Monday, August 3, 2020

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below.

The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 900 scientific papers. This 699-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:

Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.


Health risks from radiofrequency radiation, including 5G, should be assessed by experts with no conflicts of interest

Lennart Hardell, Michael Carlberg. Health risks from radiofrequency radiation, including 5G, should be assessed by experts with no conflicts of interest. Oncology Letters. 20:15. Published online July 15, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11876.


Abstract

The fifth generation, 5G, of radiofrequency (RF) radiation is about to be implemented globally without investigating the risks to human health and the environment. This has created debate among concerned individuals in numerous countries. In an appeal to the European Union (EU) in September 2017, currently endorsed by >390 scientists and medical doctors, a moratorium on 5G deployment was requested until proper scientific evaluation of potential negative consequences has been conducted. This request has not been acknowledged by the EU. The evaluation of RF radiation health risks from 5G technology is ignored in a report by a government expert group in Switzerland and a recent publication from The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Conflicts of interest and ties to the industry seem to have contributed to the biased reports. The lack of proper unbiased risk evaluation of the 5G technology places populations at risk. Furthermore, there seems to be a cartel of individuals monopolizing evaluation committees, thus reinforcing the no-risk paradigm. We believe that this activity should qualify as scientific misconduct.


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Experimental Procedure for Fifth Generation (5G) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Measurement and Maximum Power Extrapolation for Human Exposure Assessment

Daniele Franci, Stefano Coltellacci, Enrico Grillo, Settimio Pavoncello, Tommaso Aureli, Rossana Cintoli, Marco Donald Migliore. Experimental Procedure for Fifth Generation (5G) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Measurement and Maximum Power Extrapolation for Human Exposure Assessment. Environments 2020, 7(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments7030022.

Abstract

The fifth generation (5G) technology has been conceived to cover multiple usage scenarios from enhanced mobile broadband to ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC) to massive machine type communications. However, the implementation of this new technology is causing increasing concern over the possible impact on health and safety arising from exposure to electromagnetic field radiated by 5G systems, making imperative the development of accurate electromagnetic field (EMF) measurement techniques and protocols. Measurement techniques used to assess the compliance with EMF exposure limits are object to international regulation. The basic principle of the assessment is to measure the power received from a constant radio frequency source, typically a pilot signal, and to apply a proper extrapolation factor. This kind of approach is standardized for 2G, 3G, and 4G technologies, but is still under investigation for 5G technology. Indeed, the use of flexible numerologies and advanced Time Division Duplexing (TDD) and spatial multiplexing techniques, such as beam sweeping and Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), requires the definition of new procedures and protocols for EMF measurement of 5G signals. In this paper a procedure for an accurate estimation of the instant maximum power received from a 5G source is proposed. The extrapolation technique is based on the introduction of proper factors that take into account the effect of the TDD and of the sweep beam in the measured value of the 5G signal level. Preliminary experimental investigation, based on code domain measurement of appropriate broadcast channels, and carried out in a controlled environment are reported, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed approach.


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Non-resonant Frequencies in Mobile Wireless 5G Communication Networks

Emanuele Calabrò, Salvatore Magazù. Non-resonant Frequencies in Mobile Wireless 5G Communication Networks. Wireless Personal Communications. 06 July 2020.

Abstract

New emerging technology 5G will require higher speed, power and capacity in data transmission than previous generation, in order to obtain a complete world-wireless communication without limitation. In this scenario, given that the achievement of 5G technology will lead to a drastic increase of effects of exposure to microwave radiation, a strategy to reduce the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields is needed. In this regard, given that cellular functions of human beings depend closely on ions flux across cellular membrane, whose mechanism should have its natural resonant frequencies, we can hypothesize to plan new emerging wireless technology 5G at frequencies far from these resonant frequencies in order to minimize the effects of exposure to extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields, inducing a significant decreasing of harmful effects on human health. We have named these frequencies “non-resonant frequencies”.

Conclusions

Progress developments will lead to increasingly sophisticated communication and automation in which wireless communication network 5G will have to be even faster and more efficient than previous generation, creating a world in which we will continually be inundated with high frequency electromagnetic waves. The price to pay for such technological advances will be a drastic increasing of exposure of living beings to high-frequency electromagnetic fields and of their effects whose damage to biological systems have been largely demonstrated up to now. In this scenario, the design of a technology which can reduce effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields as much as possible is needed. To this aim, we can apply resonance theory to search nonresonant frequencies in the mechanism of ions fux across cellular membrane channels, that minimize harmful effects of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation, by using spectroscopic and biochemical techniques. The design of wireless technology 5G without taking into account the result of this research may expose human beings to the risk that this technology will be planned at a natural resonant frequency, amplifying harmful effects of exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Instead, the development of new emerging technology 5G at non-resonant frequency should induce a decreasing of harmful effects on human health, without giving up advantages of this advanced technology.


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Health effects of electromagnetic fields on children


Jin-Hwa Moon. Health effects of electromagnetic fields on children. Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020 May 26. doi: 10.3345/cep.2019.01494. 

Abstract

In today's world, most children are exposed to various man made electromagnetic fields (EMFs). EMFs are electromagnetic waves less than 300 GHz. A developing child's brain is vulnerable to electromagnetic radiation; thus, their caregivers' concerns about the health effects of EMFs are increasing. EMF exposure is divided into two categories: extremely low frequencies (ELFs; 3-3,000 Hz), involving high-voltage transmission lines and in-house wiring; and radio frequencies (RFs; 30 kHz to 300 GHz), involving mobile phones, smart devices, base stations, WiFi, and 5G technologies. The biological effects of EMFs on humans include stimulation, thermal, and nonthermal, the latter of which is the least known. Among the various health issues related to EMFs, the most important issue is human carcinogenicity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer's (IARC's) evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, ELFs and RFs were evaluated as possible human carcinogens (Group 2B). However, the World Health Organization's (WHO's) view of EMFs remains undetermined. This article reviews the current knowledge of EMF exposure on humans, specifically children. EMF exposure sources, biological effects, current WHO and IARC opinions on carcinogenicity, and effects of EMF exposures on children will be discussed. As well-controlled EMF experiments in children are nearly impossible, scientific knowledge should be interpreted objectively. Precautionary approaches are recommended for children until the potential health effects of EMF are confirmed.

Key message
  • The nervous systems of children are more vulnerable to the effects of electromagnetic waves than adults.
  • The exposure to EMFs among children should be minimized.
  • According to IARC, EMFs are possibly carcinogenic, it should not be overlooked or interpreted with bias.

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Estimated whole-brain and lobe-specific radiofrequency electromagnetic fields doses and brain volumes in preadolescents

Alba Cabré-Riera, Hanan El Marroun, Ryan Muetzel, Luuk van Wel, Ilaria Liorni, Arno Thielens, Laura Ellen Birks, Livia Pierotti, Anke Huss, Wout Joseph, Joe Wiart, Myles Capstick, Manon Hillegers, Roel Vermeulen, Elisabeth Cardis, Martine Vrijheid, Tonya White, Martin Röösli, Henning Tiemeier, Mònica Guxens. Estimated whole-brain and lobe-specific radiofrequency electromagnetic fields doses and brain volumes in preadolescents. Environment International. 142, September 2020, 105808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105808.

Highlights

• We estimated overall and source-specific RF-EMF doses to the brain.
• Estimated overall whole-brain RF-EMF dose was 84.3 mJ/kg/day.
• Overall whole-brain or lobe-specific RF-EMF doses were not related to brain volumes.
• Whole-brain RF-EMF dose from mobile communication devices for screen activities while wirelessly connected to the internet was associated with smaller caudate volume.
• We cannot discard residual confounding, chance finding, or reverse causality.

Abstract

Objective To assess the association between estimated whole-brain and lobe-specific radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) doses, using an improved integrated RF-EMF exposure model, and brain volumes in preadolescents at 9–12 years old.

Methods Cross-sectional analysis in preadolescents aged 9–12 years from the Generation R Study, a population-based birth cohort set up in Rotterdam, The Netherlands (n = 2592). An integrated exposure model was used to estimate whole-brain and lobe-specific RF-EMF doses (mJ/kg/day) from different RF-EMF sources including mobile and Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) phone calls, other mobile phone uses than calling, tablet use, laptop use, and far-field sources. Whole-brain and lobe-specific RF-EMF doses were estimated for all RF-EMF sources together (i.e. overall) and for three groups of RF-EMF sources that lead to a different pattern of RF-EMF exposure. Information on brain volumes was extracted from magnetic resonance imaging scans.

Results Estimated overall whole-brain RF-EMF dose was 84.3 mJ/kg/day. The highest overall lobe-specific dose was estimated in the temporal lobe (307.1 mJ/kg/day). Whole-brain and lobe-specific RF-EMF doses from all RF-EMF sources together, from mobile and DECT phone calls, and from far-field sources were not associated with global, cortical, or subcortical brain volumes. However, a higher whole-brain RF-EMF dose from mobile phone use for internet browsing, e-mailing, and text messaging, tablet use, and laptop use while wirelessly connected to the internet was associated with a smaller caudate volume.

Conclusions  Our results suggest that estimated whole-brain and lobe-specific RF-EMF doses were not related to brain volumes in preadolescents at 9–12 years old. Screen activities with mobile communication devices while wirelessly connected to the internet lead to low RF-EMF dose to the brain and our observed association may thus rather reflect effects of social or individual factors related to these specific uses of mobile communication devices. However, we cannot discard residual confounding, chance finding, or reverse causality. Further studies on mobile communication devices and their potential negative associations with brain development are warranted, regardless whether associations are due to RF-EMF exposure or to other factors related to their use.


Note: The caudate nucleus plays important roles in various nonmotor functions including procedural learning, associative learning, and inhibitory control of action. Moreover, it has long been associated with motor processes due to its role in Parkinson's disease.

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Are Contemporary Smartwatches and Mobile Phones Safe for Patients With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices?

Philipp Lacour, Abdul ShokorParwani, Franziska Schuessler, Felix Hohendanner, Frank  R. Heinzel, Tobias D.Trippel, Leif-Hendrik Bold, Burkert Pieske, Florian Blaschke. Are Contemporary Smartwatches and Mobile Phones Safe for Patients With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices? JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology. 29 July 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.04.033.

Abstract

Objectives   Given the increasing prevalence of mobile phone and smartwatch use, this study tested patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) for the incidence and consequence of contemporary mobile phone and smartwatch-produced electromagnetic interferences.

Background  Electromagnetic interferences can be hazardous for patients with CIEDs.

Methods  In total, 148 patients with CIEDs and leads from 4 different manufacturers were subjected to 1,352 tests. Analyzed CIEDs included 51 pacemakers, 5 cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemakers, 46 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, 43 cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators, and 3 implantable loop recorders. To analyze a possible influence of certain distances between the mobile phone (iPhone 6) and the smartwatch (Apple Watch A1553) to the CIED, both were placed either directly above implanted devices or at the right wrist. All possible activations of the iPhone and the Apple Watch, including the standby, dialing, and connecting modes (telephone connection and Internet access) were tested. In addition, we studied incidence and characteristics of interferences with interrogation telemetry.

Results  In this study, only a single case of mobile phone–induced electromagnetic interference on a dual-chamber pacemaker was observed. Utilizing wanded telemetry, iPhone induced interferences were found in 14% of the patients. However, none of the patients showed any interference with the Apple Watch.

Conclusions  The risk of electromagnetic interferences of the iPhone 6 and the Apple Watch with CIEDs is low. However, close proximity of the iPhone 6 to implanted devices can cause telemetry interferences.


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Thermoregulatory Stress as Potential Mediating Factor in the NTP Cell Phone Tumor Study

Jens Kuhne, Janine‐Alison Schmidt, Dirk Geschwentner, Blanka Pophof, Gunde Ziegelberger. Thermoregulatory Stress as Potential Mediating Factor in the NTP Cell Phone Tumor Study. Bioelectromagnetics. 21 July 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.22284.

No abstract.


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Environmental Pollution, Oxidative Stress and Thioretinaco Ozonide: Effects of Glyphosate, Fluoride and Electromagnetic Fields on Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Carcinogenesis, Atherogenesis and Aging

Kilmer S. McCully. Environmental Pollution, Oxidative Stress and Thioretinaco Ozonide: Effects of Glyphosate, Fluoride and Electromagnetic Fields on Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Carcinogenesis, Atherogenesis and Aging. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science. 50(3):408-411. May-June 2020.

Abstract

Environmental pollutants, such as pesticides, herbicides, additives to food and water, and electromagnetic fields threaten public health by promotion of cancer, heart disease and chronic diseases of aging. Many of these pollutants cause adverse health outcomes by effects on mitochondrial function to produce oxidative stress through loss of the active site complex for oxidative phosphorylation, thioretinaco ozonide oxygen nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, from opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Glyphosate, fluoride, and electromagnetic fields are examples of carcinogenic pollutants that promote loss and decomposition of the active site for oxidative phosphorylation, producing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Ionizing radiation has long been known to be carcinogenic, and non-ionizing electromagnetic fields from microwaves, radar, cell phones and cathode ray screens are carcinogenic and produce deleterious effects on capillaries, nerve cells, blood brain barrier, embryonic and germ cells, lenses and cardiac function. Adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields include cataracts, infertility, congenital malformations, cancer, lymphocytosis, leukemia, hearing loss, blindness, retinal hemorrhages, cardiac arrhythmias, dermatitis, hair loss, depression, memory loss, premature aging, heart attacks, and weaponized mind control. The hyperhomocysteinemia, suppressed immunity, and altered oxidative metabolism observed in atherosclerosis and dementia are attributed to deficiency of adenosyl methionine which results from increased polyamine biosynthesis by pathogenic microbes that are demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaques and cerebral plaques. Thus, environmental pollutants potentially promote diseases of aging, atherosclerosis, cancer, and premature aging by production of mitochondrial dysfunction.

http://www.annclinlabsci.org/content/50/3/408.abstract

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Characterization of Exposure to Electromagnetic Emissions from Public Mobile Systems Using the Time-Averaged and Integral-Based Measure


Darko Šuka, Predrag Pejović, Mirjana Simić-Pejović. Characterization of Exposure to Electromagnetic Emissions from Public Mobile Systems Using the Time-Averaged and Integral-Based Measure.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2020 Jul 22;ncaa091. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncaa091.

Abstract

Since radio frequency (RF) signals from public mobile systems are stochastic and exhibit large temporal variations, the results of measurements, typically E field measurements, are time dependent and highly variable. Therefore, any 6-min measurements and 6-min averaged results to obtain the mean level strength at a given place may not be so reliable when it comes to determine long-term exposure levels. Specifically, the results of such short-term exposure assessments can be both under- or overestimated depending on whether the extreme value is caught during the measurement time. Because the RF range is active 24 h a day, the authors suggest that the monitoring process should cover the same time period. To evaluate the variability of measurement results, the analysis in this paper was conducted through descriptive statistics of the 24-h instantaneous, time-averaged and integral-based values. By applying the 24-h time-averaged and integral-based measure on a 24-h data set of measurements, the variability of daily exposure could be reduced to ±20% of the mean week value obtained either with the time-averaged or integral-based measure.



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Transient Thermal Responses of Skin to Pulsed Millimeter Waves

Kenneth R. Foster, Marvin C. Ziskin, Quirino Balzano, Akimasa Hirata. Transient Thermal Responses of Skin to Pulsed Millimeter Waves. IEEE Access. in press. Jul 9, 2020. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3008322


Abstract

This study examines thermal responses of skin to pulsed millimeter wave (mm-wave) radiofrequency (RF) radiation. We review limits for pulse fluence in the IEEE Std. C95.1-2019 and the 2020 guideline of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), as well as the recently re-affirmed guidelines of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The study employs a simple one-dimensional thermal model for skin and Pennes’ bioheat equation (BHTE). The predicted temperature increases produced by 3-sec pulses at 94 GHz agree well with previous experimental results with no adjustable parameters in the model, and the anticipated threshold of cutaneous thermal pain and burns are consistent with the scant available data for pulsed mm-waves, as well as a larger body of data on thermal hazards from pulsed infrared radiation. The model suggests that the implicit limits on pulse fluence in present FCC guidelines might allow, in extreme (and, in practice, unrealistic) cases, transient increases in skin temperature that can approach thresholds for thermal pain but well below those anticipated to cause thermal damage. Limits on pulse fluence in the current IEEE and ICNIRP exposure guidelines would preclude such effects. For realistic exposures from wireless and other technologies that transmit pulsed RF energy that comply with time-averaged exposure limits, the pulse fluence is far too low to produce hazardous thermal transients in skin. A thermal analysis of FCC’s proposed “device-based time averaging” shows that the resulting limits on device emissions will result in thermal transients in skin that are roughly an order of magnitude below much slower increases in temperature due to time-averaged exposure. An appendix discusses the applicability of two approximations to the bioheat equation that can be used to estimate temperature increases in skin from exposure to mm-waves.

This work was supported in part by the Microwave and Wireless Forum to three of the present authors (KRF, MCZ, and QB).


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Design of an Integrated Platform for Mapping Residential Exposure to Rf-Emf Sources

Corentin Regrain, Julien Caudeville, René de Seze, Mohammed Guedda, Amirreza Chobineh, Philippe de Doncker, Luca Petrillo, Emma Chiaramello, Marta Parazzini, Wout Joseph, Sam Aerts, Anke Huss , Joe Wiart. Design of an Integrated Platform for Mapping Residential Exposure to Rf-Emf Sources. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 24;17(15):E5339. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17155339.

Abstract

Nowadays, information and communication technologies (mobile phones, connected objects) strongly occupy our daily life. The increasing use of these technologies and the complexity of network infrastructures raise issues about radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Rf-Emf) exposure. Most previous studies have assessed individual exposure to Rf-Emf, and the next level is to assess populational exposure. In our study, we designed a statistical tool for Rf-Emf populational exposure assessment and mapping. This tool integrates geographic databases and surrogate models to characterize spatiotemporal exposure from outdoor sources, indoor sources, and mobile phones. A case study was conducted on a 100 × 100 m grid covering the 14th district of Paris to illustrate the functionalities of the tool. Whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) values are 2.7 times higher than those for the whole brain. The mapping of whole-body and whole-brain SAR values shows a dichotomy between built-up and non-built-up areas, with the former displaying higher values. Maximum SAR values do not exceed 3.5 and 3.9 mW/kg for the whole body and the whole brain, respectively, thus they are significantly below International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations. Indoor sources are the main contributor to populational exposure, followed by outdoor sources and mobile phones, which generally represents less than 1% of total exposure.


Conclusions

We have designed a statistical tool that uses surrogate models for spatiotemporal mapping of Rf-Emf exposure. Using a mathematical and probabilistic approach, this tool aggregates spatiotemporal surrogate models of Rf-Emf exposure with geographical data, population distributions, socioeconomic data, and ICT use patterns. Data fusion of all this heterogeneous information results in an innovative and advanced mapping of residential exposure providing information on variability, occurrence, and exposure quantiles relevant for the public, health researchers, political decision-makers, and risk assessors. Future works will improve the approaches developed. For the Rf-Emf exposure, some exposure sources (laptop, 4G, 5G, and other future technology) will have to be integrated into the exposure assessment to consider the evolution of technologies and usages. Certain exposure mechanisms such as outdoor-to-indoor attenuation or electric-field propagation will need to be better characterized. For the methodological aspect, some methods used in this study will also be applied to larger and heterogeneous territories as well as for exposure assessment to chemical agents or biological risk factors.


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Evaluation of frequency magnetic field, static field, and Temozolomide on viability, free radical production and gene expression (p53) in the human glioblastoma cell line (A172)

Ahmad Ashta, Gholamreza Motalleb, Meysam Ahmadi-Zeidabadi. Evaluation of frequency magnetic field, static field, and Temozolomide on viability, free radical production and gene expression (p53) in the human glioblastoma cell line (A172). Electromagn Biol Med. 2020 Jul 15;1-12. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2020.1793171.

Abstract

Thirteen million cancer deaths and 21.7 million new cancer cases are expected in the world by 2030. Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system which is the most lethal type of primary brain tumor in adults with the survival time of 12-15 months after the initial diagnosis. Glioblastoma is the most common and most malignant type of brain tumor, and despite surgery, chemotherapy and radiation treatment, the average survival of patients is about 14 months. The current research showed that the frequency magnetic field (FMF) and static magnetic field (SMF) can influence cancer cell proliferation and coupled with anticancer drugs may provide a new strategy for cancer therapy. At the present study, we investigated the effects of FMF (10 Hz, 50 G), SMF (50 G) and Temozolomide (200 μm) on viability, free radical production, and p53 followed by p53 protein expression in the human glioblastoma cell line (A172) by MTT, NBT, RT-PCR and Western blot. Results showed that the effect of Temozolomide (TMZ) with SMF and FMF together increased the cytotoxicity, free radical production, and p53 followed by p53 protein expression in the human glioblastoma cell line (A172).


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Co‐Designed Exposure Protocol in the Study of Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields

Maryse Ledent, Benjamin Vatovez, Willy Pirard, Jimmy Bordarie, Nicolas Prignot, Gunnhild Oftedal, Christophe Geuzaine, Véronique Beauvois, Catherine Bouland, Luc Verschaeve, Maël Dieudonné. Co‐Designed Exposure Protocol in the Study of Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields. Bioelectromagnetics. 29 June 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.22281.

Abstract

The hypothesis of an electromagnetic origin of idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has been widely investigated by provocation studies, which consist of deliberately exposing people with IEI‐EMF in laboratory settings to particular EMF to observe volunteers’ reactions. In the majority of these studies, reactions have been found to be independent of exposure. However, most of these studies suffer from design and methodological limitations that might bias their findings or reduce their precision. As provocation studies are best suited for isolating the effects of EMF, innovative protocols should be applied. In the ExpoComm project (PNREST Anses, EST/2017/2 RF/19), several innovations have been introduced: the involvement of people with IEI‐EMF in the development of the protocol, the attenuation of the anxiogenic nature of the tests, the individualization of the protocol, the validation of the neutral or normal reactivity state before the test, and the use of a cocktail of real, rather than artificially generated, sources. The objective of involving people with IEI‐EMF was to increase the relevance and acceptability of the protocol, while respecting technical constraints and scientific quality requirements. This paper describes the protocol resulting from the collaborative process.


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Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) affects anti-oxidant capacity, DNA repair genes expression and, apoptosis in pregnant mouse placenta


Homeira Vafaei, Ghazal Kavari, Hamid Reza Izadi, Zahra Zare Dorahi, Mehdi Dianatpour, Afrooz Daneshparvar, Iman Jamhiri. Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) affects anti-oxidant capacity, DNA repair genes expression and, apoptosis in pregnant mouse placenta. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2020 Jun;23(6):833-840. doi: 10.22038/ijbms.2020.40184.9512.

Abstract

Objectives: The placenta provides nutrients and oxygen to embryo and removes waste products from embryo's blood. As far as we know, the effects of exposure to Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) signals on placenta have not been evaluated. Hence, we examined the effect of prenatal exposure to Wi-Fi signals on anti-oxidant capacity, expressions of CDKNA1, and GADD45a as well as apoptosis in placenta and pregnancy outcome.

Materials and methods: Pregnant mice were exposed to Wi-Fi signal (2.4 GHz) for 2 and 4 hr. Placenta tissues were examined to measure the MDA and SOD levels. To measure SOD, CDKNA1, GADD45a, Bax, and Bcl-2 expressions were compared by real-time PCR analysis. TUNEL assay was used to assess apoptosis in placenta tissues. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Prism version 6.0 software.

Results: MDA and SOD levels had significantly increased in exposed Wi-Fi signal groups (P-value< 0.05). Also, quantitative PCR experiment showed that SOD mRNA expression significantly increased in Wi-Fi signal groups. The data showed that CDKN1A and GADD45a genes were increased in Wi-Fi groups (P-value<0.05). The quantitative PCR and the TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis increased in Wi-Fi groups (P-value<0.05).

Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that Wi-Fi signals increase lipid peroxidation, SOD activity (oxidative stres), apoptosis and CDKN1A and GADD45a overexpression in mice placenta tissue. However, further experimental studies are warranted to investigate other genes and aspects of pregnancy to determine the role of Wi-Fi radiation on fertility and pregnancy.


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Investigating the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on job burnout syndrome and the severity of depression; the role of oxidative stress

Majid Bagheri Hosseinabadi, Narges Khanjani, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi, Seyed Habib Mousavi, Fereshteh Nazarkhani. Investigating the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on job burnout syndrome and the severity of depression; the role of oxidative stress. J Occup Health. 2020 Jan;62(1):e12136. doi: 10.1002/1348-9585.12136.

Abstract

Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the possible effect of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on occupational burnout syndrome and the severity of depression experienced among thermal power plant workers and the role of oxidative stress.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 115 power plant workers and 124 administrative personnel of a hospital were enrolled as exposed and unexposed groups, respectively, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Levels of oxidative stress biomarkers, including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat), and total antioxidant capacity were measured in serum samples. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields was measured using the IEEE Std C95.3.1 standard at each workstation. The burnout syndrome and the severity of depression were assessed using the Maslach Burnout and Beck Depression Inventory.

Results: The levels of MDA and SOD were significantly lower in the exposed group than the unexposed group. The exposed group reported a higher prevalence of burnout syndrome and higher depression severity. Multiple linear regression showed that work experience, MDA level, and levels of exposure to magnetic fields are the most important predictor variables for burnout syndrome and severity of depression. In addition, a decrease in the level of Cat was significantly associated with increased burnout syndrome.

Conclusion: The thermal power plant workers exposed to ELF-EMFs are at risk of burnout syndrome and depression. These effects may be caused directly by exposure to magnetic fields or indirectly due to increased oxidative stress indices.


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Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field induces a change in proliferative capacity and redox homeostasis of human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5

Maida H Lekovic, Nerkesa E Drekovic, Nihat Dz Granica, Elvis H Mahmutovic, Natasa Z Djordjevic. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field induces a change in proliferative capacity and redox homeostasis of human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jul 10. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-10039-0.

Abstract

Numerous studies have shown that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) by modulating oxidative-antioxidative balance in the cells achieved beneficial and harmful effects on living organisms. The aim of this study was to research changes of both proliferative capacity and redox homeostasis of human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 during exposure to ELF-EMF (50 Hz). The human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 were exposed to ELF-EMF once a day in duration of 1 h during 24 h (1 treatment 1 h/day), 48 h (2 treatments 1 h/day), 72 h (3 treatments 1 h/day), and 7 days (7 treatments 1 h/day). After 24 h of the last treatment, the proliferative capacity of the cells and the concentrations and activities of the components of the oxidative/antioxidative system were determined: superoxide anion (O2.-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO-), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The results of this study show that ELF-EMF may affect a cell cycle regulation of human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 through modulation of oxidative/antioxidative defense system. The effects of ELF-EMF on proliferation and redox balance of human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 depend on exposure time.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32651790/

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Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields Exposure Measurement during Lessons in Elementary Schools


JinKyung Park, EunHye Jeong, GyeongAe Seomun. Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields Exposure Measurement during Lessons in Elementary Schools. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 22;17(15):E5284. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17155284.

Abstract

Schools are an important place for children's exposure to electromagnetic fields, which may cause adverse health effects. To better understand environmental extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) exposure among elementary school students, we measured numeric values of ELF-MFs in five classrooms at four schools during digital learning class hours. The measurement of ELF-MFs was taken with an EMDEX II field analyzer. Specifically, we examined the level of exposure to ELF-MFs for each student's seating position in the classroom. The results showed that ELF-MFs exposure levels were lower than those in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines; however, there were significant differences in the level of magnetic field exposure at each school and at each student's seat. The exposure to ELF-MFs at students' seat positions was mostly caused by electrical appliances, electronic wiring, and distribution boxes, but the exposure level decreased as the distance increased. Therefore, it is important to design safe and appropriate environments for digital learning in schools, such as proper seating arrangements, to avoid ELF-MFs exposure to students as much as possible. Future studies should measure ELF-MFs levels in other areas and investigate the effects of exposure to ELF-MFs during school hours on children's health.

Excerpts

The average ELF-MFs exposure in all schools measured in this study was lower than the exposure standard level for the general public recommended by the ICNIRP guidelines [22]. These measurements were similar to the exposure levels in homes (0.025–0.07 μT in Europe and 0.055–0.11 μT in the USA) [1] and were higher than those recorded in the study of Tardón et al. (0.01 and 0.02 μT) [25] and Nassiri et al. (0.15 μT) [26]. However, in the present study, ELF-MFs exposure was measured in digital learning classrooms at seven points at different heights rather than at a single spot in the classroom, and a comparison with the results of previous studies is therefore difficult. This study proposes meaningful methods and criteria for measuring ELF-MFs exposure that can be used in future studies.

The exposure levels of ELF-MFs detected in this study could affect children’s perception [27] and is associated with a higher risk of childhood leukemia [13,14,15,16]. Disorders of cognitive function [17,18,19], disorders of memory performance, headaches, and sleep disorders [20,21] are also associated with these exposure levels. Although there has been no explicit evidence for adverse health effects in children by ELF-MFs exposure, since the nervous and immune systems of children could be more sensitive to ELF-MFs [2,28], children should avoid exposure to ELF-MFs as much as possible. Therefore, a reduction policy should be established to minimize exposure levels for children.


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Response of Young Nerium Oleander Plants to Long-Term Non-Ionizing Radiation

Aikaterina L Stefi, Konstantina Mitsigiorgi, Dido Vassilacopoulou, Nikolaos S Christodoulakis. Response of Young Nerium Oleander Plants to Long-Term Non-Ionizing Radiation. Planta. 2020 May 27;251(6):108. doi: 10.1007/s00425-020-03405-2.

Abstract

Although exposure to low frequency electromagnetic radiation is harmful to plants, LF-EM irradiated Nerium oleander seedlings exhibited enhanced development and growth, probably taking advantage of defined structural leaf deformations. Currently, evidence supports the undesirable, often destructive impact of low frequency electromagnetic (LF-EM) radiation on plants. The response of plants to LF-EM radiation often entails induction in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, a subject matter that is well documented. Nerium oleander is a Mediterranean plant species, which evolved remarkable resistance to various environmental stress conditions. In the current investigation, cultivated N. oleander plants, following their long-term exposure to LF-EM radiation, exhibited major structural modifications as the flattening of crypts, the elimination of trichomes and the reduction of the layers of the epidermal cells. These changes co-existed with an oxidative stress response manifested by a significant increase in reactive oxygen species at both the roots and the above ground parts, a decline in the absorbance of light by photosynthetic pigments and the substantially increased biosynthesis of L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC), an enzyme catalyzing the production of secondary metabolites that alleviate stress. The exposed plants exhibited greater primary plant productivity, despite a manifested photosynthetic pigment limitation and the severe oxidative stress. This unique response of N. oleander to severe abiotic stress conditions may be owed to the advantage offered by a structural change consistent to an easier diffusion of CO2 within the leaves. A major plant response to an emerging "pollutant" was documented.


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The Magnetic Receptor of Monascus ruber M7: Gene Clone and Its Heterologous Expression in Escherichia coli

Hongyi Zhou, Shuyan Yang, Fusheng Chen. The Magnetic Receptor of Monascus ruber M7: Gene Clone and Its Heterologous Expression in Escherichia coli. Front Microbiol. 2020 Jun 19;11:1112. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.01112.

Abstract

It is well known that many organisms can perceive the magnetic field (MF), including the geomagnetic field, but how to feel MF is unclear. Recently, a study has claimed that a biological compass, namely a complex of the magnetic receptor (MagR) and blue light (BL) receptor (cryptochrome), has been found in Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, and Danaus plexippus, which may bring some new ideas to explore the mechanism of biomagnetism. Monascus spp. are edible filamentous fungi that can produce abundant beneficial secondary metabolites and have been used to produce food colorants for nearly 2000 years in the world, especially in China, Japan, and Korea. In this work, we firstly treated M. ruber M7 by BL (500 lux,465-467 nm), MF (5, 10, 30 mT), and the combination of MF and BL (MF-BL), respectively. The results revealed that, compared with the control (CK, neither BL nor MF), the MF alone had no effect on the growth and morphological characteristics of M7, but BL made the colonial diameters only 66.7% of CK's and inhibited the formation of cleistothecia. Under MF-BL, the colony diameters were still 66.7% of CK's, but the colonial growth and cleistothecia production inhibited by BL were partially restored. Then, we have found that the magR gene widely exists in the genomes of animals, plants, and microorganisms, and we have also discovered a magR gene in the M7 genome, hereinafter referred to mr-magR. Finally, the full-length cDNA of mr-magR was successfully cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the Mr-MagR protein was purified by a Ni+-NTA column and identified by Western blot. These results have laid a foundation for further investigation on the relationship between Mr-MagR and BL receptor(s) that might exist in M7. According to a literature search, it is the first time to report magR in filamentous fungi.


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Radiofrequency electromagnetic field affects heart rate variability in rabbits

J Misek, M Veterník, I Tonhajzerova, V Jakusova, L Janousek, J Jakus. Radiofrequency electromagnetic field affects heart rate variability in rabbits. Physiol Res. 2020 Jul 16.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) on heart rate variability (HRV) in rabbits with intensity slightly exceeding the limits for occupations. Totally 21 New Zealand white rabbits divided into two groups were used in this double-blind study. The first group of animals without general anesthesia was subjected to HRV examination under exposure to a device generated RF EMF source (frequency 1788 MHz, intensity 160 V/m, lasting 150 min.). The second group (premedications + alpha chloralose mg/kg) underwent the same protocol under the exposure to the real RF EMF signal from the base stations of mobile providers (frequency range 1805 - 1870 MHz - corresponding to the downlink signal of Slovak mobile providers, 160 V/m, 150 min., respectively). Individual 5 min records were used to analyze the HRV parameters: heart rate and root Mean Square of the Successive Differences (rMSSD) for time domain analysis and spectral powers in the low (LF-VFS) and high frequency (HF-VFS) bands for frequency domain analysis. Our study revealed the increase in HRV parameters (HF-HRV, rMSSD) associated with lower heart rate indicating increased cardiac vagal control under the exposure to RF EMF in experimental methods.

Open access paper: http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/prepress/934425.pdf

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Arabidopsis cryptochrome is responsive to Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields

Maria Albaqami, Merfat Hammad, Marootpong Pooam, Maria Procopio, Mahyar Sameti, Thorsten Ritz, Margaret Ahmad, Carlos F Martino. Arabidopsis cryptochrome is responsive to Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 9;10(1):11260. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-67165-5.

Abstract

How living systems respond to weak electromagnetic fields represents one of the major unsolved challenges in sensory biology. Recent evidence has implicated cryptochrome, an evolutionarily conserved flavoprotein receptor, in magnetic field responses of organisms ranging from plants to migratory birds. However, whether cryptochromes fulfill the criteria to function as biological magnetosensors remains to be established. Currently, theoretical predictions on the underlying mechanism of chemical magnetoreception have been supported by experimental observations that exposure to radiofrequency (RF) in the MHz range disrupt bird orientation and mammalian cellular respiration. Here we show that, in keeping with certain quantum physical hypotheses, a weak 7 MHz radiofrequency magnetic field significantly reduces the biological responsivity to blue light of the cryptochrome receptor cry1 in Arabidopsis seedlings. Using an in vivo phosphorylation assay that specifically detects activated cryptochrome, we demonstrate that RF exposure reduces conformational changes associated with biological activity. RF exposure furthermore alters cryptochrome-dependent plant growth responses and gene expression to a degree consistent with theoretical predictions. To our knowledge this represents the first demonstration of a biological receptor responding to RF exposure, providing important new implications for magnetosensing as well as possible future applications in biotechnology and medicine.


Open access paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-67165-5

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Modulation of voltage-gated calcium influx by electromagnetic irradiation with terahertz Gaussian pulse


Wenfei Bo, Lianghao Guo, Kaicheng Wang, Jialu Ma, Jingchao Tang, Zhe Wu, Baoqing Zeng, Yubin Gong. Modulation of voltage-gated calcium influx by electromagnetic irradiation with terahertz Gaussian pulse. IEEE Access. Jul 21, 2020. 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3010870

Abstract

The voltage-gated calcium influxes modulated with terahertz Gaussian pulse is presented in this paper, and temperature rise is evaluated to monitor the terahertz thermal effects involved in the modulation. From the numerical results, inhibition effect on voltage-gated calcium influx because of the loss of the influx from electric drift is transparently revealed in the modulation with terahertz Gaussian pulse. And the inhibition effect becomes significant reflected by considerable reduction in voltage-gated calcium influx as the irradiated amplitude is raised intense enough. Compared to the terahertz sinusoidal wave, Gaussian pulse reduces the inhibition effect dramatically. The decrease in the increment of intracellular calcium concentration with the irradiated amplitude due to the inhibition effect is substantially relieved by the modulation of the calcium influx with terahertz Gaussian pulse. The thermal analyses reveal that the modulation is non-thermal effect. Meanwhile, to raise the intracellular calcium concentration to a same amount by means of the voltage-gated calcium influx, application of terahertz Gaussian pulse induces much less concurrent temperature rise than application of terahertz sinusoidal wave of the same amplitude that is intense enough to cause the inhibition effect. Additionally, terahertz Gaussian pulse irradiation remains the dependence of the increment of the calcium concentration on the irradiated time duration and frequency in terahertz sinusoidal wave irradiation. These numerical results lay the theoretical basis for the modulation of voltage-gated calcium fluxes with terahertz Gaussian pulse and for further potential clinical applications of terahertz Gaussian pulse.


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A current synthesis on the effects of electric and magnetic fields emitted by submarine power cables on invertebrates


Luana Albert, François Deschamps, Aurélie Jolivet, Frédéric Olivier, Laurent Chauvaud, Sylvain Chauvaud. A current synthesis on the effects of electric and magnetic fields emitted by submarine power cables on invertebrates. Mar Environ Res. 2020 Jul;159:104958. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.104958.

Highlights
• Submarine power cables produce both magnetic and electric fields.
• Marine invertebrate species inhabit the benthic or sediment compartment where cables are laid or buried.
• Evidence shows magneto and electro-sensitivity in some invertebrates but their response to artificial fields is poorly known.
• Invertebrate species are likely to experience the highest and longest exposures and should be prioritised in future studies.
Abstract

The goal of clean renewable energy production has promoted the large-scale deployment of marine renewable energy devices, and their associated submarine cable network. Power cables produce both electric and magnetic fields that raise environmental concerns as many marine organisms have magneto and electroreception abilities used for vital purposes. Magnetic and electric fields' intensities decrease with distance away from the cable. Accordingly, the benthic and the sedimentary compartments are exposed to the highest field values. Although marine invertebrate species are the major fauna of these potentially exposed areas, they have so far received little attention. We provide extensive background knowledge on natural and anthropogenic marine sources of magnetic and electric fields. We then compile evidence for magneto- and electro-sensitivity in marine invertebrates and further highlight what is currently known about their interactions with artificial sources of magnetic and electric fields. Finally we discuss the main gaps and future challenges that require further investigation.


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Challenges in coupling atmospheric electricity with biological systems


Ellard R Hunting, James Matthews, Pablo Fernández de Arróyabe Hernáez, Sam J England, Konstantinos Kourtidis, Kuang Koh, Keri Nicoll, R Giles Harrison, Konstantine Manser, Colin Price, Snezana Dragovic, Michal Cifra, Anna Odzimek, Daniel Robert. Challenges in coupling atmospheric electricity with biological systems. Int J Biometeorol. 2020 Jul 14. doi: 10.1007/s00484-020-01960-7.

Abstract

The atmosphere is host to a complex electric environment, ranging from a global electric circuit generating fluctuating atmospheric electric fields to local lightning strikes and ions. While research on interactions of organisms with their electrical environment is deeply rooted in the aquatic environment, it has hitherto been confined to interactions with local electrical phenomena and organismal perception of electric fields. However, there is emerging evidence of coupling between large- and small-scale atmospheric electrical phenomena and various biological processes in terrestrial environments that even appear to be tied to continental waters. Here, we synthesize our current understanding of this connectivity, discussing how atmospheric electricity can affect various levels of biological organization across multiple ecosystems. We identify opportunities for research, highlighting its complexity and interdisciplinary nature and draw attention to both conceptual and technical challenges lying ahead of our future understanding of the relationship between atmospheric electricity and the organization and functioning of biological systems.



Excerpts

In biological systems, alternating currents (AC) range from a fraction of hertz to approximately 1000 Hz. Early studies focussed on biological effects of electromagnetic fields in the ELF range in relation to possible effects since ELF is measurable—albeit weak in comparison—in the activity of the human central nervous system (e.g., König et al. 1981). An increasing interest in higher radiofrequencies and microwaves subsequently developed due to the growing application in radio-communication and industry (Repacholi 1998). This interest persists as ELF is now nearly ubiquitous in both industrial and domestic environments (e.g., Bortkiewicz et al. 2006). ELF has also been considered to present potential health or therapeutic applications (König et al. 1981). While biological organisms have been naturally subjected to geomagnetic and electromagnetic fields over the course of the evolution of life on earth, scientific knowledge on the possible beneficial or deleterious effects of such fields remains sparse. Yet, evidence points to responses of biological systems, albeit inconsistent, to the action of electromagnetic fields and waves, including the current expansion of 5G wireless communication with potential adverse effects on DNA and membrane integrity, sperm function, and viability as well as immune and neuronal functioning (Marron et al. 1975; König et al. 1981; Liboff et al. 1984; Mikolajczyk 1990; Bortkiewicz et al. 2006; Valberg et al. 2006; Huss et al. 2007; Engels et al. 2014; Panagopoulos et al. 2015; Kocaman et al. 2018; Russell 2018; Saliev et al. 2019).


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Low Strength Magnetic Fields Serve as a Cue for Foraging Honey Bees but Prior Experience is More Indicative of Choice


Ana M Chicas-Mosier, Medhat Radi, Jack Lafferrandre, John F O'Hara, Hitesh D Vora, Charles I Abramson. Low Strength Magnetic Fields Serve as a Cue for Foraging Honey Bees but Prior Experience is More Indicative of Choice. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Jul 20. doi: 10.1002/bem.22285.

Abstract

Species of migrating insects use magnetic fields as a navigational tool that is independent of current weather conditions and non-migrating species have been shown to discriminate anomalies in magnetic field from the earth's baseline. Honey bee discrimination of magnetic field has been studied in the context of associative learning, physiology, and whole hive responses. This article uses a combination of free-flight and laboratory studies to determine how small fluctuations from Earth's magnetic field affect honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) decision-making. Honey bees were tested in three experiments: (i) recruitment to an aqueous sucrose feeder, (ii) an artificial free-flight flower patch with floral color-dependent magnetic field strength, and (iii) a Y-maze with alternating colors on a stronger magnetic field. In free-flying feeder experiments, magnetic field served as a temporary cue, but when offered an equal caloric alternative with lesser magnetic field, the latter was preferred. Flower patch experiments showed initial color biases that were abandoned as a response to magnetic field induction. In laboratory experiments, bees showed a color-dependent behavioral response to the magnetic field. The results of this study indicate that bees may use small fluctuations in magnetic fields as a cue but that it is likely low-value as compared with other stimuli



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Animal Navigation: Seabirds Home to a Moving Magnetic Target


Nathan F Putman. Animal Navigation: Seabirds Home to a Moving Magnetic Target Curr Biol. 2020 Jul 20;30(14):R802-R804. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.061.

Abstract

Shifts in the return locations of juvenile seabirds migrating from the Irish Sea to Argentina can be accurately predicted by changes in Earth's magnetic field, suggesting that these birds rely on a geomagnetic map for navigation.


Thursday, July 30, 2020

New Apple Watch Reignites Concerns over Cell Phone Radiation





Are Contemporary Smartwatches and Mobile Phones Safe for Patients With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices?

Philipp Lacour, Abdul ShokorParwani, Franziska Schuessler, Felix Hohendanner, Frank  R. Heinzel, Tobias D.Trippel, Leif-Hendrik Bold, Burkert Pieske, Florian Blaschke. Are Contemporary Smartwatches and Mobile Phones Safe for Patients With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices? JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology. 29 July 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.04.033.

Abstract

Objectives   Given the increasing prevalence of mobile phone and smartwatch use, this study tested patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) for the incidence and consequence of contemporary mobile phone and smartwatch-produced electromagnetic interferences.

Background  Electromagnetic interferences can be hazardous for patients with CIEDs.

Methods  In total, 148 patients with CIEDs and leads from 4 different manufacturers were subjected to 1,352 tests. Analyzed CIEDs included 51 pacemakers, 5 cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemakers, 46 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, 43 cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators, and 3 implantable loop recorders. To analyze a possible influence of certain distances between the mobile phone (iPhone 6) and the smartwatch (Apple Watch A1553) to the CIED, both were placed either directly above implanted devices or at the right wrist. All possible activations of the iPhone and the Apple Watch, including the standby, dialing, and connecting modes (telephone connection and Internet access) were tested. In addition, we studied incidence and characteristics of interferences with interrogation telemetry.

Results  In this study, only a single case of mobile phone–induced electromagnetic interference on a dual-chamber pacemaker was observed. Utilizing wanded telemetry, iPhone induced interferences were found in 14% of the patients. However, none of the patients showed any interference with the Apple Watch.

Conclusions  The risk of electromagnetic interferences of the iPhone 6 and the Apple Watch with CIEDs is low. However, close proximity of the iPhone 6 to implanted devices can cause telemetry interferences.



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September 25, 2017  (Updated with Series 4 Watches, Sep 13, 2018)

The San Francisco Chronicle published an article today, "New Apple Watch reignites concerns over radiation" (Catherine Ho, September 25, 2017).

Since the new Apple Watch can operate like a cell phone, some public health researchers and medical experts have raised concerns about the potential health risks from exposure to the radiation emitted by this device.
"There is no definitive data from federal health regulators showing a direct link between cell phone radiation — also known as radio frequency radiation — and health problems in humans. But recent research indicates that exposure to cell phone radiation is the likely cause of malignant growths in the brains and hearts of male rats, and can cause neurological damage in rats born to mothers that were exposed to the radiation during pregnancy."
The article mentions my successful lawsuit against the California Department of Public Health. It also discusses the cell phone radiation and cancer study conducted by the National Toxicology Program.
“ 'That’s going to up the exposure and probably increase the risk to the user over the long term,' said Joel Moskowitz, a researcher at UC Berkeley’s School of Public Health. 'I don’t think there’s anyone who can say definitively this is going to hurt the user. But many scientists would say we don’t have enough information to claim these devices are safe.' ”
"We have evidence that levels of radiation far weaker than those of a cell phone can be damaging to human sperm as well as to the progeny produced by animals that are pregnant and exposed to this throughout their pregnancy.”Devra Davis, Environmental Health Trust
Neither Apple nor the CTIA would comment on the story.


The article is available at http://bit.ly/aplwatch3.

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Specific Absorption Rates (SARs) for the Apple Watch (Series 3)

Before reading what Apple reports (below), I suggest you read the following posts on my website which discuss why the SAR is not a reliable measure of the potential health risks from using a wireless device on or near your body.



Apple Watch Series 4 RF Exposure Information

Apple Watch has been tested and meets applicable limits for radio frequency (RF) exposure.

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) refers to the rate at which the body absorbs RF energy. SAR limits depend on whether Apple Watch is used against the head or on the wrist. In the U.S, and some countries, the SAR limit is 1.6 watts per kilogram averaged over 1 gram of tissue for use against the head and 4.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use on the wrist. In other countries, the SAR limit is 2.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use against the head and 4.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use on the wrist.

The SAR distribution at the exposed side of the head or body was measured at a distance no greater than 5.0 mm from the inner surface of the shell. 

Devices that are designed to be worn on the wrist may operate in speaker mode for voice communication, with the device worn on the wrist and positioned next to the mouth. When next-to-mouth SAR evaluation is required, the device is positioned at 10 mm from a flat phantom filled with head tissue-equivalent medium. The device is evaluated with wrist bands strapped together to represent normal use conditions. 

Devices that are designed or intended for use on extremities or mainly operated in extremity only exposure conditions; i.e., hands, wrists, feet and ankles, may require extremity SAR evaluation. When the device also operates in close proximity to the user’s body, SAR compliance for the body is also required. When extremity SAR evaluation is required, the device is evaluated with the back of the device touching the flat phantom, which is filled with body tissue-equivalent medium. The device was evaluated with Sport wristband unstrapped and touching the phantom. For Metal Loop and Metal Links wristbands, the device was evaluated with wristbands strapped and the distance between wristbands and the phantom was minimized to represent the spacing created by actual use condition.

Although this device has been tested to determine SAR in each band of operation, not all bands are available in all areas. Bands are dependent on your service provider’s wireless networks.

Looking across the Series 4 models, the highest cellular transmission SAR was 0.37 watts per kilogram (W/kg); the highest Wi-Fi SAR was 0.17 W/kg; the highest Bluetooth SAR was 0.13 W/kg, and the highest simultaneous transmission SAR (cellular plus Wi-Fi) was 0.50 W/kg.

The highest tested SAR values for each Series 4 model of the Apple Watch were as follows:


Model A1975
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =           0.25 W/kg
Wi-Fi =              0.14 W/kg
Bluetooth =       0.11 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.39 W/kg

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =           0.34 W/kg
Wi-Fi =              0.11 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.40 W/kg

Model A1976
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =           0.25 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             <0.1  W/kg
Bluetooth =       0.10 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.35 W/kg

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =           0.27 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             <0.1 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.32 W/kg


Model A1977
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =           0.37 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             0.13  W/kg
Bluetooth =      <0.1  W/kg
simultaneous =  0.50 W/kg

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =           0.26 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             <0.1 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.32 W/kg


Model A1978
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =              No cellular
Wi-Fi =              0.17 W/kg
Bluetooth =       0.13  W/kg
simultaneous =    Not applicable

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =             No cellular
Wi-Fi =              0.10 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =     Not applicable


Model A2007
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =           0.37 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             0.13  W/kg
Bluetooth =      <0.1  W/kg
simultaneous =  0.50 W/kg

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =           0.26 W/kg
Wi-Fi =             <0.1 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.32 W/kg


Model A2008
head (over 1 gram): 
cellular =           0.36 W/kg
Wi-Fi =              0.14 W/kg
Bluetooth =       0.10  W/kg
simultaneous =  0.50 W/kg

extremity (over 10 grams):
cellular =           0.31 W/kg
Wi-Fi =              0.11 W/kg
Bluetooth =       <0.1 W/kg
simultaneous =  0.42 W/kg


Apple Watch Series 3 RF Exposure Information


Apple has posted information on its website about the Specific Absorption Rate or SAR for the Series 3 Apple Watches.

Apple Watch has been tested and meets applicable limits for radio frequency (RF) exposure.

Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) refers to the rate at which the body absorbs RF energy. SAR limits depend on whether Apple Watch is used against the head or on the wrist. In some countries, the SAR limit is 1.6 watts per kilogram averaged over 1 gram of tissue for use against the head and 4.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use on the wrist. In other countries, the SAR limit is 2.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use against the head and 4.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue for use on the wrist.

During testing, Apple Watch radios are set to their highest transmission levels and placed in positions that simulate use against the head, with 10 mm separation, and on the wrist, with no separation. When placing Apple Watch near your face, keep at least 10 mm of separation to ensure exposure levels remain at or below the as-tested levels.

Although this device has been tested to determine SAR in each band of operation, not all bands are available in all areas. Bands are dependent on your service provider’s wireless networks.

The highest tested SAR values were as follows:

GPS and Cellular Models:

Model A1860

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.53
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.18

Model A1889

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.29
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.15

Model A1890

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.16
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.14

Model A1861

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.52
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.34

Model A1891

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.35
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.18

Model A1892

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.25
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.14

GPS –only Models:

Model A1858

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.17
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.034

Model A1859

1.6 W/kg (over 1 g) SAR Limit
Head: 0.11
4.0 W/kg (over 10 g) SAR Limit
Wrist: 0.023