Wednesday, April 3, 2024

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on radio frequency and other non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) monthly since 2016. The complete collection contains more than 2000 abstracts with links to these papers. Several hundred EMF scientists around the world receive these updates.

To download Volume 3 which contains abstracts of papers published in 2024 (including the new papers listed below) click on the following link (72 page pdf):

To download Volume 2 which contains abstracts of papers published from 2021 through 2023 click on the following link (867 page pdf):

To download Volume 1 which contains abstracts of papers published from 2016 through 2020 click on the following link (875 page pdf):

The abstracts for recently published papers appear below.



Invited Perspective: Why Systematic Reviews, Scoping Reviews, and Evidence-to-Decision Frameworks Are Critical for Transparent, Consistent, Equitable, and Science-Based Decision-Making in Environmental Health

My note: Systematic reviews require a multitude of macro- and micro-decisions.  When conducted by biased investigative teams, systematic reviews generate erroneous conclusions and policy implications. This applies to toxic EMF as well as chemical exposures.

Chartres N, Joglekar R. Invited Perspective: Why Systematic Reviews, Scoping Reviews, and Evidence-to-Decision Frameworks Are Critical for Transparent, Consistent, Equitable, and Science-Based Decision-Making in Environmental Health. Environ Health Perspect. 2024 Mar;132(3):31304. doi: 10.1289/EHP14346.

No abstract

"... systematic review is simultaneously being corrupted as agencies, including the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as part of implementing the amended the Toxic Substances Control Act, are appropriating the term in regulatory decision-making without meeting many of the standards of an empirically based systematic review. 4,9–12 This could result in rulemakings that underestimate the true risk of harm posed by toxic chemical exposures, which could have devastating implications for vulnerable populations, including low-wealth communities of color. 11"


Mobile phone use and brain tumour risk – COSMOS, a prospective cohort study
(Note: Methodological problems undermine validity of results.)

Feychting M, Schüz J, Toledano MB, Vermeulen R, Auvinen A, Poulsen AH, Deltour I, Smith RB, Heller J, Kromhout H, Huss A, Johansen C, Tettamanti G, Elliott P. Mobile phone use and brain tumour risk – COSMOS, a prospective cohort study. Environment International. 2024, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2024.108552.


Background: Each new generation of mobile phone technology has triggered discussions about potential carcinogenicity from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Available evidence has been insufficient to conclude about long-term and heavy mobile phone use, limited by differential recall and selection bias, or crude exposure assessment. The Cohort Study on Mobile Phones and Health (COSMOS) was specifically designed to overcome these shortcomings.

Methods: We recruited participants in Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK 2007-2012. The baseline questionnaire assessed lifetime history of mobile phone use. Participants were followed through population-based cancer registers to identify glioma, meningioma, and acoustic neuroma cases during follow-up. Non-differential exposure misclassification was reduced by adjusting estimates of mobile phone call-time through regression calibration methods based on self-reported data and objective operator-recorded information at baseline. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for glioma, meningioma, and acoustic neuroma in relation to lifetime history of mobile phone use were estimated with Cox regression models with attained age as the underlying time-scale, adjusted for country, sex, educational level, and marital status.

Results: 264,574 participants accrued 1,836,479 person-years. During a median follow-up of 7.12 years, 149 glioma, 89 meningioma, and 29 incident cases of acoustic neuroma were diagnosed. The adjusted HR per 100 regression-calibrated cumulative hours of mobile phone call-time was 1.00 (95 % CI 0.98-1.02) for glioma, 1.01 (95 % CI 0.96-1.06) for meningioma, and 1.02 (95 % CI 0.99-1.06) for acoustic neuroma. For glioma, the HR for ≥ 1908 regression-calibrated cumulative hours (90th percentile cut-point) was 1.07 (95 % CI 0.62-1.86). Over 15 years of mobile phone use was not associated with an increased tumour risk; for glioma the HR was 0.97 (95 % CI 0.62-1.52).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the cumulative amount of mobile phone use is not associated with the risk of developing glioma, meningioma, or acoustic neuroma.


Dominance of Smartphone Exposure in 5G Mobile Networks

Chiaraviglio L, Lodovisi C, Bartoletti S, Elzanaty A, M. Slim-Alouini M. Dominance of Smartphone Exposure in 5G Mobile Networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 23(3):2284-2302, 2024. doi: 10.1109/TMC.2023.3252662.


The deployment of 5G networks is sometimes questioned due to the impact of ElectroMagnetic Field (EMF) generated by Radio Base Station (RBS) on users. The goal of this work is to analyze such issue from a novel perspective, by comparing RBS EMF against exposure generated by 5G smartphones in commercial deployments. The measurement of exposure from 5G is hampered by several implementation aspects, such as dual connectivity between 4G and 5G, spectrum fragmentation, and carrier aggregation. To face such issues, we deploy a novel framework, called 5G-EA, tailored to the assessment of smartphone and RBS exposure through an innovative measurement algorithm, able to remotely control a programmable spectrum analyzer. Results, obtained in both outdoor and indoor locations, reveal that smartphone exposure (upon generation of uplink traffic) dominates over the RBS one. Moreover, Line-of-Sight locations experience a reduction of around one order of magnitude on the overall exposure compared to Non-Line-of-Sight ones. In addition, 5G exposure always represents a small share (up to 38%) compared to the total one radiated by the smartphone.


Our results demonstrate that the smartphone exposure dominates over the RBS one upon generation of UL traffic, especially when the UE is in Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) with respect to the RBS. On the contrary, both smartphone exposure and total EMF are reduced up to one order of magnitude when the smartphone UL traffic traverses a radio link in Line-of-Sight (LOS) with respect to the serving RBS. Interestingly, the exploitation of dual connectivity feature between 4G and 5G reveals that only a small smartphone exposure share (at most equal to 38%) is due to 5G, while the largest exposure levels are derived from the carrier aggregation over 4G bands. Moreover, both total and smartphone exposure-per-bit metrics are inversely proportional to the maximum amount of UL traffic generated by the smartphone in the measurement location, thus suggesting that innovative exposure estimators, based on the reporting of maximum UL traffic from the smartphone, can be designed.


Human exposure to EMF from 5G base stations: analysis, evaluation and comparison of different assessment methods

Expósito I, Hakizimali C, García Sánchez M, Cuiñas I, Verhaevert J. Human exposure to EMF from 5G base stations: analysis, evaluation and comparison of different assessment methods. Measurement. 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2024.114434.

  • This paper analyzes the feasibility of assessing the 5G base stations compliance using broadband field probes and compares their performance with alternative methodologies and equipment.
  • Performance of three different methodologies and equipment (broadband probes, spectrum analyzers, and drive test scanners), in the context of human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from 5G base stations, is compared.
  • Quantification of the uncertainty that the fluctuation in 5G signal levels induces in the assessment of electromagnetic fields exposure is provided.
  • The use of broadband field probes for 5G exposure assessment is still possible under certain considerations and correcting the results considering the base station load and beamforming effects.

5G networks deployment poses new challenges when evaluating human exposure to electromagnetic fields. Fast variation of the user load and beamforming techniques may cause large fluctuations of 5G base stations field level. They may be underestimated, resulting in compliance of base stations not fitting the requirements. Apparently, broadband field meters would not be adequate for measuring such environments. However, we analyze the feasibility of confidently using broadband field meters and compare their performance with alternative equipment. Measurements based on the synchronization signals power level, using spectrum analyzers or drive test scanners, may be valid, if gain differences between the signaling and data radiation patterns are characterized. These methods lead to good results but require more time and knowledge. Nevertheless, using broadband field meters is still possible if the measurement results are corrected considering the base station load. Under specific conditions, explained here, fast assessment of 5G compliance could be provided.


Assessing human exposure to an electromagnetic field in presence of a 5G base station is not an easy task. The implementation of M−MIMO techniques in 5G base stations results in adaptive beamforming. This makes difficult to guarantee that the field levels are at their maximum at the measurement location during the complete measurement period, which would limit the applicability of broadband instruments as having been done for previous generations. In this research, we have compared different methods for 5G exposure assessment, using a broadband field meter with an isotropic probe, a spectrum analyzer and a drive test scanner.

Along the paper, we first give an overview of the 5G signal structure, describing the frequency domain and time domain specifications. Afterwards, possible assessment methods are described. The SSB level is measured using the Keysight FieldFox N9913A SA and the Rohde & Schwarz TSM6 DTS. The values are extrapolated to the worst-case exposure and compared to the measurements done with the Wavecontrol WPF8 broadband field probe. Measurements are repeated increasing the base station load by performing a heavy download from a 5G user terminal located near the testers.

The proposed methods were field tested at the University of Vigo, Spain, with a commercial 5G base station located on its campus. The measurements were performed at 7 locations in LOS conditions around the base station, gathering data with the three different equipment at the same locations and at the same time. This data collection allows the comparison of the three methodologies under the same radiating conditions.

All results have been analyzed considering the specific measurement uncertainties, which allows a deeper and more precise comparison among them.

From the measurement results, we can extract that the exposure levels are low at this stage of the 5G deployment. When loading the base station, the results showed that using the broadband field meter can overestimate the field level. Thus, it is still a useful method to check if the field levels comply with the regulation in human exposure; very simple and cost-effective compared with others. In-situ measurements of human exposure to EMF have to be practical and easy to carry, involving only the resources and equipment strictly necessary, but without compromising the validity of the results. When the reference levels are surpassed, more accurate methods based in the assessment and extrapolation of the SSB level could be a solution. The drawback is the required post processing, specially correcting the gain difference between SSB and data signals. If not provided by the network operator, this difference can be determined through measurements, as explained along this document. Measuring with an SA in max-hold mode in the bandwidth of the SSB does not work in 5G as it does in LTE, as we cannot be sure if the measured level corresponds to the SSB or to the user data, no matter if we are forcing the load of the station or not.

The analysis of the results demonstrate that broadband instruments can be used for assessing human exposure to EMF in the vicinity of 5G base stations, which radiating elements provide fields with extreme fluctuations in their intensity as a function of the system load and beamforming configuration. This is accurate when measurements are done by forcing an extra load of the station and the pointing of an antenna beam towards the probe. The validation of this fast method as a first attempt to assess the compliance of 5G stations permits the testing of these base stations in an efficient way. Only when broadband instrument results (including their uncertainties) would overpass the reference levels, a more detailed analysis would be necessary, which procedure and tips are also depicted along this paper.


5G NR launching in Greece: Preliminary in situ and monitoring network measurements of electromagnetic fields exposure levels at rooftops

Christopoulou MI, Kyritsi T, Yalofas A, Koutounidis D, Karabetsos E. 5G NR launching in Greece: Preliminary in situ and monitoring network measurements of electromagnetic fields exposure levels at rooftops. Bioelectromagnetics. 2024 Mar 5. doi: 10.1002/bem.22502.


  • In situ measurements of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure levels at rooftops, close to 117 base stations operating at 5G FR1 in Greece in order to evaluate the contribution of 5G to the total exposure.

  • Statistical analysis of the follow-up for inspections of the same base stations, before and after the 5G FR1 launching in Greece.

  • Case study of a 5G FR1 base station during its pilot and regular operation based on in situ and broadband & frequency selective 24/7 monitoring sensors measurements data.


In Greece, 5G New Radio (NR) has started launching in the end of 2020, at the 3400-3800 MHz (FR1) frequency band. Focusing on 117 Base Stations (BSs) which were already equipped with 5G NR antennas, in situ broadband and frequency selective measurements have been conducted at minimum three points of interest, at adjacent rooftops (when accessible). The points have been selected according to the sweeping method and the electric field strength (E) value has been stored on the selected worst-case scenario point. Spectrum analysis was conducted in the FR1, for the allocated spectrum that corresponds to each mobile communication provider, in order to get preliminary results concerning the contribution of the 5G NR emissions in the general public exposure levels. The vast majority of the in situ measurements has been conducted in urban environments from the beginning of 2021 until the mid of 2022, since in Greece 5G NR services launching started from the big cities. Additionally, a 5G NR BS, installed in a suburban environment (in the city of Kalamata) is thoroughly investigated during its pilot and regular operation, based on broadband and frequency selective measurements data derived by the National Observatory of Electromagnetic Fields (NOEF) monitoring sensor network. In situ measurement data within the 5G NR frequency range are verified via the NOEF's output. The 5G NR contribution to the total E-field levels is assessed in time, from pilot to regular operation of the BS. In all cases, compliance with the reference levels for general public exposure is affirmed.


The determinants of legislation for radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) with the onset of 5G: An empirical analysis

Recuero Virto L, Czerwiński M, Froidevaux J. The determinants of legislation for radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) with the onset of 5G: An empirical analysis with a worldwide cross-sectional dataset. Risk Anal. 2024 Mar 31. doi: 10.1111/risa.14298.


The unprecedented exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) to humans from mobile communications raises serious public concern about the possibility of unexpected adverse health effects and has stimulated authorities to adopt precautionary exposure limits. These limits are distinctly different across countries, and the causes of these differences are unclear from the literature. This article is the first empirical analysis on the determinants of RF-EMF exposure legislation, using a novel cross-sectional database of 164 countries worldwide. The analysis shows that decentralization and mobile competition in countries with low mobile network deployment tend to promote more stringent RF-EMF exposure limits across the dataset with 164 countries. In more decentralized countries, the regions had a greater influence on national legislation and could accommodate local demands with the advent of mobile technology in the 2000s. In contrast, decentralization and mobile competition in countries with high levels of mobile network deployment tend to relax RF-EMF exposure limits in the sample of 61 countries with fifth-generation (5G) technology. Indeed, restrictive RF-EMF exposure limits are constraining 5G deployment in a context of the widespread adoption of mobile-broadband technologies. These results should be useful for policymakers and mobile operators alike to anticipate the outcome of legislation in countries that have yet to introduce 5G technology. The results should also be useful when reviewing policies and strategies for the implementation of the upcoming 6G technology in frequency bands that will be increasingly higher (above 6 GHz up to THz for very local usage), and hence where the health effects on humans are less well studied.


Editorial: Neurological Illness and National Security: Lessons to Be Learned

Relman DA. Neurological Illness and National Security: Lessons to Be Learned. JAMA. Published online March 18, 2024. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.26818

No abstract


In 2016, a set of troubling neurological symptoms was reported through confidential channels by US government personnel based at the US Embassy in Havana, Cuba. As the number of cases in Havana escalated and then similar cases occurred over the next 5 years in other locations around the globe, efforts to understand this syndrome, now known as anomalous health incidents (AHIs), were hampered by their unusual features, incomplete information, nonstandardized clinical testing, delayed reporting, and the sensitive nature of the circumstances, individuals, and their work. A subset of individuals described the abrupt onset, sometimes in the middle of the night, of a loud, grinding, clicking, buzzing, or high-pitched piercing sound inside the head, occasionally likened to a slide whistle, and a sensation of pressure, sometimes in one ear, on one side of the head, or in the face or chest. Most strikingly, these phenomena often displayed strong location dependence, in that they quickly dissipated when the individuals vacated their initial location, and then returned when the location was revisited. In some cases, this location dependence was reported to occur repeatedly by the same individual or by multiple individuals as they moved away from and then returned within minutes to a specific location, such as part of a room. These abrupt-onset sensory phenomena were followed by a mix of vertigo, dizziness, imbalance, blurry vision, tinnitus, headache, nausea, and cognitive dysfunction, sometimes leading to chronic disability.

In this issue of JAMA, Chan et al1 and Pierpaoli et al2 at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) report on an extensive clinical assessment of 86 participants with AHIs and 30 control participants, and on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 81 of these participants with AHIs and 48 control participants, respectively. Overall, the authors found few significant differences between participants with AHIs and control participants, and no consistent evidence of brain injury. These findings differ from previous clinical and imaging studies of smaller numbers of cases from Havana and China that found evidence of vestibular, oculomotor, and pupillary abnormalities3,4 and a variety of MRI findings.5

With few differences between cases and controls in the 2 current studies, one might suspect that nothing or nothing serious happened with these cases. This would be ill-advised. Two detailed investigations of AHIs (in which I played a role) found the cases with abrupt-onset, location-dependent sensory phenomena to be unlike any disorder reported in the neurological or general medical literature, and potentially caused by an external mechanism.6-9 The first of these investigations was undertaken by the US National Academy of Sciences in 2019-2020 and the second by a panel of experts on behalf of the US Intelligence Community in 2021-2022. The latter is described in more detail below. Both of these investigations involved experienced clinicians, detailed interviews with many affected individuals, careful reviews of the literature, and informal reviews of some medical records, but not physical examinations or directed testing. After considering a wide variety of possible mechanisms, both studies concluded that some of the cases with abrupt-onset, location-dependent sensory phenomena could be plausibly explained by exposure to directed, pulsed radiofrequency energy, despite important uncertainties. Others have also pointed to pulsed radiofrequency energy as a plausible mechanism.10,11 The US Intelligence Community has discounted this possibility and concluded that reported symptoms were probably the result of “preexisting conditions, conventional illnesses, and environmental factors,” influenced by their assessment that no foreign adversary played a role in these cases.12 While many cases may be explained in this fashion, the evidence that might favor known conditions, illnesses, and factors in some of the cases with abrupt-onset, location-dependent auditory-vestibular phenomena is weak at best....

Open access paper:


Clinical, biomarker, and research tests among US government personnel and their family members involved in anomalous health incidents

Chan  L, Hallett  M, Zalewski  CK,  et al; NIH AHI Intramural Research Program Team.  Clinical, biomarker, and research tests among US government personnel and their family members involved in anomalous health incidents.   JAMA. Published March 18, 2024. doi:10.1001/jama.2024.2413

Key Points

Questions  Do US government officials and their family members involved in anomalous health incidents (AHIs) differ from control participants with respect to clinical, biomarker, and research assessments?

Findings  In this exploratory study that included 86 participants reporting AHIs and 30 vocationally matched control participants, there were no significant differences in most tests of auditory, vestibular, cognitive, visual function, or blood biomarkers between the groups. Participants with AHIs performed significantly worse on self-reported and objective measures of balance, and had significantly increased symptoms of fatigue, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression compared with the control participants; 24 participants (28%) with AHIs presented with functional neurological disorders.

Meaning  In this exploratory study, there were no significant differences between individuals reporting AHIs and matched control participants with respect to most clinical, research, and biomarker measures, except for self-reported and objective measures of imbalance; symptoms of fatigue, posttraumatic stress, and depression; and the development of functional neurological disorders in some.


Importance  Since 2015, US government and related personnel have reported dizziness, pain, visual problems, and cognitive dysfunction after experiencing intrusive sounds and head pressure. The US government has labeled these anomalous health incidents (AHIs).

Objective  To assess whether participants with AHIs differ significantly from US government control participants with respect to clinical, research, and biomarker assessments.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Exploratory study conducted between June 2018 and July 2022 at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, involving 86 US government staff and family members with AHIs from Cuba, Austria, China, and other locations as well as 30 US government control participants.

Exposures  AHIs.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Participants were assessed with extensive clinical, auditory, vestibular, balance, visual, neuropsychological, and blood biomarkers (glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament light) testing. The patients were analyzed based on the risk characteristics of the AHI identifying concerning cases as well as geographic location.

Results  Eighty-six participants with AHIs (42 women and 44 men; mean [SD] age, 42.1 [9.1] years) and 30 vocationally matched government control participants (11 women and 19 men; mean [SD] age, 43.8 [10.1] years) were included in the analyses. Participants with AHIs were evaluated a median of 76 days (IQR, 30-537) from the most recent incident. In general, there were no significant differences between participants with AHIs and control participants in most tests of auditory, vestibular, cognitive, or visual function as well as levels of the blood biomarkers. Participants with AHIs had significantly increased fatigue, depression, posttraumatic stress, imbalance, and neurobehavioral symptoms compared with the control participants. There were no differences in these findings based on the risk characteristics of the incident or geographic location of the AHIs. Twenty-four patients (28%) with AHI presented with functional neurological disorders.

Conclusions and Relevance  In this exploratory study, there were no significant differences between individuals reporting AHIs and matched control participants with respect to most clinical, research, and biomarker measures, except for objective and self-reported measures of imbalance and symptoms of fatigue, posttraumatic stress, and depression. This study did not replicate the findings of previous studies, although differences in the populations included and the timing of assessments limit direct comparisons.


Neuroimaging findings in US government personnel and their family members involved in anomalous health incidents

Pierpaoli  C, Nayak  A, Hafiz  R,  et al; NIH AHI Intramural Research Program Team.  Neuroimaging findings in US government personnel and their family members involved in anomalous health incidents.   JAMA. Published March 18, 2024. doi:10.1001/jama.2024.2424

Key Points

Question  Can a systematic evaluation using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics identify potential brain lesions in patients who have experienced anomalous health incidents (AHIs) compared with a well-matched control group?

Findings  In this exploratory study that involved brain imaging of 81 participants who experienced AHIs and 48 matched control participants, there were no significant between-group differences in MRI measures of volume, diffusion MRI–derived metrics, or functional connectivity using functional MRI after adjustments for multiple comparisons. The MRI results were highly reproducible and stable at longitudinal follow-ups. No clear relationships between imaging and clinical variables emerged.

Meaning  In this exploratory neuroimaging study, there was no significant MRI-detectable evidence of brain injury among the group of participants who experienced AHIs compared with a group of matched control participants. This finding has implications for future research efforts as well as for interventions aimed at improving clinical care for the participants who experienced AHIs.


Importance  US government personnel stationed internationally have reported anomalous health incidents (AHIs), with some individuals experiencing persistent debilitating symptoms.

Objective  To assess the potential presence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–detectable brain lesions in participants with AHIs, with respect to a well-matched control group.

Design, Setting, and Participants  This exploratory study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center and the NIH MRI Research Facility between June 2018 and November 2022. Eighty-one participants with AHIs and 48 age- and sex-matched control participants, 29 of whom had similar employment as the AHI group, were assessed with clinical, volumetric, and functional MRI. A high-quality diffusion MRI scan and a second volumetric scan were also acquired during a different session. The structural MRI acquisition protocol was optimized to achieve high reproducibility. Forty-nine participants with AHIs had at least 1 additional imaging session approximately 6 to 12 months from the first visit.

Exposure  AHIs.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Group-level quantitative metrics obtained from multiple modalities: (1) volumetric measurement, voxel-wise and region of interest (ROI)–wise; (2) diffusion MRI–derived metrics, voxel-wise and ROI-wise; and (3) ROI-wise within-network resting-state functional connectivity using functional MRI. Exploratory data analyses used both standard, nonparametric tests and bayesian multilevel modeling.

Results  Among the 81 participants with AHIs, the mean (SD) age was 42 (9) years and 49% were female; among the 48 control participants, the mean (SD) age was 43 (11) years and 42% were female. Imaging scans were performed as early as 14 days after experiencing AHIs with a median delay period of 80 (IQR, 36-544) days. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, no significant differences between participants with AHIs and control participants were found for any MRI modality. At an unadjusted threshold (P < .05), compared with control participants, participants with AHIs had lower intranetwork connectivity in the salience networks, a larger corpus callosum, and diffusion MRI differences in the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum, inferior cerebellar peduncle, and amygdala. The structural MRI measurements were highly reproducible (median coefficient of variation <1% across all global volumetric ROIs and <1.5% for all white matter ROIs for diffusion metrics). Even individuals with large differences from control participants exhibited stable longitudinal results (typically, <±1% across visits), suggesting the absence of evolving lesions. The relationships between the imaging and clinical variables were weak (median Spearman ρ = 0.10). The study did not replicate the results of a previously published investigation of AHIs.

Conclusions and Relevance  In this exploratory neuroimaging study, there were no significant differences in imaging measures of brain structure or function between individuals reporting AHIs and matched control participants after adjustment for multiple comparisons.

Open access paper:


Do blue light filter applications improve sleep outcomes? A study of smartphone users’ sleep quality in an observational setting

Rabiei M, Masoumi SJ, Haghani M, Nematolahi S, Rabiei R, Mortazavi SMJ (2024). Do blue light filter applications improve sleep outcomes? A study of smartphone users’ sleep quality in an observational setting. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, DOI: 10.1080/15368378.2024.2327432.


Exposure to blue light at bedtime, suppresses melatonin secretion, postponing the sleep onset and interrupting the sleep process. Some smartphone manufacturers have introduced night-mode functions, which have been claimed to aid in improving sleep quality. In this study, we evaluate the impact of blue light filter application on decreasing blue light emissions and improving sleep quality. Participants in this study recorded the pattern of using their mobile phones through a questionnaire. In order to evaluate sleep quality, we used a PSQI questionnaire. Blue light filters were used by 9.7% of respondents, 9.7% occasionally, and 80% never. The mean score of PSQI was more than 5 in 54.10% of the participants and less than 5 in 45.90%. ANOVA test was performed to assess the relationship between using blue light filter applications and sleep quality (p-value = 0.925). The findings of this study indicate a connection between the use of blue light filter apps and habitual sleep efficiency in the 31–40 age group. However, our results align only to some extent with prior research, as we did not observe sustained positive effects on all parameters of sleep quality from the long-term use of blue light filtering apps. Several studies have found that blue light exposure can suppress melatonin secretion, exacerbating sleep problems. Some studies have reported that physical blue light filters, such as lenses, can affect melatonin secretion and improve sleep quality. However, the impact of blue light filtering applications remains unclear and debatable.

Plain Language Summary

Using smartphones before bedtime and being exposed to its blue light can make it harder to fall asleep and disrupt your sleep. Some smartphone makers have introduced a night mode feature claiming it can help improve your sleep. In this study, we wanted to find out if using these blue light filters on smartphones really makes a difference. We asked people how often they used blue light filters on their phones and also had them fill out a questionnaire about their sleep quality. Only about 10% of people said they used blue light filters regularly, another 10% used them occasionally, and the majority, around 80%, never used them. When we looked at the results, more than half of the participants had sleep scores higher than 5, indicating they might have sleep problems. Less than half had sleep scores lower than 5, suggesting better sleep quality. We used some statistical tests to see if using blue light filters had any link to sleep quality, and the results showed that there was only a connection between the use of blue light filter apps and habitual sleep efficiency in the 31–40 age group. Our findings matched what other studies have found before, that using blue light filters on smartphones may not significantly help improve sleep. So, while it might be a good idea to limit smartphone use before bed, using a blue light filter app may not be the magic solution for better sleep.


Mobile phone radiation disturbs cytokinesis and causes cell death in buccal cells: Results of controlled human intervention study

Kundi M, Nersesyan A, Schmid G, Hutter HP, Eibensteiner F, Mišík M, Knasmüller S. Mobile phone specific radiation disturbs cytokinesis and causes cell death but not acute chromosomal damage in buccal cells: Results of a controlled human intervention study. Environ Res. 2024 Mar 5:118634. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2024.118634.


Several human studies indicate that mobile phone specific electromagnetic fields may cause cancer in humans but the underlying molecular mechanisms are currently not known. Studies concerning chromosomal damage (which is causally related to cancer induction) are controversial and are based on the use of questionnaires to assess the exposure. We realized the first human intervention trial in which chromosomal damage and acute toxic effects were studied under controlled conditions. The participants were exposed via headsets at one randomly assigned side of the head to low and high doses of a UMTS signal (n = 20, to 0.1 W/kg and n = 21 to 1.6 W/kg Specific Absorption Rate) for 2h on 5 consecutive days. Before and three weeks after the exposure buccal cells were collected from both cheeks and micronuclei (MN, which are formed as a consequence of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations) and other nuclear anomalies reflecting mitotic disturbance and acute cytotoxic effects were scored. We found no evidence for induction of MN and of nuclear buds which are caused by gene amplifications, but a significant increase of binucleated cells which are formed as a consequence of disturbed cell divisions, and of karyolitic cells, which are indicative for cell death. No such effects were seen in cells from the less exposed side. Our findings indicate that mobile phone specific high frequency electromagnetic fields do not cause acute chromosomal damage in oral mucosa cells under the present experimental conditions. However, we found clear evidence for disturbance of the cell cycle and cytotoxicity. These effects may play a causal role in the induction of adverse long term health effects in humans.

Final paragraph of paper:

As mentioned in the introduction, evidence is accumulating that exposure to HF-EMF is associated with specific brain tumors (Brabant et al., 2023; Carlberg et al., 2017; Coureau et al., 2014; Hardell and Carlberg, 2015; Hardell et al., 2013; IARC, 2013; INTERPHONE Study Group, 2010). The results of the present investigation indicate that molecular mechanisms other than chromosomal damage may cause neoplastic transformation of the cells as a consequence of exposure to mobile phone specific HF-EMF. As described in the result section, we found in the present study clear evidence for induction of acute toxicity and disturbance of the cell cycle (cytokinesis) as a consequence of exposure to a high radiation dose (1.6 W/kg). It is possible that these effects cause inflammatory responses and/or release of ROS, which were seen in a number of laboratory studies (e.g. Alipour et al., 2022; Benavides et al., 2023; IARC, 2013; Yakymenko et al., 2016). These processes may possibly lead to formation of neoplastic cells.


Evaluation of neonatal outcomes according to the specific absorption rate values of phones used during pregnancy

Büyükeren M, Karanfil Yaman F. Evaluation of neonatal outcomes according to the specific absorption rate values of phones used during pregnancy. J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc. 2024 Mar 6;25(1):7-12. doi: 10.4274/jtgga.galenos.2023.2022-10-1.


Objective: The aim was to compare neonatal outcomes according to cell phone specific absorption rate (SAR) levels and daily time spent on cell phones by pregnant women.

Material and methods: Women who gave birth at Konya City Hospital between September 2020 and February 2021 were included in this retrospective study. Gestational ages, birth weight, birth length, head circumference, sex, 5-minute APGAR scores, neonate postpartum resuscitation requirement, delivery type, the model of phone used by the pregnant women, and the average time spent on the phone during a day were recorded. To determine the relation between the SAR values of the phones used and delivering a small for gestational age (SGA) baby, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed.

Results: In total 1495 pregnant women were included. The rate of delivering a SGA fetus was significantly higher in women who used phones with higher SAR values (p=0.001). The cut-off value for the SAR level was 1.23 W/kg with 69.3% sensitivity and 73.0% specificity (area under the curve: 0.685; 95% confidence interval: 0.643-0.726). No correlation was found between time spent on the phone and SGA birth rate. Although both phone SAR values and time spent on the phone were higher in the symmetrical SGA group compared to the asymmetrical SGA group, the difference was not significant (p>0.05). Although the women who had preterm delivery had higher phone SAR values and had spent more time on the phone compared to those who had term deliveries, the difference was again not significant (p>0.05).

Conclusion: As the SAR values of cell phones used during pregnancy increased, there was a trend towards delivering a SGA baby.

Open access paper:


Do somatic symptom distress and attribution predict symptoms associated with environmental factors?

Köteles F, Nordin S. Do somatic symptom distress and attribution predict symptoms associated with environmental factors? J Psychosom Res. 2024 Mar 1;179:111637. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2024.111637.


Objective: Not much is known on the development of symptoms associated with environmental factors (SAEF), also known as (idiopathic) environmental intolerances. Findings from qualitative studies suggest that appearance of symptoms might be the first step, followed by the acquisition of a specific attribution. The current study investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal (three years) associations between attribution and symptoms with respect to symptoms associated with chemical substances, certain indoor environments (buildings), sounds, and electromagnetic fields (EMFs).

Methods: We used data from the first two waves of the population-based Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 2336). Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic Symptom Scale (PHQ-15), the Environmental Symptom-Attribution Scale, and answered single questions on the four aforementioned SAEFs.

Results: Using binary logistic regression analyses, all four SAEFs showed significant cross-sectional associations with somatic symptom distress and the respective attribution. In the longitudinal analysis, development of SAEF-Sound and SAEF-Chemicals were predicted by both somatic symptom distress and attribution. SAEF-EMFs was predicted only by attribution, whereas neither somatic symptom distress nor attribution forecasted SAEF-Buildings.

Conclusion: Overall, these findings suggest that attribution (i.e., a specific expectation) plays a substantial role in the development and maintenance of many SAEFs.


Micro-environmental personal radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposures in Melbourne: A longitudinal trend analysis

Bhatt CR, Henderson S, Sanagou M, Brzozek C, Thielens A, Benke G, Loughran S. Micro-environmental personal radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposures in Melbourne: A longitudinal trend analysis. Environ Res. 2024 Mar 13:118629. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2024.118629.


Background: A knowledge gap exists regarding longitudinal assessment of personal radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures globally. It is unclear how the change in telecommunication technology over the years translates to change in RF-EMF exposure. This study aims to evaluate longitudinal trends of micro-environmental personal RF-EMF exposures in Australia.

Methods: The study utilised baseline (2015-16) and follow-up (2022) data on personal RF-EMF exposure (88 MHz-6 GHz) measured across 18 micro-environments in Melbourne. Simultaneous quantile regression analysis was conducted to compare exposure data distribution percentiles, particularly median (P50), upper extreme value (P99) and overall exposure trends. RF-EMF exposures were compared across six exposure source types: mobile downlink, mobile uplink, broadcast, 5G-New Radio, Others and Total (of the aforementioned sources). Frequency-specific exposures measured at baseline and follow-up were also compared. Total exposure across different groups of micro-environment types were also compared.

Results: For all micro-environmental data, total (median and P99) exposure levels did not significantly change at follow-up. Overall exposure trend of total exposure increased at follow-up. Mobile downlink contributed the highest exposure among all sources showing an increase in median exposure and overall exposure trend. Of seven micro-environment types, five of them showed total exposure levels (median and P99) and overall exposure trend increased at follow-up.


The assessment of change in total personal RF-EMF exposure distribution at follow-up across all micro-environments and those for different micro-environment types showed inconsistent changes in the exposure levels and overall exposure trend. The median and upper extreme total RF-EMF exposure levels across the micro-environments showed no significant change; whilst overall trend of total exposure at follow-up increased during the study period. Mobile downlink, the largest exposure source, median exposure and overall exposure trend increased (26.7%, up to 34.3%, respectively) at follow-up. The observed increase in median and upper extreme exposure levels as well as overall total exposure trend at follow-up remained consistent for the majority of micro-environment types.


New-generation electronic appliances and cardiac implantable electronic devices: a systematic literature review of mechanisms and in vivo studies

Kewcharoen J, Shah K, Bhardwaj R, Contractor T, Turagam MK, Mandapati R, Lakkireddy D, Garg J. New-generation electronic appliances and cardiac implantable electronic devices: a systematic literature review of mechanisms and in vivo studies. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2024 Mar 5. doi: 10.1007/s10840-024-01777-z.


Introduction: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) functions are susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI) from electromagnetic fields (EMF). Data on EMI risks from new-generation electronic appliances (EA) are limited.

Objective: We performed a systematic literature review on the mechanisms of EMI, current evidence, and recently published trials evaluating the effect of EMF on CIEDs from electric vehicles (EV), smartphone, and smartwatch technology and summarize its safety data.

Methods: Electronic databases, including PubMed and EMBASE, were searched for in vivo studies evaluating EMF strength and incidence between CIEDs and commercial EVs, new-generation smartphones, and new-generation smartwatches.

Results: A total of ten studies (three on EVs, five on smartphones, one on smartphones, one on smartphones and smartwatches) were included in our systematic review. There was no report of EMI incidence associated with EVs or smartwatches. Magnet-containing smartphones (iPhone 12) can cause EMI when placed directly over CIEDs - thereby triggering the magnet mode; otherwise, no report of EMI was observed with other positions or smartphone models.

Conclusion: Current evidence suggests CIED recipients are safe from general interaction with EVs/HEVs, smartphones, and smartwatches. Strictly, results may only be applied to commercial brands or models tested in the published studies. There is limited data on EMI risk from EVs wireless charging and smartphones with MagSafe technology.


Electric vehicles and health: A scoping review

Pennington AF, Cornwell CR, Sircar KD, Mirabelli MC. Electric vehicles and health: A scoping review. Environ Res. 2024 Mar 16:118697. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2024.118697.


Background: The health impacts of the rapid transition to the use of electric vehicles are largely unexplored. We completed a scoping review to assess the state of the evidence on use of battery electric and hybrid electric vehicles and health.

Methods: We conducted a literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Scopus, and Environmental Science Collection databases for articles published January 1990 to January 2024. We included articles if they presented observed or modeled data on the association between battery electric or hybrid electric cars, trucks, or buses and health-related outcomes. We abstracted data and summarized results.

Results: Out of 897 reviewed articles, 52 met our inclusion criteria. The majority of included articles examined transitions to the use of electric vehicles (n = 49, 94%), with fewer studies examining hybrid electric vehicles (n = 11, 21%) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (n = 8, 15%). The most common outcomes examined were premature death (n = 41, 79%) and monetized health outcomes such as medical expenditures (n = 33, 63%). We identified only one observational study on the impact of electric vehicles on health; all other studies reported modeled data. Almost every study (n = 51, 98%) reported some evidence of a positive health impact of transitioning to electric or hybrid electric vehicles, although magnitudes of association varied. There was a paucity of information on the environmental justice implications of vehicle transitions.

Conclusions: The results of the current literature on electric vehicles and health suggest an overall positive health impact of transitioning to electric vehicles. Additional observational studies would help expand our understanding of the real-world health effects of electric vehicles. Future research focused on the environmental justice implications of vehicle fleet transitions could provide additional information about the extent to which the health benefits occur equitably across populations.


Electromagnetic exposure analysis of the subway passenger under the civil communication system radiation

Zhou WY, Zhang XY, Lu M. Electromagnetic exposure analysis of the subway passenger under the civil communication system radiation. PLoS One. 2024 Mar 11;19(3):e0300049. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0300049.


In order to assess the electromagnetic exposure safety of passengers under the civil communication system of the subway, the radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic environment of subway carriage is established by using COMSOL Multiphysics software, it includes a 1-1/4 " leaky coaxial cable (LCX1) and a 1-5/8" leaky coaxial cable (LCX2), which are designed to be the exposure sources, and twelve passengers at different position. The electromagnetic environment model has been verified through field measurement. The exposure dose distribution of twelve passengers is compared and analyzed, when LCX1 and LCX2 works respectively. The simulated results show that, to compare with LCX2, the electromagnetic dose absorbed by the passengers is reduced by 9.19% and 22.50% at 2100 MHz and 2600 MHz respectively. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of passengers obtains the maximum value of 1.91×10−4 W/Kg and the temperature rise to 0.214 K when the LCX1 works at 3400 MHz. By comparing with the public exposure limitation of the International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), it demonstrates the electromagnetic exposure safety of the passengers under the civil communication system. More importantly, the proposed LCX1 not only could add the 5G signal cover but also lower the SAR absorbed by the passengers, which indicates that the public electromagnetic exposure dose could be reduced by adjusting the radiation performances of exposure source, which provide a new way for electromagnetic protecting.


Impact of specific electromagnetic radiation on wakefulness in mice

Deng H, Liu L, Tang X, Lu Y, Wang X, Zhao Y, Shi Y. Impact of specific electromagnetic radiation on wakefulness in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024 Apr  9;121(15):e2313903121. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2313903121.


Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the environment, particularly in the microwave range, may constitute a public health concern. Exposure to 2.4 GHz EMR modulated by 100 Hz square pulses was recently reported to markedly increase wakefulness in mice. Here, we demonstrate that a similar wakefulness increase can be induced by the modulation frequency of 1,000 Hz, but not 10 Hz. In contrast to the carrier frequency of 2.4 GHz, 935 MHz EMR of the same power density has little impact on wakefulness irrespective of modulation frequency. Notably, the replacement of the 100 Hz square-pulsed modulation by sinusoidal-pulsed modulation of 2.4 GHz EMR still allows a marked increase of wakefulness. In contrast, continuous sinusoidal amplitude modulation of 100 Hz with the same time-averaged power output fails to trigger any detectable change of wakefulness. Therefore, alteration of sleep behavior by EMR depends upon not just carrier frequency but also frequency and mode of the modulation. These results implicate biological sensing mechanisms for specific EMR in animals.


Increased wakefulness in mice was previously found to be a direct result of prolonged exposure to 2.4 GHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with 100 Hz square-pulsed modulation at 1/8 duty cycle. Several key issues remain unaddressed. Does the frequency of the square-pulsed modulation matter? Are the sharp edges of the square pulses a major contributor to sleep/wakefulness alteration? Can carrier frequencies other than 2.4 GHz induce sleep/wakefulness alteration? Does the duty cycle matter? In this study, we answer these questions by demonstrating the dependency of sleep/wakefulness alteration on EMR modulation frequency, carrier frequency, and modulation mode.


Modeling and experimental assessment of human exposure to 935 MHz or 2.14 GHz EMR at a dose level of 3.6 W/kg local SAR revealed a maximal skin temperature increase of 0.31 °C and a brain temperature elevation of <0.1 °C (21). In our case, the maximum local SAR value measured with the cSAR3D testing system is 3.6 W/kg and the averaged SAR is 2.81 ± 0.15 W/kg. Hence, the observed EMR impact on sleep in our study is most likely nonthermal....

In conclusion, our study reveals distinct specificity of EMR. Prolonged exposure to the carrier frequency 2.4 GHz EMR with square pulse modulation of different frequencies induces varying changes of wakefulness in mice. In contrast to 2.4 GHz, the carrier frequency 935 MHz has little impact on wakefulness or NREM sleep. Then, 2.4 GHz EMR with sinusoidal pulse modulation, but not continuous sinusoidal modulation of 100 Hz, results in an increase in wakefulness. These findings link specific biological responses to specific parameters of EMR, namely carrier frequency, modulation frequency, and modulation mode. The underlying mechanisms for these observations remain to be unveiled.


Effect of 2.45 GHz Microwave Radiation on the Inner Ear: A Histopathological Study on 2.45 GHz Microwave Radiation and Cochlea

Tahir E, Akar Karadayı A, Gülşen Gürgen S, Korunur Engiz B, Turgut A. Effect of 2.45 GHz Microwave Radiation on the Inner Ear: A Histopathological Study on 2.45 GHz Microwave Radiation and Cochlea. J Int Adv Otol. 2024 Jan;20(1):35-43. doi: 10.5152/iao.2024.231142.


Background: The present study aims to determine the possible low dose-dependent adverse effects of 2.45 GHz microwave exposure and Wi-Fi frequency on the cochlea.

Methods: Twelve pregnant female rats (n=12) and their male newborns were exposed to Wi-Fi frequencies with varying electric field values of 0.6, 1.9, 5, 10 V/m, and 15 V/m during the 21-day gestation period and 45 days after birth, except for the control group. Auditory brainstem response testing was performed before exposure and sacrification. After removal of the cochlea, histopathological examination was conducted by immunohistochemistry methods using caspase (cysteine-aspartic proteases, cysteine aspartates, or cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases)-3, -9, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests and multivariate analysis of variance were used.

Results: Auditory brainstem response thresholds in postexposure tests increased statistically significantly at 5 V/m and above doses. When the number of apoptotic cells was compared in immunohistochemistry examination, significant differences were found at 10 V/m and 15 V/m doses (F(5,15)=23.203, P=.001; Pillai's trace=1.912, η2=0.637). As the magnitude of the electric field increased, all histopathological indicators of apoptosis increased. The most significant effect was noted on caspase-9 staining (η2 c9=0.996), followed by caspase-3 (η2 c3=0.991), and TUNEL staining (η2 t=0.801). Caspase-3, caspase-9, and TUNEL-stained cell densities increased directly by increasing the electric field and power values.

Conclusion: Apoptosis and immune activity in the cochlea depend on the electric field and power value. Even at low doses, the electromagnetic field in Wi-Fi frequency damages the inner ear and causes apoptosis.


Ashwagandha Diminishes Hippocampal Apoptosis Induced by Wi-Fi Radiation in Male Quails

Gupta V, Srivastava R. Ashwagandha Diminishes Hippocampal Apoptosis Induced by Microwave Radiation by Acetylcholinesterase Dependent Neuro-Inflammatory Pathway in Male Coturnix coturnix Japonica. Neurochem Res. 2024 Mar 20. doi: 10.1007/s11064-024-04127-7.


Microwave radiation (MWR) has been linked to neurodegeneration by inducing oxidative stress in the hippocampus of brain responsible for learning and memory. Ashwagandha (ASW), a medicinal plant is known to prevent neurodegeneration and promote neuronal health. This study investigated the effects of MWR and ASW on oxidative stress and cholinergic imbalance in the hippocampus of adult male Japanese quail. One control group received no treatment, the second group quails were exposed to MWR at 2 h/day for 30 days, third was administered with ASW root extract orally 100 mg/day/kg body weight and the fourth was exposed to MWR and also treated with ASW. The results showed that MWR increased serum corticosterone levels, disrupted cholinergic balance and induced neuro-inflammation. This neuro-inflammation further led to oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and GSH. MWR also caused a significant decline in the nissil substances in the hippocampus region of brain indicating neurodegeneration through oxidative stress mediated hippocampal apoptosis. ASW, on the other hand, was able to effectively enhance the cholinergic balance and subsequently lower inflammation in hippocampus neurons. This suggests that ASW can protect against the neurodegenerative effects of MWR. ASW also reduced excessive ROS production by increasing the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes. Additionally, ASW prevented neurodegeneration through decreased expression of caspase-3 and caspase-7 in hippocampus, thus promoting neuronal health. In conclusion, this study showed that MWR induces apoptosis and oxidative stress in the brain, while ASW reduces excessive ROS production, prevents neurodegeneration and promotes neuronal health.


Birds were exposed to 2.45 GHz of MW irradiation using Ruckus R310 Wi-fi router with maximum transmission strength of 25dbm at the middle of the cage. Average power density obtained within each partition of cage was found to be 0.1264 mw/cm2 and overall specific absorption rate (SAR) obtained per bird was determined to be 0.9978 W/Kg.


Does Microwave Exposure at Different Doses in the Pre/Postnatal Period Affect Growing Rat Bone Development?

Karadayi A, Sarsmaz H, Çigel A, Engiz B, Ünal N, Ürkmez S, Gürgen S. Does Microwave Exposure at Different Doses in the Pre/Postnatal Period Affect Growing Rat Bone Development? Physiol Res. 2024 Mar 11;73(1):157-172.


Effects of pre/postnatal 2.45 GHz continuous wave (CW), Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi) Microwave (MW) irradiation on bone have yet to be well defined. The present study used biochemical and histological methods to investigate effects on bone formation and resorption in the serum and the tibia bone tissues of growing rats exposed to MW irradiation during the pre/postnatal period. Six groups were created: one control group and five experimental groups subjected to low-level different electromagnetic fields (EMF) of growing male rats born from pregnant rats. During the experiment, the bodies of all five groups were exposed to 2.45 GHz CW-MW for one hour/day. EMF exposure started after fertilization in the experimental group. When the growing male rats were 45 days old in the postnatal period, the control and five experimental groups' growing male and maternal rats were sacrificed, and their tibia tissues were removed. Maternal rats were not included in the study. No differences were observed between the control and five experimental groups in Receptor Activator Nuclear factor-kB (RANK) biochemical results. In contrast, there was a statistically significant increase in soluble Receptor Activator of Nuclear factor-kB Ligand (sRANKL) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) for 10 V/m and 15 V/m EMF values. Histologically, changes in the same groups supported biochemical results. These results indicate that pre/postnatal exposure to 2.45 GHz EMF at 10 and 15 V/m potentially affects bone development.


In the present study, the effects of 2.45 GHz MW radiation on the bone of healthy rat tibia exposed to different doses of EMF during the prenatal and postnatal period were investigated using biochemical methods such as RANK, RANKL, OPG, and histopathological methods such as Tunel and immunohistochemical straining. Our findings showed that 2.45 GHz low-level MW radiation at 10 V/m (the peak SAR 10g value 14.4 mW/kg) and 15 V/m (the peak SAR 10g value 33.8 mW/kg) could cause changes in the bone. To our knowledge, our study seems to be the first investigation in literature focusing on effects on the bone of 2.45 GHz low-level MW radiation at different EMF values. Additionally, this research is the first article to determine the level of thermal and non-thermal effects on bone.


The neuroprotective effects of baobab and black seed on the rat hippocampus exposed to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field

Mohamed H, Deniz OG, Kaplan S. The neuroprotective effects of baobab and black seed on the rat hippocampus exposed to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field. J Chem Neuroanat. 2024 Mar 4;137:102405. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2024.102405.


This study investigated the potential effects on the hippocampus of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) disseminated by mobile phones and the roles of baobab (Adansonia digitata) (AD) and black seed (Nigella sativa) (BS) in mitigating these. Fifty-six male, 12-week-old Wistar albino rats were divided into eight groups of seven animals each. No EMF exposure was applied to the control, AD or BS groups, while the rats in the Sham group were placed in an EMF system with no exposure. A 900-MHz EMF was applied to the EMF+AD, EMF+BS, EMF+AD+BS and EMF groups for 1 hour a day for 28 days. Pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus were subsequently counted using the optical fractionator technique, one of the unbiased stereological methods. Tissue sections were also evaluated histopathologically under light and electron microscopy. The activities of the enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also determined in blood serum samples. Analysis of the stereological data revealed no statistically significant differences between the EMF and control or sham groups in terms of pyramidal neuron numbers (p>0.05). However, stereological examination revealed a crucial difference in the entire hippocampus between the control group and the AD (p<0.01) and BS (p<0.05) groups. Moreover, exposure to 900-MHz EMF produced adverse changes in the structures of neurons at histopathological analysis. Qualitative examinations suggest that a combination of herbal products such as AD and BS exerts a protective effect against such EMF side-effects.


We suggest that using appropriate quantities of natural antioxidants in combination with foodstuffs can inhibit or reduce the harmful effects of EMF radiation on the neurons of the brain. The human population, and especially children, should also be protected against exposure to radiation, especially that emitted from mobile phones. To the best of our knowledge, no prior study has demonstrated the effect of AD and BS in the EMF exposed rat hippocampus. Further studies focusing on the effect mechanism of antioxidants, especially AD and BS, that may represent novel protective substances against the side-effects of EMF radiation in the hippocampus, are now needed. Research involving different methods, durations and doses is therefore required.


Health and environmental effects to wildlife from radio telemetry and tracking devices—state of the science and best management practices

Manville AM, Levitt BB, Lai HC. Health and environmental effects to wildlife from radio telemetry and tracking devices—state of the science and best management practices. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 11. 2024. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2024.1283709.


This paper discusses the potential health risks and benefits to tagged wildlife from the use of radio tracking, radio telemetry, and related microchip and data-logger technologies used to study, monitor and track mostly wildlife in their native habitats. Domestic pets, especially canids, are briefly discussed as radio-tagging devices are also used on/in them. Radio tracking uses very high frequency (VHF), ultra-high frequency (UHF), and global positioning system (GPS) technologies, including via satellites where platform terminal transmitters (PTTs) are used, as well as geo-locating capabilities using satellites, radio-frequency identification (RFID) chips, and passive integrated responder (PIT) tags, among others. Such tracking technologies have resulted in cutting-edge findings worldwide that have served to protect and better understand the behaviors of myriad wildlife species. As a result, scientists, field researchers, technicians, fish and wildlife biologists and managers, plus wildlife and other veterinarian specialists, frequently opt for its use without fully understanding the ramifications to target species and their behaviors. These include negative physiological effects from electromagnetic fields (EMF) to which many nonhuman species are exquisitely sensitive, as well as direct placement/use-attachment impacts from radio collars, transmitters, and implants themselves. This paper provides pertinent studies, suggests best management practices, and compares technologies currently available to those considering and/or using such technologies. The primary focus is on the health and environmental risk/benefit decisions that should come into play, including ethical considerations, along with recommendations for more caution in the wildlife and veterinarian communities before such technologies are used in the first place.


Electromagnetic fields regulate iron metabolism in living organisms: A review of effects and mechanism

Zhen C, Zhang G, Wang S, Wang J, Shang P. Electromagnetic fields regulate iron metabolism in living organisms: A review of effects and mechanism. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2024 Mar 4:S0079-6107(24)00023-3. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2024.03.001.


The emergence, evolution, and spread of life on Earth have all occurred in the geomagnetic field, and its extensive biological effects on living organisms have been documented. The charged characteristics of metal ions in biological fluids determine that they are affected by electromagnetic field forces, thus affecting life activities. Iron metabolism, as one of the important metal metabolic pathways, keeps iron absorption and excretion in a relatively balanced state, and this process is precisely and completely controlled. It is worth paying attention to how the iron metabolism process of living organisms is changed when exposed to electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the processes of iron absorption, storage and excretion in animals (mammals, fish, arthropods), plants and microorganisms exposed to electromagnetic field were summarized in detail as far as possible, in order to discover the regulation of iron metabolism by electromagnetic field. Studies and data on the effects of electromagnetic field exposure on iron metabolism in organisms show that exposure profiles vary widely across species and cell lines. This process involves a variety of factors, and the complexity of the results is not only related to the magnetic flux density/operating frequency/exposure time and the heterogeneity of the observed object. A systematic review of the biological regulation of iron metabolism by electromagnetic field exposure will not only contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of its biological effects and mechanism, but also is necessary to improve human awareness of the health related risks of electromagnetic field exposure.


0.263 terahertz irradiation induced genes expression changes in Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm)

Shang S, Gao F, Zhang Q, Song T, Wang W, Liu D, Gong Y, Lu X. 0.263 terahertz irradiation induced genes expression changes in Caenorhabditis elegans. iScience. 2024 Mar 2;27(4):109391. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2024.109391.


The biosafety of terahertz (THz) waves has emerged as a new area of concern with the gradual application of terahertz radiation. Even though many studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of THz radiation on living organisms, the biological effects of terahertz waves have not yet been fully revealed. In this study, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used to evaluate the biological consequences of whole-body exposure to 0.263 THz irradiation. The integration of transcriptome sequencing and behavioral tests of C. elegans revealed that high-power THz irradiation damaged the epidermal ultrastructures, inhibited the expression of the cuticle collagen genes, and impaired the movement of C. elegans. Moreover, the genes involved in the immune system and the neural system were dramatically down-regulated by high-power THz irradiation. Our findings offer fresh perspectives on the biological impacts of high-power THz radiation that could cause epidermal damage and provoke a systemic response.


Environmental Pollution and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Scoping Review of Evidence from the Last Decade

Navarrete-Meneses MdP, Salas-Labadía C, Gómez-Chávez F, Pérez-Vera P. Environmental Pollution and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Scoping Review of Evidence from the Last Decade. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2024; 25(6):3284. doi: 10.3390/ijms25063284.


The long-term effects of environmental pollution have been of concern as several pollutants are carcinogenic, potentially inducing a variety of cancers, including childhood cancer, which is a leading cause of death around the world and, thus, is a public health issue. The present scoping review aimed to update and summarize the available literature to detect specific environmental pollutants and their association with certain types of childhood cancer. Studies published from 2013 to 2023 regarding environmental pollution and childhood cancer were retrieved from the PubMed database. A total of 174 studies were eligible for this review and were analyzed. Our search strategy brought up most of the articles that evaluated air pollution (29%) and pesticides (28%). Indoor exposure to chemicals (11%), alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy (16%), electromagnetic fields (12%), and radon (4%) were the subjects of less research. We found a particularly high percentage of positive associations between prenatal and postnatal exposure to indoor (84%) and outdoor (79%) air pollution, as well as to pesticides (82%), and childhood cancer. Positive associations were found between leukemia and pesticides and air pollution (33% and 27%); CNS tumors and neuroblastoma and pesticides (53% and 43%); and Wilms tumor and other rare cancers were found in association with air pollution (50%). Indoor air pollution was mostly reported in studies assessing several types of cancer (26%). Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the potential associations between indoor/outdoor air pollution and pesticide exposure with childhood cancer risk as more preventable measures could be taken.


A broadband multi-frequency microwave combined biological exposure setup

Zhao X, Li Z, Liu X, Wang Y, Dong G, Liu Q, Wang C. A broadband multi-frequency microwave combined biological exposure setup. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1 April 2024; 95 (4): 044702. doi: 10.1063/5.0196908


With the rapid popularization of wireless electronic devices, there has been an increasing concern about the impacts of the electromagnetic environment on health. However, most research reports on the biological effects of microwaves have focused on a single frequency point. In reality, people are exposed to complex electromagnetic environments that consist of multiple frequency microwave signals in their daily lives. It is important to investigate whether multi-frequency combined microwave energies have different biological effects compared with single frequency microwave energy. Unfortunately, there are limited reports on this topic due to the lack of suitable platforms for research on multi-frequency microwave energy combined with biological exposure. To address this issue, this study presents a setup that has a very wide working frequency bandwidth and can be compatible with single frequency and multi-frequency microwave combined exposure. Moreover, it can achieve relatively equal exposure to multiple biological samples at any frequency point in the working frequency range, which is crucial for electromagnetic biology research. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results, confirming its capability to facilitate the study of complex electromagnetic environment effects on organisms.

Open access paper: