear evidence" of cancer from cell phone radiation. Official summary now available.

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
 Recent research and policy developments regarding electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

  City Council reaffirms its commitment to defend landmark cell phone "right to know" ordinance against telecom industry lawsuit in the federal courts.

iPhone XS and XR: Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) or RF Exposure
  What are the SAR values for iPhone’s new smart phones? How should consumers use this information?

New Apple Watch Reignites Concerns over Cell Phone Radiation
  How much wireless radiation (cellular, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) is emitted by smart watches? 

ICNIRP’s Exposure Guidelines for Radio Frequency Fields
  ICNIRP requests public input on its radio frequency radiation exposure guidelines. Former NTP scientist critiques ICNIRP.

Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US: Role of Cell Phone & Cordless Phone Use
 The CDC reported that brain cancer incidence among youth 0-20 years of age increased between 2001 and 2014. Also thyroid cancer and lymphoma.

Scientific Evidence of Harm from Cell Phone Radiation: Two Years of Research
  An annotated bibliography which contains 92 papers published in scientific journals during the last two years that report evidence of harm from cell phone radiation exposure.

International Perspective on Health Effects of Low Intensity Non-Ionizing Radiation
  There is an urgent need to recognize hazards associated with excessive exposure to non-thermal levels of electromagnetic fields.

Effects of Cell Phone Use on Adolescents
  Research on adolescents suggests that cell phone use has adverse effects on cognitive processes and memory and the endocrine system and disturbs sleep.

International Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields & Wireless Technology
  242 scientists from 41 nations including 38 from the U.S. have signed the Appeal.

Key Cell Phone Radiation Research Studies

Recent Research on Wi-Fi Effects
  Compilation of recent studies on biologic and health effects from exposure to Wi-Fi radiation.

Female Infertility and Cell Phone Radiation
  Research that investigates the effects of wireless radiation on female fertility.

Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality
  Research that examines the effects of wireless radiation on sperm.

Pregnancy & Wireless Radiation Risks
  Compilation of studies that found harmful effects from fetal exposure to wireless radiation.

5G Moratorium Website Launched
  Official website for 5G Appeal: Over 200 scientists doctors have signed Appeal.

Electromagnetic Fields Threaten Wildlife
 Research review: EMF is potential risk to insect and bird orientation and plant health.

EMF Health Impacts and Policy Change Webinar
  Drs. Frank Barnes, De-Kun Li, & Joel Moskowitz discuss EMF research and implications for policy change. Sponsored by Collaborative for Health & the Environment.

Ramazzini Institute Cell Phone Radiation Study Replicates NTP Study
  Ramazzini Institute replicates heart cancer results from NTP cell phone radiation study.

EMF in biology & medicine: International Journal Radiation Biology

 Special Issue: Electromagnetic fields in biology and medicine (Editorial)

Hinrikus H, Karpowicz J, Naarala J. Special Issue: Electromagnetic fields in biology and medicine. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 2018 Oct;94(10):873-876. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1533359.
No abstract.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29775401

Excerpts

This Special Issue presents the papers reporting further development of ideas delivered and discussed in the special session ‘Electromagnetic fields in biology and medicine’ during the joint conference of the 7th European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference (EMBEC7) and the 17th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics (NBC17), held in Tampere, Finland, June 2017. The focus on the state-of-the-art presentations on non-thermal mechanism(s) and biological responses to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure has been underlined in the call for papers of the EMF special session. Three sub-sessions provided an international forum for presenting and discussing the latest developments in EMF biological and health effects as well as EMF applications in medicine....

Based on the results of scientific investigations, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified extremely low-frequency magnetic field as a possible human carcinogen in 2001 (IARC 2002 IARC. 2002. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2002. Non-ionizing radiation, part 1: static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, No 80. Geneva: WHO Press. [Google Scholar]) and radiofrequency EMF in 2011 (IARC 2013 IARC. 2013. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2013. Non-ionizing radiation, part II: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, No 102. Geneva: WHO Press. [Google Scholar]). Recently, the US National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation has published the results indicating increased cancer risk in rats (NTP 2018 NTP. 2018. NTP Technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies in Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats exposed to whole-body radio frequency radiation at a frequency (900 MHz) and modulations (GSM and CDMA) used by cell phones

... the findings reported in several studies in humans and animals (cellular stress, increase in free radicals, changes in DNA, functional changes in the reproductive system, alterations in the brain bioelectrical activity, learning and memory deficits etc.) at the levels of exposure below the thermal limits as well as several epidemiologic studies suggest the occurrence of EMF biological effects and the possibility of health effect at the levels of EMF exposure less than the set by the ICNIRP reference levels....

... the Parliamentary Assembly Council of Europe in its Resolution 1815 from 2011 recommends ‘reconsider the scientific basis for the present electromagnetic fields exposure standards set by the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection, which have serious limitations and apply “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA) principles, covering both thermal effects and the athermic or biological effects of electromagnetic emissions or radiation’ (Parliamentary Assembly 2011 Parliamentary Assembly. 2011. Council of Europe, Resolution 1815. The potential dangers of electromagnetic fields and their effect on the environment. http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17994 [Google Scholar]). However, only few European countries and cities have followed the recommendation....

The main topics selected for the Special Issue cover some of important aspects of the area: physical and biological mechanisms of radiofrequency radiation effects by Hinrikus et al. and Herrala et al.; response to microwave radiation in physiological systems by Selmanoui et al. and Bachmann et al.; reproductive effects of intermediate frequency magnetic field by Khan et al.; low-frequency magnetic field effect on immune response by Wyszkowska et al. Special attention has been paid to medical applications of EMF including safety problems for implants in two papers by Zradzinski et al.; connectivity between surface and deep bioelectric fields in brain by Jäntti et al.; and practical use of EMF for toxicity assessment of biological suspensions by Muñoz et al....

The ongoing discussions about 5G technology are based on a presumption that, due to very thin skin-layer, the EMF effect occurs only in human skin. However, in the case of real living systems, the processes in different tissues are interconnected. Therefore, excited by EMF skin structures are physiologically connected to deeper systems in body and the affected space can be much deeper....

Threshold of low-level EMF effects

All experimental studies published in the Special Issue have been performed at the EMF levels lower than the reference levels for general public set by the ICNIRP. An only exception is the SAR value of 6 W/kg used as the higher level of exposure in the study by Herrala et al.

The ICNIRP Guidelines are based on thermal interaction mechanism for the RF EMF effects. Therefore, the rise of temperature inside tissue is the only criterion for the possibility of an EMF effect. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is a relevant parameter to describe the intensity of exposure in the case of thermal mechanism. The SAR value, corresponding to the fixed level of induced by EMF increase of temperature, can be considered as the threshold of the EMF effect induced by the thermal interaction mechanism.

In the case of non-thermal interaction mechanisms, the absorbed energy has no more direct linear relationship with the effect. Therefore, SAR becomes irrelevant as a parameter describing the threshold of the EMF effects. Parallel to SAR, the ICNIRP has set the reference levels for electric and magnetic fields strengths and EMF power spectral density, more relevant in the case of nom-thermal interaction mechanisms. Do the reference levels for EM field strengths set by ICNIRP determine the threshold of the non-thermal mechanism of EMF effects?

Rotations of dipolar molecules and radical pairs are known to be evident at the EMF strengths much less than the thermal threshold. The dielectric constant is assumed being constant, therefore, no threshold for dielectric polarization of a medium is expected at low-level exposure. The rotation of dipolar molecules can occur at very weak EMF. Radical pairs are known being sensitive to very weak magnetic fields, for example in birds. In the case of the rotation of dipolar molecules or radical pairs, the physical restrictions determining the minimal field strengths sufficient for the rotation are still unknown.

The threshold of the non-thermal mechanisms of EMF effects needs further theoretical and experimental investigations keeping in mind that the additional affecting factors can influence the threshold of low-level EMF. The oscillating nature of several biological structures, first of all, heart cells and neurons, makes possible parametric excitation of biological oscillations even by very weak periodic external EMF. The impact of parametric excitation depends not only on the strength of periodic force but rather more on the duration of excitation. Chaotic nature of biological systems creates a possibility that a very small initial change in a parameter of the system can cause remarkable alterations of the ongoing processes and finally results in a significant change in the status of the system. Due to diversity of living systems, the sensitivity to low-level EMF is expected to be different for individuals.


Special Issue Papers

Understanding physical mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect

Hinrikus H, Bachmann M, Lass J. Understanding physical mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):877-882. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1478158. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Abstract

PURPOSE:This topic review aims to explain the mechanism of low-level microwave (MW) radiation effect based on published research results. The review presents the analysis of theoretical and experimental results comprising underlying physics and derived biological-physiological consequences supported by experimental data.

CONCLUSIONS: The rotation of dipolar molecules causes polarization of dielectric medium and restructuring of hydrogen bonds between these molecules. The weakened hydrogen bonds decrease viscosity and enhance diffusion at constant temperature. All steps of proposed model have no critical frequency restrictions at MW frequencies and have been confirmed by electromagnetic field (EMF) theory and/or published experimental results. The synchronous cumulative impact of coherent MW electric field makes possible the field-induced effect despite the field strengths are much weaker than intermolecular fields. The rotation of dipolar molecules results in restructuring hydrogen bonds between the molecules despite the energy of MW radiation is much less than the energy of bonding. The cumulative impact of coherent MW field in a medium has been convincingly confirmed by the measurable dielectric permittivity of the medium. The described mechanism of MW field-induced effect confirms that the nature of the effect differs from the thermal effect and that the exposure by MW radiation can create the specific consequences in biology and materials not characteristic for conventional heating.
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Assessment of genotoxicity and genomic instability in rat primary astrocytes exposed to 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation and chemicals

Herrala M, Mustafa E, Naarala J, Juutilainen J. Assessment of genotoxicity and genomic instability in rat primary astrocytes exposed to 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation and chemicals. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):883-889. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1450534. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Abstract

PURPOSE: We examined genotoxicity, co-genotoxicity and induced genomic instability (IGI) in primary astrocytes exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat primary astrocytes were exposed to 872 MHz GSM-modulated or continuous wave (CW) RF radiation at specific absorption rates of 0.6 or 6.0 W/kg for 24 h. Menadione (MQ) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; only in genotoxicity experiments) were used as co-exposures. Alkaline Comet assay and flow cytometric micronucleus scoring were used to detect genetic damage.

RESULTS: No IGI was observed from RF radiation alone or combined treatment with MQ. RF radiation alone was not genotoxic. RF radiation combined with chemical exposure showed some statistically significant differences: increased DNA damage at 6.0 W/kg but decreased DNA damage at 0.6 W/kg in cells exposed to GSM-modulated RF radiation and MQ, and increased micronucleus frequency in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 0.6 W/kg and MMS.

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to GSM modulated RF radiation at levels up to 6.0 W/kg did not induce or enhance genomic instability in rat primary astrocytes. Lack of genotoxicity from RF radiation alone was convincingly shown in multiple experiments. Co-genotoxicity of RF radiation and genotoxic chemicals was not consistently supported by the results.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29528766

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After-effect induced by microwave radiation in human electroencephalographic signal: a feasibility study

Bachmann M, Päeske L, Ioannides AA, Lass J, Hinrikus H. After-effect induced by microwave radiation in human electroencephalographic signal: a feasibility study. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):896-901. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1478164. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Abstract

PURPOSE: This feasibility study is aimed to clarify the possibility of detection of microwave radiation (MWR)-induced event related potential (ERP) in electroencephalographic (EEG) signal.

METHODS: To trigger onset and offset effects in EEG, repetitive MWR stimuli were used. Four 30-channel EEG recordings on a single subject were performed, each about one month apart. The subject was exposed to 450 MHz MWR modulated at 40 Hz at the 1 g peak spatial average specific absorption rate of 0.3 W/kg. During a recording, 40 cycles of 30 s on-off MWR exposure were used. The artifact-free responses to 126 MWR-ON stimuli and 134 MWR-OFF stimuli were averaged over stimuli and channels.

RESULTS: Regarding EEG signals locked to MWR-OFF stimulus, the enhanced signal level at alpha frequency band and about twice higher signal to noise ratio at 200 to 440 ms after the stimulus have been detected. No remarkable response in EEG signals locked to MWR-ON stimulus.

CONCLUSIONS: The detection of offset effect confirms that there should be an imprint generated by MWR in brain. The results of this preliminary study provide evidence for the detection of MWR-induced ERP in EEG signal and encourage further research in this direction.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29775395
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A pilot study on the reproductive risks of maternal exposure to magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance systems

Khan MW, Roivainen P, Herrala M, Tiikkaja M, Sallmén M, Hietanen M, Juutilainen J. A pilot study on the reproductive risks of maternal exposure to magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance systems. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):902-908. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1439197. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Abstract

PURPOSE: We investigated the feasibility of a large-scale epidemiological study on reproductive effects of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic field (MF) exposure among cashiers working near electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort included 4157 women who had worked as cashiers in supermarkets with EAS devices (considered as exposed) or grocery stores without EAS devices (considered as unexposed) between 2008 and 2015. 536 births and 38 miscarriages occurred among these women during the study period, based on information from nationwide health registries. Measurements were also performed to characterize the MF exposure of cashiers.

RESULTS: Cashiers were found to be exposed to 8.2 MHz MFs only when passing by the gates at short distance. Static fields of about 0.1 mT were observed at cashier's seat. Extremely low frequency MFs were higher at stores without EAS devices. No differences on the risk of miscarriage, reduced birth weight or preterm birth were observed between cashiers in different store types.

CONCLUSIONS: Any further studies should attempt to include study subjects working near EAS systems that produce stronger IF MFs at kHz frequencies. Exposure to ELF MFs should be assessed as a possible confounding factor.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29419348
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Evaluation of the influence of in vivo exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats

Wyszkowska J, Jędrzejewski T, Piotrowski J, Wojciechowska A, Stankiewicz M, Kozak W. Evaluation of the influence of in vivo exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):909-917. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1503428. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Abstract

PURPOSE: Epidemiological data suggest that there is a link between exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs), immune response, and the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. The exact nature of this phenomenon remains speculative and requires detailed laboratory investigation. In the present study, we evaluate changes in plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines as well as alternations of the hematological parameters in rats exposed to an ELF-MF.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were repeatedly exposed for either 1 h/day for 7 days, or continuously for 24 h, to a sinusoidal ELF-MF (50 Hz, 7 mT). Control groups were sham exposed for either 1 h/day for 7 days, or continuously for 24 h, respectively. The levels of cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma obtained from blood samples were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in blood parameters were determined using an automatic hematology analyzer in whole blood samples immediately after collection.

RESULTS: We found that a single continuous (lasting 24 h) exposure provoked a significant increase of the plasma IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-2 levels, and caused an elevation in blood parameters, such as white blood cells, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels. In contrast, however, repetitive exposure of rats to an ELF-MF for 1 h/day for 7 days did not lead to any changes in plasma levels of cytokines and hematological counts.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on these data we conclude that exposure duration (dose-response) plays a significant role in the immune response, specifically at the cellular level. While single 24 h-lasting exposure provoked changes that indicate an immune alarm stimulation, under the conditions which are typical for therapeutic use of ELF-MFs (repeated short daily exposure) the immune potentially harmful response has not been observed.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30028649
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Evaluation of the inter-person variability of hazards to the users of BAHA hearing implants caused by exposure to a low frequency magnetic field

Zradziński P. Evaluation of the inter-person variability of hazards to the users of BAHA hearing implants caused by exposure to a low frequency magnetic field.

Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):918-925. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1454619. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Abstract

PURPOSE: In this work, the inter-person variability of hazards caused by a low frequency magnetic field exposure (of various polarization and homogeneity near to the magneto therapy applicator) to users of bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA) hearing implants were investigated with respect to various head structures.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effects of exposure were evaluated by numerical simulations of the electric field (Ein) induced in head phantoms (regular or with implant model). Phantoms mimic head dimensions and thicknesses of layers of skin, fat, skull bones, and brain.

RESULTS:The values of Ein obtained in the phantom of the BAHA user's head were several times (up to 4.5) higher than in a regular person. The highest differences in Ein values were found in the skin and fat tissues - up to 80% in phantoms of various structures (statistically significant differences related to various tissues thicknesses, not-significant with relation to phantom dimensions - Kruskal-Wallis test with Bonferroni correction, p < .017) and up to 3 times with magnetic field spatial distribution (statistically significant with different polarization).

CONCLUSIONS:The results support the need to assess the electromagnetic fields hazards to individual implant user exposed to the magnetic field at a level approaching the exposure limits set by international guidelines.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29557703
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In silico modelling of influence from low or intermediate frequency magnetic fields on users of wearable insulin pumps

Zradziński P, Karpowicz J, Gryz K. In silico modelling of influence from low or intermediate frequency magnetic fields on users of wearable insulin pumps. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):926-933. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2017.1419305. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Abstract

PURPOSE: The aim was to model the effects of exposure to a low or intermediate frequency electromagnetic field (LIF-EMF), characterized by the electric field induced in the body, in order to evaluate how the type of insulin needle and the way it is injected influences the exposed user of a wearable insulin pump.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Numerical models of exposure scenarios (sources of LIF-EMF, with a dominant magnetic component: 50Hz-1MHz; the insulin needle type; the way it is injected and insulin pump user) were worked out. The influence of the insulin needle on the user's safety (the ratio of the induced electric field in tissues surrounding the needle and tissues of a person without an injection, both exposed identically) were calculated.

RESULTS. The effects of LIF-EMF exposure in insulin pump users were found to be up to approximately 7-times higher, varying with statistically significance (p < .05) with the material of the needle, the way it is injected and the polarization of the affecting magnetic field.

CONCLUSIONS: When steel insulin needles is used, the assessment of user's EMF exposure should be carried out using magnetic field limits at least 5-times lower than given in general international requirements.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29265909
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Electroencephalographic signals during anesthesia recorded from surface and depth electrodes

Jäntti V, Ylinen T, Subramaniyam NP, Kamata K, Yli-Hankala A, Kauppinen P, Sonkajärvi E.Electroencephalographic signals during anesthesia recorded from surface and depth electrodes. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):934-943. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1478159. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Abstract

PURPOSE: Anesthesiologists have increasingly started to use EEG-based indexes to estimate the level and type of unconsciousness. However, the physiology and biophysics are poorly understood in anesthesiological literature.

METHODS: EEG was recorded from electrodes on the surface of head, including scalp, as well as DBS (deep brain stimulation) electrodes implanted deep in the brain. Mathematical modeling with a realistic head model was performed to create illustrative images of the sensitivity of electrode montages.

RESULTS: EEG pattern of anesthesia, burst-suppression, is recordable outside of scalp area as well in the depth of brain because the EEG current loops produce recordable voltage gradients in the whole head. The typical electrodes used in anesthesia monitoring are most sensitive to basal surface of frontal lobes as well as frontal and mesial parts of temporal lobes.

CONCLUSIONS: EEG currents create closed-loops, which flow from the surface of the cortex and then return to the inside of the hemispheres. In the case of widespread synchronous activity like physiological sleep or anesthesia, the currents recorded with surface and depth electrodes return through the base of brain and skull. 

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Toxicity assessment of biological suspensions using the dielectric impedance spectroscopy technique

Muñoz S, Sebastián JL, Antoranz P, García-Cambero JP, Sanchis-Otero A.Toxicity assessment of biological suspensions using the dielectric impedance spectroscopy technique. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):944-950. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1439196. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Abstract

PURPOSE: This article studies the variation of the electromagnetic parameters of a suspension of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to assess its potential applications to toxicological and biomedical research areas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose, the dielectric impedance spectroscopy technique is applied to a modified coaxial line enclosing the biological suspension to be characterized in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 100 MHz. The electrical parameters of the suspension under test were obtained by fitting the impedance spectra to the resulted from the simulation of the test fixture using finite elements (FE).

RESULTS: Variation of the complex permittivity of the suspensions makes possible to identify viable and non-viable embryos after a toxic exposure, as well as different stages during the blastula period of embryonic development of the zebrafish.

CONCLUSIONS: The approach presented here, combining experimental and simulation techniques, may provide a basis for a non-invasive method to assess toxicity in any biological suspension.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29431558

Tuesday, October 16, 2018

5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype

The CTIA, the wireless industry trade association, has launched an advertising campaign entitled, "The Global Race to 5G." The ads claim that unless the U.S. wins this "global race" to become the first nation to deploy the fifth generation of wireless technology or 5G, we will not reap the economic benefits of this technology. 

The CTIA claims that "compared to today's 4G networks, 5G will be up to 100x faster, support 100x more devices, and provide a 5x faster response time." Moreover, the association asserts that the nation's wireless industry is prepared to invest $275 billion in 5G which will yield three million new jobs and $500 billion in economic growth. If we win the global race, the "next-generation of wireless will drive $2.7 trillion of new economic benefits to American families and businesses."

The CTIA has denied for decades that there are adverse health effects from exposure to wireless radiation. By establishing a revolving door between its leadership and the FCC's, the CTIA ensures that the federal regulatory agency maintains the inadequate, obsolete radio frequency exposure limits which the FCC adopted in 1996.

The FCC and federal health agencies have been oblivious to the health concerns raised by more than 230 scientists from 41 nations who have published peer-reviewed research on the biologic or health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.

This September more than 180 scientists and doctors from 35 countries signed a declaration demanding a moratorium on the planned increase of cell antennas for 5G deployment in the European Union. Concerns over health effects from higher radiation exposure include potential neurological impacts, infertility, and cancer.

The following excerpts were extracted from a 23-page special report from RCR Wireless that cuts through much of the hype surrounding the deployment of 5G. The excerpts are direct quotes from the report.

RCR Wireless is a trade publication that has reported on the wireless industry and wireless technology since 1982.

Transitioning to a 5G World

Kelly Hill, RCR Wireless, Nov. 2017

Excerpts from the Report
Hype is certainly high for 5G, given that the industry is still technically in a pre-standard phase and that standalone 5G systems are still some time off.
5G is coming even faster than originally expected. In December, the first official specification from the Third Generation Partnership Project is expected to be released; 5G New Radio will finally make its standardized debut – although like Long Term Evolution, 5G will continue to evolve and be refined in the coming years.
“5G will not replace LTE,” Rysavy Research concluded in an August report for the GSMA. “In most deployments, the two technologies will be tightly integrated and co-exist through at least the late-2020s.”
Although the industry is preparing for 5G, LTE [4G] capabilities will continue to improve in LTE Advanced Pro through the rest of the decade,”  Rysavy wrote .... 5G will eventually play an important role, but it must be timed appropriately so that the jump in capability justifies the new investment.
KT, for example, plans to support two different frequencies from the get-go in its 5G network: 3.5 GHz as an anchor with better propagation, complemented by 28 GHz in dense areas. Given that networks are expected to initially be 4G/5G networks, testing will have to continue to support LTE alongside 5G.
Hurtarte of LitePoint noted that although “millimeter wave” tends to be treated as one category, there are significant differences between the components and frequency planning needed at 28 GHz versus 39 GHz. In addition, although some frequencies are widely agreed upon, there are other frequencies that may get the nod for 5G use: 24 GHz in China, possibly 40-43 Ghz and possibly even above 70 GHz.
There are some major challenges to the success of 5G, which are all interrelated: the move to mmwave, the need for ultra-density, and the question of when the economics of 5G will actually work well enough to take off.
Mmwave [millimeter wave] provides the huge bandwidths that are needed for fast speeds and high capacity, but the higher the frequency, the shorter its range and more susceptible it is to being easily blocked and reflected (thus the need for beamforming in order to focus the energy more tightly). Seasonal foliage, energy efficient glass windows with special coatings, and standard housing materials all present effective barriers to mmwave reaching indoors to customer premise equipment, operators and vendors have found in their field testing.
Denisowski pointed out that fixed wireless is one thing, but moving objects are another. Obstruction, not radiating sources of energy, is likely to be the main cause of interference in 5G systems: vehicles driving back and forth, or even wind farms can scatter microwave radiation.
Density of foliage “plays a big role,” said Thadasina of Samsung, which has been working with a number of carriers on 5G trials. “What we found is that for the mmwave signal, as it penetrated through trees, the thickness of the trees matters. Initially the impedence offered by foliage is linear, but beyond a certain density it is no longer linear … it kills the signal.” Building materials are well-known to play a role in transmission from outdoors to indoors, he added, but the angle of incidence does as well. The difference between 30 degrees to 60 degrees to 90 degrees can create additional impedance, Thadasina said, “some of those things make it challenging in terms of closing the link.” Moisture levels play a role as well, he said ....
Fiber is fuel for 5G, and its prevalence is increasing. SNL Kagan found earlier this year that global fiber residential investment increased sharply in 2016, and that fiber is on track to reach 1 billion subscribers by 2021. Meanwhile, in the U.S., Vertical Systems Group reported that 49.6% of multi-tenant and enterprise buildings had access to fiber last year, compared to only 10% in 2004.

Deloitte said earlier this year that it expects to see $130 billion-$150 billion in “deep fiber” investment in the U.S. over 5-7 years, due to a combination of broadband competition, ensuring 5G readiness, and expanding fiber into new areas.

Murphy of Nokia said that operators should expect that, depending on which frequency they deploy in, they will need 2.5 to 10 times as many sites as they have now. That’s a tall order, especially given that small cell sites in cellular frequencies can take 18 to 24 months to get site approvals – scaling small cells has been hard enough in LTE, with the market moving much more slowly than analysts had predicted or carriers would like.
“It’s going to take a long time,” Einbinder said. “Constructing a cell tower is hard. A micro-cell has a lot of the same issues”: power and fiber and access to a site, which a community may be reluctant to grant – California, for instance, recently rejected a measure passed at the state level that would have streamlined processes for small cells.
... Einbinder thinks that some communities will take initiative and want to be 5G economic centers. While that’s encouraging for operators, it may also mean that 5G coverage maps look very different from the familiar red, blue, yellow and magenta maps indicating nationwide coverage. “The resulting coverage maps might have a lot more to do with [communities] than any economic or technological drivers – it’s going to be driven by local preference.”
While early work estimated that as many as 40 to 50 homes could be covered by a single fixed wireless site, according to Rouault of EXFO, that number has turned out to be around five in testing because of the complexity of beamforming necessary to support multiple homes. “It’s not at the point we would say the verdict is out,” Rouault added. “The technology is proven to work, but to make the business case work, the scale is the problem right now.”
So the biggest question is where a breakthrough is going to happen that becomes the point at which 5G becomes a more attractive investment than LTE. “What can 5G do that other systems can’t? This is where there is no clear answer,” said Hemant Minocha, EVP for device and IoT at TEOCO. There is no 5G requirement for IoT [Internet of Things], he points out, and the business case hasn’t yet been proven out for ultra-low latency (not to  mention that LTE is capable of lower latency than it has achieved to this point in networks).
Key Takeaways:
• The industry is moving quickly toward 5G, with momentum in testing and trials. The first official 5G specification from 3GPP is expected in December, with a protocol-focused release coming in the spring of 2018.
• Many features and architectures in LTE, particularly gigabit LTE, will both underpin future 5G networks and provide lessons learned in making 5G systems work. These include dense fiber deployment, higher-order and massive MIMO, network slicing, virtualization, and mobile edge computing.
• The biggest challenge for 5G lies in a millimeter-wave based RAN, with significant challenges ahead for designing and deploying a workable, optimized and profitable mmwave network on a large scale.

The RCR Wireless report, "Transitioning to a 5G World," can be downloaded at http://bit.ly/5Ghype.


Related posts:


Dexter Johnson, IEEE Spectrum, Oct 11, 2018

Kieren McCarthy, The Register, Sep 19, 2018
John C. Dvorak, PC Magazine, Aug 22, 2018.

Ed Sperling, Semiconductor Engineering. Aug 22, 2018.

Jof Enriquez, RF Globalnet, June 1, 2018

The ‘Race to 5G’ Is Just Mindless Marketing Bullshit
Karl Bode, Motherboard, May 4, 2018

MWC and the 5G Hype Machine Keep on Giving, and Giving and Giving...
Ernest Worthman, AGL Media Group, Apr 19, 2018
David Lazarus, Los Angeles Times, Jan 9, 2018

Upgrade to 5G Costs $200 Billion a Year, May Not Be Worth It
Olga Kharif and Scott Moritz, Bloomberg, Dec 18, 2017

Impact of EMF Limits on 5G Network Rollout
Christer Tornevik, ITU Workshop on 5G, EMF and Health, Dec 5, 2017

Microwave Radiation Coming to a Lamppost near You
Merinda Teller, MPH, PhD, Weston A. Price Foundation, Dec 1, 2017

5G Is Not the Answer For Rural Broadband
Larry Thompson and Warren Vande Stadt, Broadband Communities. March/April, 2017

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?

See the bottom of this page for additional resources.


Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G 
Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose

Neufeld E, Kuster N. Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Phys. 2018 Sep 21. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000930.

Abstract

Extreme broadband wireless devices operating above 10 GHz may transmit data in bursts of a few milliseconds to seconds. Even though the time- and area-averaged power density values remain within the acceptable safety limits for continuous exposure, these bursts may lead to short temperature spikes in the skin of exposed people. In this paper, a novel analytical approach to pulsed heating is developed and applied to assess the peak-to-average temperature ratio as a function of the pulse fraction α (relative to the averaging time [INCREMENT]T; it corresponds to the inverse of the peak-to-average ratio). This has been analyzed for two different perfusion-related thermal time constants (τ1 = 100 s and 500 s) corresponding to plane-wave and localized exposures. To allow for peak temperatures that considerably exceed the 1 K increase, the CEM43 tissue damage model, with an experimental-data-based damage threshold for human skin of 600 min, is used to allow large temperature oscillations that remain below the level at which tissue damage occurs. To stay consistent with the current safety guidelines, safety factors of 10 for occupational exposure and 50 for the general public were applied. The model assumptions and limitations (e.g., employed thermal and tissue damage models, homogeneous skin, consideration of localized exposure by a modified time constant) are discussed in detail. 

The results demonstrate that the maximum averaging time, based on the assumption of a thermal time constant of 100 s, is 240 s if the maximum local temperature increase for continuous-wave exposure is limited to 1 K and α ≥ 0.1. For a very low peak-to-average ratio of 100 (α ≥ 0.01), it decreases to only 30 s. The results also show that the peak-to-average ratio of 1,000 tolerated by the International Council on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30247338


5G wireless telecommunications expansion: 
Public health and environmental implications

Russell CL. 5G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. Environmental Research. Available online 11 April 2018. In press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016.

Abstract

The popularity, widespread use and increasing dependency on wireless technologies has spawned a telecommunications industrial revolution with increasing public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a variety of devices and infrastructure. On the horizon, a new generation of even shorter high frequency 5G wavelengths is being proposed to power the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT promises us convenient and easy lifestyles with a massive 5G interconnected telecommunications network, however, the expansion of broadband with shorter wavelength radiofrequency radiation highlights the concern that health and safety issues remain unknown. Controversy continues with regards to harm from current 2G, 3G and 4G wireless technologies. 5G technologies are far less studied for human or environmental effects.

It is argued that the addition of this added high frequency 5G radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome both from both physical and mental health perspectives.

Radiofrequency radiation (RF) is increasingly being recognized as a new form of environmental pollution. Like other common toxic exposures, the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR) will be problematic if not impossible to sort out epidemiologically as there no longer remains an unexposed control group. This is especially important considering these effects are likely magnified by synergistic toxic exposures and other common health risk behaviors. Effects can also be non-linear. Because this is the first generation to have cradle-to-grave lifespan exposure to this level of man-made microwave (RF EMR) radiofrequencies, it will be years or decades before the true health consequences are known. Precaution in the roll out of this new technology is strongly indicated.

This article will review relevant electromagnetic frequencies, exposure standards and current scientific literature on the health implications of 2G, 3G, 4G exposure, including some of the available literature on 5G frequencies. The question of what constitutes a public health issue will be raised, as well as the need for a precautionary approach in advancing new wireless technologies.

Conclusion

Although 5G technology may have many unimagined uses and benefits, it is also increasingly clear that significant negative consequences to human health and ecosystems could occur if it is widely adopted. Current radiofrequency radiation wavelengths we are exposed to appear to act as a toxin to biological systems. A moratorium on the deployment of 5G is warranted, along with development of independent health and environmental advisory boards that include independent scientists who research biological effects and exposure levels of radiofrequency radiation. Sound regulatory policy regarding current and future telecommunications initiative will require more careful assessment of risks to human health, environmental health, public safety, privacy, security and social consequences. Public health regulations need to be updated to match appropriate independent science with the adoption of biologically based exposure standards prior to further deployment of 4G or 5G technology.

Considering the current science, lack of relevant exposure standards based on known biological effects and data gaps in research, we need to reduce our exposure to RF EMR where ever technically feasible. Laws or policies which restrict the full integrity of science and the scientific community with regards to health and environmental effects of wireless technologies or other toxic exposures should be changed to enable unbiased, objective and precautionary science to drive necessary public policies and regulation. Climate change, fracking, toxic emissions and microwave radiation from wireless devices all have something in common with smoking. There is much denial and confusion about health and environmental risks, along with industry insistence for absolute proof before regulatory action occurs (Frentzel-Beyme, 1994; Michaels 2008). There are many lessons we have not learned with the introduction of novel substances, which later became precarious environmental pollutants by not heeding warning signs from scientists (Gee, 2009). The threats of these common pollutants continue to weigh heavily on the health and well being of our nation. We now accept them as the price of progress. If we do not take precautions but wait for unquestioned proof of harm will it be too late at that point for some or all of us?



Related Posts


The human skin as a sub-THz receiver - Does 5G pose a danger to it or not?

Betzalel N, Ben Ishai P, Feldman Y. The human skin as a sub-THz receiver - Does 5G pose a danger to it or not? Environ Res. 2018 May;163:208-216. 

Highlights

• The sweat duct is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band, reflectance depends on perspiration.
• We outline the background for non-thermal effects based on the structure of sweat ducts.
• We have introduced a realistic skin EM model and found the expected SAR for the 5G standard.


Abstract

In the interaction of microwave radiation and human beings, the skin is traditionally considered as just an absorbing sponge stratum filled with water. In previous works, we showed that this view is flawed when we demonstrated that the coiled portion of the sweat duct in upper skin layer is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band. 

Experimentally we showed that the reflectance of the human skin in the sub-THz region depends on the intensity of perspiration, i.e. sweat duct's conductivity, and correlates with levels of human stress (physical, mental and emotional). Later on, we detected circular dichroism in the reflectance from the skin, a signature of the axial mode of a helical antenna. The full ramifications of what these findings represent in the human condition are still unclear. We also revealed correlation of electrocardiography (ECG) parameters to the sub-THz reflection coefficient of human skin. In a recent work, we developed a unique simulation tool of human skin, taking into account the skin multi-layer structure together with the helical segment of the sweat duct embedded in it. The presence of the sweat duct led to a high specific absorption rate (SAR) of the skin in extremely high frequency band. 

In this paper, we summarize the physical evidence for this phenomenon and consider its implication for the future exploitation of the electromagnetic spectrum by wireless communication. Starting from July 2016 the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has adopted new rules for wireless broadband operations above 24 GHz (5 G). This trend of exploitation is predicted to expand to higher frequencies in the sub-THz region. One must consider the implications of human immersion in the electromagnetic noise, caused by devices working at the very same frequencies as those, to which the sweat duct (as a helical antenna) is most attuned. 

We are raising a warning flag against the unrestricted use of sub-THz technologies for communication, before the possible consequences for public health are explored.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29459303

Excerpt

The need for high data transmission rates, coupled with advances in semiconductor technology, is pushing the communications industry towards the sub-THz frequency spectrum. While the promises of a glorious future, resplendent with semi-infinite data streaming, may be attractive, there is a price to pay for such luxury. We shall find our cities, workspace and homes awash with 5 G base stations and we shall live though an unprecedented EM smog. The benefits to our society of becoming so wired cannot ignore possible health concerns, as yet unexplored. There is enough evidence to suggest that the combination of the helical sweat duct and wavelengths approaching the dimensions of skin layers could lead to non-thermal biological effects. Such fears should be investigated and these concerns should also effect the definition of standards for the application of 5G communications.


Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink

Nasim I, Kim S. Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink. Submitted on 10 Nov 2017 to IEEE International Communications Conference. arXiv:1711.03683v1.

Abstract

While cellular communications in millimeter wave (mmW) bands have been attracting significant research interest, their potential harmful impacts on human health are not as significantly studied. Prior research on human exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields in a cellular communications system has been focused on uplink only due to the closer physical contact of a transmitter to a human body. However, this paper claims the necessity of thorough investigation on human exposure to downlink RF fields, as cellular systems deployed in mmW bands will entail (i) deployment of more transmitters due to smaller cell size and (ii) higher concentration of RF energy using a highly directional antenna. In this paper, we present human RF exposure levels in downlink of a Fifth Generation Wireless Systems (5G). Our results show that 5G downlink RF fields generate significantly higher power density (PD) and specific absorption rate (SAR) than a current cellular system. This paper also shows that SAR should also be taken into account for determining human RF exposure in the mmW downlink.


Towards 5G Communication Systems: 
Are there Health Implications?

Di Ciaula A. Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications? Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Feb 2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.01.011.

Highlights
• RF-EMF exposure is rising and health effects of are still under investigation.
• Both oncologic and non-cancerous chronic effects have been suggested.
• 5G networks could have health effects and will use MMW, still scarcely explored.
• Adequate knowledge of RF-EMF biological effects is also needed in clinical practice.
• Underrating the problem could lead to a further rise in noncommunicable diseases.
Abstract

The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance. 


In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW). 

Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics. 

Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402696


--

Aug 18, 2017 (Updated Sep 27, 2017)

Scientists and Physicians Oppose
"Small Cell" Antenna Bill (Calif. SB 649)

I have been hearing from scientists around the world who are deeply concerned about the deployment of fifth generation (5G) wireless technology without adequate research on the health effects of exposure to this type of radio frequency radiation.

Following is a sample of letters sent to California Governor Brown asking him to veto SB 659, a "small cell" antenna bill written by the cellular industry that paves the way for deployment of 5G wireless technology across the state.

Professor Beatrice Golomb, MD, PhD, a professor of medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Golomb's letter begins with the following warning:
"I urge in the strongest terms that you vigorously oppose California SB 649.
If this bill passes, many people will suffer greatly, and needlessly, as a direct result. 
This sounds like hyperbole. It is not.
My research group at UC San Diego alone has received hundreds of communications from people who have developed serious health problems from electromagnetic radiation, following introduction of new technologies. Others with whom I am in communication, have independently received hundreds of similar reports. Most likely these are a tip of an iceberg of tens or perhaps hundreds of thousands of affected person. As each new technology leading to further exposure to electromagnetic radiation is introduced – and particularly introduced in a fashion that prevents vulnerable individuals from avoiding it – a new group become sensitized to health effects. This is particularly true for pulsed signals in the radiowave and microwave portion of the spectrum, the type for which the proposed bill SB 640 will bypass local control."
In the letter, Dr. Golomb summarizes the research on the effects of exposure to radio frequency radiation and advocates for "safer, wired and well shielded technology – not more wireless." 

Appended to the letter are 360 references to the scientific literature.

The letter can be downloaded at: http://bit.ly/SB649Golomb822.


Professor Martin Pall, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences at Washington State University, explains in his letter to the Governor his peer-reviewed research which has documented ...
"exquisite sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the voltage sensors in each cell, such that the force impacting our cells at the voltage sensor has massive impact on the biology in the cells of our bodies."
"This new understanding [1-7] means we can debunk the claims of the wireless industry that there cannot be a mechanism for effects produced by these weak EMFs. The 20 years plus of industry propaganda claims are false. Rather the thousands of studies showing diverse health impacts of these EMFs can be explained. We now have a mechanism, one that is supported by both the biology and the physics, both of which are pointing in exactly the same direction."
"5G will be much more active in activating the VGCCs and producinghealth impacts because of its rapid absorption by materials in the body, because of its very rapid pulsations and because of the huge number antennae they are planning to put up, at least 200 times the number of antennae from all current cell phone towers. What this means is that the impacts on the outer one to two inches of our bodies will be massive."

His letter discusses the potential health impacts on humans and on agriculture with exposure to 5G radiation.

The letter can be downloaded at: http://bit.ly/SB649Pall


Dr. Michael Lipsett, MD, JD, a retired public health physician with extensive experience in environmental health, mentions in his letter the recent demand for a 5G moratorium by more than 180 scientists and physicians and the study of cell phone radiation conducted by the National Toxicology Program

He points out that while individuals can take precautions to reduce their exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by wireless devices, this is not feasible with exposure from cell antennas. He notes that ...
"laboratory and human health investigations designed and conducted by independent researchers have reported associations linking exposure to radiation from cell phones or similar devices with multiple adverse effects (e.g., headaches, impacts on brain function, memory, learning and sleep; decreased sperm counts and quality) as well as with DNA damage and tumors of the brain and nervous system."
"Potential health impacts of wireless communication have been ignored or obscured for decades by the telecommunications industry, which has implied that cell phones and other devices are safe because they comply with federal safety standards. However, these standards were established more than 20 years ago and were based on assumptions that have since been called into question by health research studies. The push to establish a 5G network, exemplified by SB 649, is based on a similarly unproven assumption: i.e., that round-the-clock exposure to 5G frequencies will not affect human health or the environment.
Establishment of a 5G network will be irreversible, as will the pattern of near-universal exposure of California residents to high-frequency, as-yet-untested 5G electromagnetic radiation."
The letter can be downloaded at: http://bit.ly/LipsettSB649.

--

June 23, 2017


EMF Scientist Appeal Advisors Call for Moratorium on Policies 
for 5G “Small Cell” Antennas


The advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal submitted a letter to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in opposition to a proposed change in FCC rules that would allow rapid deployment of 5th generation (5G) wireless infrastructure throughout the nation. A copy of the Appeal was appended to the letter.

5G involves transmission of millimeter waves which operate at much higher frequencies than currently used for cellular transmission (30 to 300 gigahertz). Because the range of these signals is limited (i.e., less than a football field), hundreds of thousands of new “small cell” antennas will be required in the U.S. The wireless industry wants to install these not-so-small cellular antennas on existing public utility poles.

The FCC intends to streamline the approval of these antennas which would further undermine the regulatory authority of cities and states over cell towers.

Meanwhile the wireless industry is lobbying for legislation in many states across the country that would limit local authority over cell antenna deployment.

Due to the concern that the FCC’s new rules will result in increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), the Appeal’s advisors oppose the new rules and call for a “public health review of the growing body of scientific evidence that includes reports of increasing rates of cancer and neurological diseases that may be caused by exposure to EMF from wireless sources.”

The Appeal reflects the concerns of 225 EMF experts from 41 nations about the impact of EMF exposure on public health. All of the experts who signed this appeal have published research in peer-reviewed scientific journals about the biologic or health effects of EMF.

According to the Appeal’s signatories, current national and international EMF exposure guidelines are obsolete and inadequate to protect human health and the environment. The FCC’s radio frequency guidelines were adopted in 1996.

The letter (dated June 9, 2017) is signed by the five advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal: Drs. Martin Blank, Magda Havas, Henry Lai, and Joel Moskowitz, and Elizabeth Kelley.

For more information:

FCC filing detail   (June 9, 2017)

--

May 8, 2017


A 5G Wireless Future: 
Will it give us a smart nation or contribute to an unhealthy one?

Dr. Cindy Russell, The (SCCMA) Bulletin, Jan/Feb 2017
Safety testing for 5G is the same as other wireless devices. It is based on heat. This is an obsolete standard and not considering current science showing cellular and organism harm from non-thermal effects. There is a large gap in safety data for 5G biological effects that has been demonstrated in older studies including military.
Recommendations
1. Do not proceed to roll out 5G technologies pending pre-market studies on health effects.
2. Reevaluate safety standards based on long term as well as short term studies on biological effects.
3. Rescind a portion of Section 704 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 which preempts state and local government regulation for the placement, construction, and modification of personal wireless service facilities on the basis of the environmental effects so that health and environmental issues can be addressed.
4. Rescind portions of The Spectrum Act which was passed in 2012 as part of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act, which strips the ability city officials and local governments to regulate cellular communications equipment, provides no public notification or opportunity for public input and may potentially result in environmental impacts.
5. Create an independent multidisciplinary scientific agency tasked with developing appropriate safety regulations, pre-market testing and research needs in a transparent environment with public input.
6. Label pertinent EMF information on devices along with appropriate precautionary warnings.
Dr. Russell provides a brief review of the research on millimeter wave bioeffects in this article: http://bit.ly/5GRussell.

--

Aug 17, 2016 (Updated Aug 19)

5G cellular technology will employ much higher frequency microwaves than current cell phone technologies: 2G, 3G, and 4G.  These microwaves, known as millimeter waves, won't penetrate building materials like the current technology which is why industry may need one cell antenna base station for every 12 homes. 
But millimeter waves can affect your eyes and penetrate your skin.

When the Los Angeles Times reporter contacted me for the story below, I did a quick search and found several recently published articles examining biological effects of millimeter waves (see references below). This form of microwave radiation is most likely to affect our skin and neuronal cells in the upper dermis.

Moreover, widespread adoption of 5G cellular technology in the U.S. may have profound effects on our ecosystem by altering bacteria, possibly creating harmful bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.

History has proved that we cannot trust the FCC and the FDA to protect our health from microwave radiation exposure.


I submitted an open letter to the FCC in July calling for "an independent review of the biologic and health research to determine whether the RF standards should be modified before allowing additional spectrum to be used for new commercial applications."

Moreover, the FCC has ignored the 800-plus submissions that call upon the agency to adopt rigorous radio frequency standards to protect the public’s health. Instead the agency maintains its 20-year old exposure guidelines that control only for heating or thermal risks. The FDA has ignored the thousands of studies that find nonthermal biologic effects, and the human studies that find a wide range of health effects including increased cancer risk and reproductive harm from exposure to low intensity microwaves.
In my opinion, precaution is warranted before unleashing 5G technology on the world. I suspect most of the 221 scientists who signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal (referenced in the article below), would support this assertion.

However, more research is also needed as specific characteristics of the millimeter waves (e.g., pulsing, modulation) to be employed in 5G cellular technology may be more important than the frequency or intensity of the waves in terms of biologic and health effects. The research funding must be independent of industry as conflicts of interest have been found to undermine the science in this field.
For an unbiased summary of the partial findings of the National Toxicology Program study of cancer risk from 2G cell phone radiation, see http://www.saferemr.com/2016/05/national-toxicology-progam-finds-cell.html.

--

 Low-intensity millimeter waves 
used for pain therapy have side effects

The Russians have pioneered millimeter wave therapy (MWT) using low intensity millimeter waves to reduce pain including headaches, joint pain, and postoperative pain.

Although the following review paper documents some positive effects from short-term exposure to MWT, the authors note that there are side effects including fatigue, sleepiness, and paresthesia (an abnormal sensation, tingling or pricking [“pins and needles”] caused by pressure on or damage to peripheral nerves). 

"We conclude that there is promising data from pilot case series and small-scale randomized controlled trials for analgesic/hypoalgesic effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves in frequency range 30–70 GHz. Large-scale randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of this non-invasive therapeutic technique are necessary." 
"In the studies reviewed the authors did not report any health-related side effects of MWT. Slight paresthesias, previously mentioned in several case reports and non-controlled case series (10,11), appeared in almost 50% of patients in studies where the effects of MWT were carefully described (21,27,28,31). The paresthesias were of short duration and reported as pleasant (‘warmth’) or neutral. General fatigue and sleepiness during the treatment sessions in almost 80% of the patients was a rather desirable side effect of MWT, as also described in previous reviews on biomedical effects of MWT (10,11,21,27,28)."
From: Usichenko TI, Edinger H, Gizhko VV, Lehmann C, Wendt M, Feyerherd F. Low-intensity electromagnetic millimeter waves for pain therapy. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):201-7. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1475937/
Little research is available on long-term exposure to millimeter waves (see below). Most of the studies referred to in this review paper did not modulate or pulse the carrier waves which will be required for information-carrying millimeter waves employed in 5G technologies. Prior research suggests that such waves will be more biologically active than pure sine waves.

--


Effects of Millimeter Waves Radiation on Cell Membrane - A Brief Review

Ramundo-Orlando A.  Effects of millimeter waves radiation on cell membrane - A brief review.  J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves. 2010; 30 (12): 1400-1411.

Abstract

The millimeter waves (MMW) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, extending from 30 to 300 GHz in terms of frequency (corresponding to wavelengths from 10 mm to 1 mm), is officially used in non-invasive complementary medicine in many Eastern European countries against a variety of diseases such gastro duodenal ulcers, cardiovascular disorders, traumatism and tumor. On the other hand, besides technological applications in traffic and military systems, in the near future MMW will also find applications in high resolution and high-speed wireless communication technology. This has led to restoring interest in research on MMW induced biological effects. In this review emphasis has been given to the MMW-induced effects on cell membranes that are considered the major target for the interaction between MMW and biological systems.


Excerpts

 “Several studies on the effects induced by millimeter radiation on biological systems have been reported in the literature. Diverse effects have been observed on cell free systems, cultured cells, isolated organs of animals and humans. The subject has been extensively reviewed by Motzkin [17] and more recently by Pakhomov [3]. At the cellular level these effects are mainly on the membrane process and ion channels, molecular complexes, excitable and other structures. Many of these effects are quite unexpected from a radiation penetrating less than 1 mm into biological tissues [3, 18, 19]. However none of the findings described in the above reviews has been replicated in an independent laboratory, thus they cannot be considered as established biological effects.”

“…a large number of cellular studies have indicated that MMW may alter structural and functional properties of membranes (Table 2).”

Conclusion

“In this review emphasis has been given to the low-level MMW effects on cell membranes. Above all, it should be mentioned that the reported effects are of a non-thermal character, that is, the action of radiation does not produce essential heating of the biological system or destroy its structure. In this context it appears that no permanent structural change of lipid bilayer could arise under low level (less than 10 mW/cm2) millimeter waves irradiation.

On the other hand, MMW radiation may affect intracellular calcium activities, and, as a consequence, several cellular and molecular processes controlled by Ca2+ dynamics themselves. The effects of MMW radiation on ion transport may be the consequence of a direct effect on membrane proteins as well as on phospholipid domain organization. Water molecules seem to play an important role in these biological effects of MMW radiation. Unfortunately, detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating physiological responses to MMW exposure remain largely unknown.

Usually the search at a molecular level is simpler if we can reduce the complexity of our biological samples. This is the case for cell membranes by using model systems. They can be formed by a simple lipid bilayer without interfering components and they give independence from biological activity that can create complication in searching for electromagnetic fields bioeffects. The emphasis is on the search for molecular mechanisms of the membrane effect induced by MMW with different frequencies and power density. Furthermore, replication studies are needed including good temperature control and appropriate internal control samples. It is also advantageous if the future studies are multidisciplinary, invoking an integration of high quality exposure and effects methodologies.

Clearly a significant amount of accurate experimental work is still required in order to fully understand the interactions between MMW radiation and cell membrane.”



Additional Resources (Updated 5/29/2018)

The roll out of 5G wireless service is 'a massive health experiment,' public health expert warns as cell companies install 800,000 towers across the US
Natalie Rahhal, Daily Mail, May 29, 2018

The 5G telecommunication technology--emitted millimeter waves: Lack of research on bioeffects
Dariusz Leszczynski, PhD, Presentation at 5th Asian & Oceanic IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection, Melbourne, Australia, May 22, 2018

NEPA rollback now official for small wireless projects
Sobczyk N, GreenWire, May 3, 2018

Jim Puzzanghera, Los Angeles Times, Aug 8, 2016