Introduction: During the last few decades, hundreds of thousands of mobile phone base stations and other types of wireless communications antennas have been installed around the world, in cities and in nature, including protected natural areas, in addition to pre-existing antennas (television, radio broadcasting, radar, etc.). Only the aesthetic aspects or urban regulations have been generally considered in this deployment, while the biological, environmental and health impacts of the associated non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation emissions have not been assessed so far. Therefore, the effects on humans living around these anthropogenic electromagnetic field sources (antennas) have not been considered.
In France, there is a significant contribution of mobile phone base stations in the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) of urban citizens living nearby (De Giudici et al., 2021). Some studies from India indicate that more than 15% of people have levels of EMF strength above 12 V/m due to their proximity to antennas (Premlal and Eldhose, 2017). Exposure estimates have shown that RF-EMF from mobile telephone systems is stronger in urban than in rural areas. For instance, in Sweden the levels of RF radiation have increased considerably in recent years, both outdoor and indoor, due to new telecommunication technologies, and the median power density measured for RF fields between 30 MHz and 3 GHz was 16 μW/m2 in rural areas, 270 μW/m2 in urban areas and 2400 μW/m2 in city areas (Hardell et al., 2018). Total exposure varies not only between urban and rural areas but also, depending on residential characteristics, between different floors of a building, with a tendency for building exposure to increase at higher floors (Breckenkamp et al., 2012).
Over the past five decades, and more intensively since the beginning of this century, many studies and several reviews have been published on the effects of anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation on humans living around the antennas. The first studies were carried out with radio and television antennas, investigating increases in cancer and leukaemia (Milham, 1988; Maskarinec et al., 1994; Hocking et al., 1996; Dolk et al., 1997a, 1997b; Michelozzi et al., 1998; Altpeter et al., 2000), as well as around radars (Kolodynski and Kolodynska, 1996; Goldsmith, 1997).
Regarding base station antennas, there are scientific discrepancies in their effects: some studies concluded that there are no health-related effects (e.g. Augner and Hacker, 2009; Blettner et al., 2009; Röösli et al., 2010; Baliatsas et al., 2016) whereas others found increases in cancer and other health problems in humans living around antennas (e.g. Santini et al., 2002; Navarro et al., 2003; Bortkiewicz et al., 2004; Eger et al., 2004; Wolf and Wolf, 2004; Abdel-Rassoul et al., 2007; Khurana et al., 2010; Dode et al., 2011; Shinjyo and Shinjyo, 2014; Gandhi et al., 2015; López et al., 2021; Rodrigues et al., 2021). There is a specific symptomatology linked to radar and RF exposure at low levels, characterized by functional disturbances of the central nervous system (headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, irritability, depression, memory loss, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, appetite loss, difficulty in concentration, dizziness, etc.), that has been termed ‘RF sickness’ (Lilienfeld et al., 1978; Johnson Lyakouris, 1998; Navarro et al., 2003).
Results: The studies that met the selected criteria are presented in chronological order in Table 1, catalogued as Y/N depending on whether or not they found effects. The selected studies cover three types of effects: radiofrequency sickness (RS) (according to Lilienfeld et al., 1978; Johnson Lyakouris, 1998), cancer (C) and changes in biochemical parameters (CBP). Table 1 also includes the authors, year and country, antenna type, study design, diseases and symptoms found/not found and the main conclusions of each study.
For the reasons previously explained, the following studies (n=85) were not considered in this review, even though the conclusions of some of these studies will be discussed later due
to their importance regarding the similarities of the electromagnetic radiation types involved and the effects found in many cases....
The results of this review show three types of effects by base station antennas on the health of humans: radiofrequency sickness, cancer and changes in biochemical parameters (Fig. 1). From among all these studies, most of them found effects (73.6%). Thus, despite some limitations and differences in study design, statistical measures, risk estimates and exposure categories (Khurana et al., 2010), together they provide a consistent view of the effects on the health of people living in the vicinity of base station antennas.
The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) is a private organization that issues exposure guidelines that are then adopted by governments, but it has been accused of having conflicts of interest (Hardell and Carlberg, 2020; Hardell et al., 2021). The ICNIRP (2010, 2020) limits are thousands of times above the levels where effects are recorded for both extremely low frequency and RF man-made EMF and account only for thermal effects, whereas the vast majority of recorded effects are non-thermal. These existing guidelines for public health protection only consider the effects of acute intense (thermal) exposures and do not protect from lower level long-term exposures (Israel et al., 2011; Yakimenko et al., 2011; Blank et al., 2015; Starkey, 2016; Belpomme and Irigaray, 2022). The exposure duration is crucial to assess the induced effects.
Conclusion: In the current circumstances, it seems that the scientific experts in the field are very clear about the serious problems we are facing and have expressed this through important appeals (Blank et al., 2015; Hardell and Nyberg, 2020). However, the media, the responsible organizations (World Health Organization, 2015) and the governments are not transmitting this crucial information to the population, who remain uninformed. For these reasons, the current situation will probably end in a crisis not only for health but also for the technology itself, as it is unsustainable and harmful to the environment and the people.
• Drastic growth in communication technologies increased RFR exposure in environment
Growing evidence recommends that radiofrequency radiations might be a new type of environmental pollutant. The consequences of RFR on the human immune system have gained considerable interest in recent years, not only to examine probable negative effects on health but also to understand if RFR can modulate the immune response positively. Although several studies have been published on the immune effects of RFR but no satisfactory agreement has been reached. Hence this review aims to evaluate the RFR modulating impacts on particular immune cells contributing to various innate or adaptive immune responses. In view of existing pieces of evidence, we have suggested an intracellular signaling cascade responsible for RFR action. The bio-effects of RFR on immune cell morphology, viability, proliferation, genome integrity, and immune functions such as ROS, cytokine secretion, phagocytosis, apoptosis, etc. are discussed. The majority of existing evidence point toward the possible shifts in the activity, number, and/or function of immunocompetent cells, but the outcome of several studies is still contradictory and needs further studies to reach a conclusion. Also, the direct association of experimental studies to human risks might not be helpful as exposure parameters vary in real life. On the basis of recent available literature, we suggest that special experiments should be designed to test each particular signal utilized in communication technologies to rule out the hypothesis that longer exposure to RFR emitting devices would affect the immunity by inducing genotoxic effects in human immune cells.
I. Till date, the bulk of available research articles remarkably indicated the RFR-induced changes in innate and adaptive immune responses. The morphological and physiological modulations in the immune cells were reported such as variation in viability, gene and protein expression, generation of ROS, induction of DNA damage, stimulation of inflammatory markers, altered normal immune functions and eventually provoking inflammatory reactions, chronic allergic reactions, autoimmune responses leading to damaged tissues and organs.
If only a portion of the population has a genetic susceptibility to brain cancer in the presence of microwave radiation as may be the case with thyroid cancer (Luo et al., 2020), that could explain why the odds ratios obtained for brain cancer risk from case-control studies of heavy, long-term mobile phone users over-predict glioma incidence in the overall population based upon tumor registry data.
Background: The electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by the technologies affect the homeostatic systems (nervous, endocrine, and immune systems) and consequently the health. In a previous work, we observed that men and women, after 2 months of using a bed with a registered HOGO system, that prevents and drain EMFs, improved their immunity, redox and inflammatory states and rejuvenated their rate of aging or biological age. Since, EMFs can act as a chronic stressor stimulus, and affect the sleep quality. The objective of this work was to study in men and women (23-73 years old) the effect of sleeping for 2 months on that bed in the blood concentrations of several hormones related to stress response and sleep quality as well as to corroborate the rejuvenation of their biological age.
Methods: In 18 men and women, plasma concentration of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine), serotonin, oxytocin and melatonin were analyzed before and after 2 months of using the HOGO beds. A group of 10 people was used as placebo control. In another cohort of 25 men (20 experimental and 5 placebo), the effects of rest on the HOGO system on the concentration of cortisol and testosterone in plasma were studied. In all these volunteers, the biological age was analyzed using the Immunity Clock model.
Results: There is a significant increase in plasma concentration of DHEA, norepinephrine, serotonin, oxytocin, and melatonin as well as in testosterone, after resting for 2 months in that bed with the EMFs avoiding system. In addition, decreases in Cortisol/DHEA and Testosterone/cortisol ratio and plasma dopamine concentration were observed. No differences were found in placebo groups. In all participants that slept on HOGO beds, the biological age was reduced.
Conclusions: Sleeping in a bed that isolates from EMFs and drain them can be a possible strategy to improve the secretion of hormones related to a better response to stress and sleep quality, which means a better endocrine system, and consequently better homeostasis and maintenance of health. This fact was confirmed with the slowdown in the rate of aging checked with a rejuvenation of the biological age.
In the future, we would like to extend this work to mm-wave frequencies and build an empirical statistical model of the EMF exposure based on the same metrology approach.
These findings are also confirmed evaluating the three different configurations for the other two multi-layers models and analyzing the peak values of Sab in the most superficial tissue (i.e., the dermis in the homogeneous model and the stratum corneum in the two multi-layers models). Indeed, as we can see from Fig. 3, where the peak values of Sab are illustrated, the highest exposure levels are obtained for the person passing nearby. The highest peak value for the person passing nearby is obtained for the three-layers skin model, in the configuration where both the user and the person nearby are considered, with values equal to 6.97 W/m2 > whereas the highest peak value for the user is obtained in the same configuration, but for the four-layers model, with value equal to 5.80 W/m2.
Interestingly, the results showed that the use of a homogenous skin model could led to underestimate the exposure peak levels from 18% to 55% respect to the use of multi-layer models. This is probably due to the multiple reflections of the mm-waves that occur at the boundaries of the different tissue layers, and it is in line with other literature studies, where it was underlined the need to use multi-layers models for assessing the exposure levels when the mm-wave spectrum is considered , .
Lastly, all the peak values obtained greatly respected the basic restrictions of 20 W/m2, indicated in the ICNIRP guidelines .
Objectives: To investigate the risk of developing salivary gland tumors associated with the use of mobile phones.
Content: There have been a number of epidemiological studies conducted to assess for a possible association between mobile phone usage and the development of intracranial tumours, however results have been conflicting. We conducted an extensive literature search across four different databases. After selecting the articles relevant to the area of study, a total of seven studies were included in this meta-analysis, with no restrictions set on publication date or language. Studies were qualitatively assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. No significant association between the use of mobile phones and salivary gland tumors was observed (OR=1.06, 95% CI=0.86-1.32). No evidence for publication bias was detected.
Summary and outlook: Our findings indicate no significant association between mobile phone usage and salivary gland tumours. However, there were many limitations encountered in these studies, suggesting that the observed result may not be an accurate estimate of the true carcinogenic risk of mobile phones, especially for heavy long-term users. In fact, the studies included in this meta-analysis highlight the need to correctly define exposure assessment in order to ascertain the risk of a certain variable.
With the rapidly increasing application of microwave technologies,
the anxiety and speculation about microwave induced potential health
hazards has been attracting more and more attention. In our daily life,
people are exposed to complex environments with multi-frequency
microwaves, especially L band and C band microwaves, which are commonly
used in communications. In this study, we exposed rats to 1.5 GHz (L10),
4.3 GHz (C10) or multi-frequency (LC10) microwaves at an average power
density of 10 mW/cm2. Both single and multi-frequency
microwaves induced slight pathological changes in the thymus and spleen.
Additionally, the white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes in
peripheral blood were decreased at 6 h and 7 d after exposure,
suggesting immune suppressive responses were induced. Among lymphocytes,
the B lymphocytes were increased while the T lymphocytes were decreased
at 7 d after exposure in the C10 and LC10 groups, but not in the L10
group. Moreover, multi-frequency microwaves regulated the B and T
lymphocytes more strongly than the C band microwave. The results of
transcriptomics and proteomics showed that both single and
multi-frequency microwaves regulated numerous genes associated with
immune regulation and cellular metabolism in peripheral blood and in the
spleen. However, multi-frequency microwaves altered the expression of
many more genes and proteins. Moreover, multi-frequency microwaves
down-regulated T lymphocytes' development, differentiation and
activation-associated genes, while they up-regulated B lymphocytes'
activation-related genes. In conclusion, multi-frequency microwaves of
1.5 GHz and 4.3 GHz produced immune suppressive responses via regulating
immune regulation and cellular metabolism-associated genes. Our
findings provide meaningful information for exploring potential
mechanisms underlying multi-frequency induced immune suppression.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-
Methaq Nazhan Mahmood, Asmaa Hashim Shaker, Humam E. Mohammed. Estimation of some antioxidants for people exposed to electromagnetic waves for Internet towers in Samarra. e79J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol Vol 29(2):e79–e87; 16 June 2022. doi: 10.47750/jptcp.2022.934.
The current study was conducted in Samarra city, as a preliminary study to explore the impact of the presence of Internet network towers inside cities and on residential homes and its impact on people exposed directly and indirectly. The study included collecting samples from people exposed to the radioactive frequencies of Internet towers for periods ranging from (1-5) years and from (5- 10) years. The number of samples was 43 samples of females and males exposed (present in the places where the constellations are located), and 20 samples not exposed (in places far from the towers) as a control group, and the ages ranged between (20-35) years. Analysis and measurements were made for some antioxidants because it is one of the most essential lines of defense against free radicals that cause many diseases and premature aging, which included the concentration of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase PGx, the enzyme superoxide dismutase SOD, glutathione GSH, dimalondhyde MDA, and ONOO. The results showed a significant increase in the level of glutathione peroxidase enzyme concentration and the concentration of superoxide dismutase in the blood serum for people exposed to electromagnetic waves from the Internet towers compared to the control group. The results also showed a significant decrease in the level of GSH in the blood serums of people exposed to electromagnetic waves of the Internet towers compared to the control group. The results also showed a significant increase in the concentration of both MDA and peroxynitrite ONOO compared to the non-exposed subjects in the control group.
Sasaki K, Porter E, Rashed EA, Farrugia L, Schmid G. Measurement and image-based estimation of dielectric properties of biological tissues -past, present, and future. Phys Med Biol. 2022;67(14):10.1088/1361-6560/
This study examines the microwave chemical risks posed by photocatalysts present in sunscreens (physical filters) against the increasing use of microwaves (radio waves) in the environment, sometimes referred to as electronic smog. Specifically, the study assesses the damage caused by silica-coated physical filters (photocatalysts, TiO2⋅ and/or ZnO) contained in commercially available sunscreens and fresh silica-coated ZnO for sunscreens to mouse skin fibroblasts cells (NIH/3T3) evaluated in vitro by the life/death of cells using two types of electromagnetic waves: UV light and microwave radiation, and under simultaneous irradiation with both UV light and microwaves. Conditions of the electromagnetic waves were such as to be of lower light irradiance than that of UVA/UVB radiation from incident sunlight, and with microwaves near the threshold power levels that affect human health. The photocatalytic activity of the physical filters was investigated by examining the degradation of the rhodamine B (RhB) dye in aqueous media and by the damage caused to DNA plasmids from E. coli. Compared to the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and TiO2 when irradiated with UV light alone, a clear enhanced photocatalytic activity was confirmed upon irradiating these physical filters concurrently with UV and microwaves. Moreover, the uptake of these metal oxides into the NIH/3T3 cells led to the death of these cells as a result of the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the metal oxides on exposure to microwave radiation.Concluding Remarks
This study has demonstrated that the degradation of RhB and the degradation of DNA plasmids were promoted by two types of metal-oxide physical filters (ZnO and/or TiO2) in sunscreens when exposed to both UV and microwave radiations, with the irradiation output of the microwaves adjusted to a value close to the legal regulations. The effect of these photoactive filters on NIH/3T3 cells was also examined. In addition to the decomposition of the dye and the damage caused to the DNA plasmids by these photocatalytically active metal oxides, the study has also shown that nanoparticles of these physical filters are taken up by the cells under concurrent irradiation with ultraviolet rays and microwaves.
Although we did not discuss the risks to people on using sunscreens (however, see ref. ) and the effects of microwaves to human health, we hasten to point out that various catalytic reactions have been shown to be accelerated in Microwave Chemistry  as a result of the electromagnetic wave effects. The issue raised in this study is that if ZnO and/or TiO2 contained in cosmetics acted as photocatalysts under UV and UV/MW irradiation, in addition to scattering UV light (as suggested by many), any increase of the microwave intensity in the environment would certainly pose an increased risk to human health as evidenced by the damage caused to DNA plasmids. In addition, to the extent that the presence of metal oxides used as physical filters in sunscreens are activated by the UVA/UVB radiation (320–400 nm/290–320 nm), their simultaneous exposure to microwave radiation can also lead to or otherwise increase their uptake by the cells, a consequence of which can also pose potential risks to human health.
Electromagnetic field effects of marine radar systems on the ship crew
Ünal Özdemir. Electromagnetic field effects of marine radar systems on the ship crew. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment. July 2022. doi:10.1177/14750902221107733.
Marine radars become the sources of electromagnetic pollution during navigation and anchor watchkeeping. In several scientific studies, it was reported that electromagnetic fields could lead to several serious diseases, especially in the nervous system. In the current study, electromagnetic pollution is measured at different points on ships of various tonnage and types to identify electromagnetic pollution induced by marine radars. During these measurements, SRM 3006 compact spectrum analyzer (Narda Safety Test Solutions GmbH, Germany) that was operated within the 400 MHz–6 GHz frequency range was employed with a triaxial antenna. Then, the measurement results were compared with the benchmark published by ICNIRP (International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection), and electromagnetic pollution levels induced by marine radar antennas and possible negative consequences for the crew were analyzed.
The study findings revealed that the radar-induced EMF generally exceeded the ICNIRP limits in the ships. This increased the possibility of adverse health outcomes due to the exposure of the crew to magnetic field pollution for long periods of time. In future studies, it would be better to consider the problem from this perspective, especially that of the medical professional. Furthermore, future studies could conduct measurements during navigation or anchor watch to avoid external pollution in port environment to reach more accurate findings if the required financial resources could be provided. It could also be suggested that it would be beneficial to increase the sample size and develop various groups. Furthermore, since the measurements were conducted for 6 min, namely the limit specified in the ICNIRP guide, these were short-term spot measurements. However, continuous 24-h measurements over several days in a robust sample of ships would provide more realistic findings.
It could be suggested that the present study findings would provide a foundation for future IMO regulations, maritime industry policy makers, WMO and related institutions. It would be a correct approach to revise the mandatory MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) and MLC (Maritime Labor Convention) conventions for IMO member nations, and to keep the issue of electromagnetic pollution in the maritime agenda. It was estimated that the topic will raise the interest of the maritime transportation industry in the future after certain number of studies are published on the topic, which is currently quite limited.
Gliomas refer to a group of complicated human brain tumors with a low 5-year survival rate and limited therapeutic options. Extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (ELF-PEMF) is a specific magnetic field featuring almost no side effects. However, the application of ELF-PEMF in the treatment of gliomas is rare. This review summarizes five significant underlying mechanisms including calcium ions, autophagy, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and reactive oxygen species, and applications of ELF-PEMF in glioma treatment from a clinical practice perspective. In addition, the prospects of ELF-PEMF in combination with conventional therapy for the treatment of gliomas are reviewed. This review benefits any specialists, especially oncologists, interested in this new therapy because it can help treat patients with gliomas properly.
Patients and methods: We adopted a double-blinded and randomized design and 40 participants (70% female; 50.00 ± 13.38 year) with insomnia completed the entire study. These participants were divided into the SR-sleep-device group and the placebo-device group and were followed up for four weeks. The study used polysomnography (PSG) to measure objective sleep and used sleep diaries, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and visual analogy of sleep satisfaction to measure subjective sleep. The 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to evaluate quality of life. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon test were used to analyze the data.
Results: About 70% of the subjects were women, with an average age of 50±13.38 years and an average history of insomnia of 9.68±8.86 years. We found that in the SR-sleep-device group, objective sleep measurements (sleep-onset-latency, SOL, and total-sleep-time, TST) and subjective sleep questionnaires (SOL, TST, sleep-efficiency, sleep-quality, daytime-sleepiness, and sleep-satisfaction) were significantly improved after using the SR-sleep-device; in the placebo-device group, only such subjective sleep improvements as PSQI and sleep-satisfaction were observed.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the SR-sleep-device can reduce the insomnia symptoms through both objective and subjective tests, with minimal adverse effects. Future studies can explore the possible mechanism of SR and health effects and, with a longer tracking time, verify the effectiveness and side effects.
Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
- • Experimental mapping of the static magnetic fields near 6 earphones.
- • Physical modeling of the measured fields allows extrapolation and simulation.
- • 3D simulations allow for visualization of field distribution in the ear.
- • Field intensity and gradients, plus their combination with RF/ELF should be studied.
The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection recommends a 400 mT exposure limit for the general public (ICNIRP, 2009), which are way above the SMF reported here. It must be noted that the recommendation is based on the effects of nausea, vertigo, photo phosphenes and nerve stimulation, well associated to high and ultra-high magnetic fields (typical of MRI facilities). All the other reported biological effects, which are not directly proven to be a health hazard (but could be, such being the case of the increase of reactive oxygen species (Wang and Zhang, 2017)) are disregarded by the recommendation.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of static
magnetic field (SMF) and electromagnetic field (EMF), of values usually
recorded near submarine cables, on the bioenergetics, oxidative stress,
and neurotoxicity in the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum. Bivalves
maintained a positive energy balance, but the filtration rate and energy
available for individual production were significantly lower in
SMF-exposed animals compared to the control treatment. No changes in the
respiration were noted but ammonia excretion rate was significantly
lower after exposure to EMF. Changes in the activities of antioxidant
enzymes and the lipid peroxidation were not observed; however, exposure
to both fields resulted in increased protein carbonylation. After
exposure to EMF a significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase
activity was observed. As the present study for the first time revealed
the oxidative damage and neurotoxicity in marine invertebrate after
exposure to artificial magnetic fields, the need for further research is
Hisham M El-Bassouiny, Warda A Z El-Medany, Mervat A A Kandil. The Impact of Magnetic Field on Insecticide Toxicity Measured by Biological and Biochemical Parameters of Earias insulana (Boisd). Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 Aug 5. doi: 10.1002/bem.22418.