Friday, October 19, 2018

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

   UK disbanded advisory group on non-ionizing radiation (AGNIR) after group issued inaccurate assessment of wireless radiation science subject to conflicts of interest. Public Heath England still relies on AGNIR report.

Martin Röösli. Mobile phone radiation may affect memory performance in adolescents. Medical Xpress. July 20, 2018.
  Radio frequency radiation may have adverse effects on memory performance of specific brain regions exposed during mobile phone use.

Ronnie Cohen. Do cellphones cause cancer? Government study reveals 'stunningly important findings. Newsweek, July 19, 2018.
  Current cellphone safety regulations are based on a premise that is now arguably false: that cellphone radiation can cause harm only by heating tissue.

Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. The inconvenient truth about cancer and mobile phones.The Guardian, July 14, 2018.
  We dismiss claims about mobiles being bad for our health – but is that because studies showing a link to cancer have been cast into doubt by the industry?

Reynard Loki. Our cellphone addiction is turning wireless tech into an invisible weapon that’s destroying wildlife. Salon, July 14, 2018.
  Electromagnetic radiation from Wi-Fi and cell towers poses a “credible risk” to birds, mammals, insects and plants

Lynne Peeples. Should cell phone providers warn customers of health risks? Berkeley says yesMcClatchy News Washington Bureau, July 11, 2018.
  Although the scientific community has not reached consensus, the California health department said research indicates long-term, extensive cellphone use may affect health.

Lynne Peeples. Wireless industry using First Amendment as a cudgel in its battle against safety warningsFairWarning, July 11, 2018.
  Complete version of the article. News websites published the McClatchy version.

Microwave News. "'Clear evidence' of cell phone cancer risk, say leading pathologists." April 9, 2018.
  Why the peer review panel and NTP interpreted the same animal data differently. 

Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. "How big wireless made us think that cell phones are safe: A special investigation.The Nation, March 29, 2018.
  The disinformation campaign—and massive radiation increase—behind the 5G rollout.




Recent Posts on EMR Safety

Special Issue: Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Biology & Medicine
  Nine EMF papers published in a special issue of the International Journal of Radiation Biology.

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields 
  Compilation of over 500 abstracts of scientific papers published since August, 2016.

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?
 "Both oncologic and non-cancerous chronic effects have been suggested."

5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype
  News stories debunk exaggerated benefits of 5G cellular technology.

Research on Smart Phone and Internet Addiction
  Recent studies on dependence or addiction to mobile devices, gaming, or the internet.

  New real-world study of cell phone radiation confirms recommendations in the Department's cell phone safety guidance.

Hybrid & Electric Cars: Electromagnetic Radiation Risks
  Modern automobiles increasingly incorporate EMF-emitting devices that pose a risk to human health.

Wireless Radiation TV News
  Links to over 150 televised news stories about wireless radiation health risks.

  Former NTP scientist defends study; expert reviewer suggests results call for stronger RF exposure guidelines; IARC should upgrade cancer risk.

National Toxicology Program: Peer & public review of cell phone radiation study.
  Experts convened by NTP found "clear evidence" of cancer from cell phone radiation. Official summary now available.

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
 Recent research and policy developments regarding electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

  City Council reaffirms its commitment to defend landmark cell phone "right to know" ordinance against telecom industry lawsuit in the federal courts.

iPhone XS and XR: Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) or RF Exposure
  What are the SAR values for iPhone’s new smart phones? How should consumers use this information?

New Apple Watch Reignites Concerns over Cell Phone Radiation
  How much wireless radiation (cellular, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) is emitted by smart watches? 

ICNIRP’s Exposure Guidelines for Radio Frequency Fields
  ICNIRP requests public input on its radio frequency radiation exposure guidelines. Former NTP scientist critiques ICNIRP.

Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US: Role of Cell Phone & Cordless Phone Use
 The CDC reported that brain cancer incidence among youth 0-20 years of age increased between 2001 and 2014. Also thyroid cancer and lymphoma.

Scientific Evidence of Harm from Cell Phone Radiation: Two Years of Research
  An annotated bibliography which contains 92 papers published in scientific journals during the last two years that report evidence of harm from cell phone radiation exposure.

International Perspective on Health Effects of Low Intensity Non-Ionizing Radiation
  There is an urgent need to recognize hazards associated with excessive exposure to non-thermal levels of electromagnetic fields.

Effects of Cell Phone Use on Adolescents
  Research on adolescents suggests that cell phone use has adverse effects on cognitive processes and memory and the endocrine system and disturbs sleep.

International Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields & Wireless Technology
  242 scientists from 41 nations including 38 from the U.S. have signed the Appeal.

Key Cell Phone Radiation Research Studies

Recent Research on Wi-Fi Effects
  Compilation of recent studies on biologic and health effects from exposure to Wi-Fi radiation.

Female Infertility and Cell Phone Radiation
  Research that investigates the effects of wireless radiation on female fertility.

Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality
  Research that examines the effects of wireless radiation on sperm.

Pregnancy & Wireless Radiation Risks
  Compilation of studies that found harmful effects from fetal exposure to wireless radiation.

5G Moratorium Website Launched
  Official website for 5G Appeal: Over 200 scientists doctors have signed Appeal.

Electromagnetic Fields Threaten Wildlife
 Research review: EMF is potential risk to insect and bird orientation and plant health.

EMF Health Impacts and Policy Change Webinar
  Drs. Frank Barnes, De-Kun Li, & Joel Moskowitz discuss EMF research and implications for policy change. Sponsored by Collaborative for Health & the Environment.

Ramazzini Institute Cell Phone Radiation Study Replicates NTP Study
  Ramazzini Institute replicates heart cancer results from NTP cell phone radiation study.

Thursday, October 18, 2018

EMF in biology & medicine: International Journal Radiation Biology

 Special Issue: Electromagnetic fields in biology and medicine (Editorial)

Hinrikus H, Karpowicz J, Naarala J. Special Issue: Electromagnetic fields in biology and medicine. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 2018 Oct;94(10):873-876. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1533359.
No abstract.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29775401

Excerpts

This Special Issue presents the papers reporting further development of ideas delivered and discussed in the special session ‘Electromagnetic fields in biology and medicine’ during the joint conference of the 7th European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference (EMBEC7) and the 17th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics (NBC17), held in Tampere, Finland, June 2017. The focus on the state-of-the-art presentations on non-thermal mechanism(s) and biological responses to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure has been underlined in the call for papers of the EMF special session. Three sub-sessions provided an international forum for presenting and discussing the latest developments in EMF biological and health effects as well as EMF applications in medicine....

Based on the results of scientific investigations, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified extremely low-frequency magnetic field as a possible human carcinogen in 2001 (IARC 2002 IARC. 2002. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2002. Non-ionizing radiation, part 1: static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, No 80. Geneva: WHO Press. [Google Scholar]) and radiofrequency EMF in 2011 (IARC 2013 IARC. 2013. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2013. Non-ionizing radiation, part II: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, No 102. Geneva: WHO Press. [Google Scholar]). Recently, the US National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation has published the results indicating increased cancer risk in rats (NTP 2018 NTP. 2018. NTP Technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies in Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats exposed to whole-body radio frequency radiation at a frequency (900 MHz) and modulations (GSM and CDMA) used by cell phones

... the findings reported in several studies in humans and animals (cellular stress, increase in free radicals, changes in DNA, functional changes in the reproductive system, alterations in the brain bioelectrical activity, learning and memory deficits etc.) at the levels of exposure below the thermal limits as well as several epidemiologic studies suggest the occurrence of EMF biological effects and the possibility of health effect at the levels of EMF exposure less than the set by the ICNIRP reference levels....

... the Parliamentary Assembly Council of Europe in its Resolution 1815 from 2011 recommends ‘reconsider the scientific basis for the present electromagnetic fields exposure standards set by the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection, which have serious limitations and apply “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA) principles, covering both thermal effects and the athermic or biological effects of electromagnetic emissions or radiation’ (Parliamentary Assembly 2011 Parliamentary Assembly. 2011. Council of Europe, Resolution 1815. The potential dangers of electromagnetic fields and their effect on the environment. http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17994 [Google Scholar]). However, only few European countries and cities have followed the recommendation....

The main topics selected for the Special Issue cover some of important aspects of the area: physical and biological mechanisms of radiofrequency radiation effects by Hinrikus et al. and Herrala et al.; response to microwave radiation in physiological systems by Selmanoui et al. and Bachmann et al.; reproductive effects of intermediate frequency magnetic field by Khan et al.; low-frequency magnetic field effect on immune response by Wyszkowska et al. Special attention has been paid to medical applications of EMF including safety problems for implants in two papers by Zradzinski et al.; connectivity between surface and deep bioelectric fields in brain by Jäntti et al.; and practical use of EMF for toxicity assessment of biological suspensions by Muñoz et al....

The ongoing discussions about 5G technology are based on a presumption that, due to very thin skin-layer, the EMF effect occurs only in human skin. However, in the case of real living systems, the processes in different tissues are interconnected. Therefore, excited by EMF skin structures are physiologically connected to deeper systems in body and the affected space can be much deeper....

Threshold of low-level EMF effects

All experimental studies published in the Special Issue have been performed at the EMF levels lower than the reference levels for general public set by the ICNIRP. An only exception is the SAR value of 6 W/kg used as the higher level of exposure in the study by Herrala et al.

The ICNIRP Guidelines are based on thermal interaction mechanism for the RF EMF effects. Therefore, the rise of temperature inside tissue is the only criterion for the possibility of an EMF effect. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is a relevant parameter to describe the intensity of exposure in the case of thermal mechanism. The SAR value, corresponding to the fixed level of induced by EMF increase of temperature, can be considered as the threshold of the EMF effect induced by the thermal interaction mechanism.

In the case of non-thermal interaction mechanisms, the absorbed energy has no more direct linear relationship with the effect. Therefore, SAR becomes irrelevant as a parameter describing the threshold of the EMF effects. Parallel to SAR, the ICNIRP has set the reference levels for electric and magnetic fields strengths and EMF power spectral density, more relevant in the case of nom-thermal interaction mechanisms. Do the reference levels for EM field strengths set by ICNIRP determine the threshold of the non-thermal mechanism of EMF effects?

Rotations of dipolar molecules and radical pairs are known to be evident at the EMF strengths much less than the thermal threshold. The dielectric constant is assumed being constant, therefore, no threshold for dielectric polarization of a medium is expected at low-level exposure. The rotation of dipolar molecules can occur at very weak EMF. Radical pairs are known being sensitive to very weak magnetic fields, for example in birds. In the case of the rotation of dipolar molecules or radical pairs, the physical restrictions determining the minimal field strengths sufficient for the rotation are still unknown.

The threshold of the non-thermal mechanisms of EMF effects needs further theoretical and experimental investigations keeping in mind that the additional affecting factors can influence the threshold of low-level EMF. The oscillating nature of several biological structures, first of all, heart cells and neurons, makes possible parametric excitation of biological oscillations even by very weak periodic external EMF. The impact of parametric excitation depends not only on the strength of periodic force but rather more on the duration of excitation. Chaotic nature of biological systems creates a possibility that a very small initial change in a parameter of the system can cause remarkable alterations of the ongoing processes and finally results in a significant change in the status of the system. Due to diversity of living systems, the sensitivity to low-level EMF is expected to be different for individuals.


Special Issue Papers

Understanding physical mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect

Hinrikus H, Bachmann M, Lass J. Understanding physical mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):877-882. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1478158. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Abstract

PURPOSE:This topic review aims to explain the mechanism of low-level microwave (MW) radiation effect based on published research results. The review presents the analysis of theoretical and experimental results comprising underlying physics and derived biological-physiological consequences supported by experimental data.

CONCLUSIONS: The rotation of dipolar molecules causes polarization of dielectric medium and restructuring of hydrogen bonds between these molecules. The weakened hydrogen bonds decrease viscosity and enhance diffusion at constant temperature. All steps of proposed model have no critical frequency restrictions at MW frequencies and have been confirmed by electromagnetic field (EMF) theory and/or published experimental results. The synchronous cumulative impact of coherent MW electric field makes possible the field-induced effect despite the field strengths are much weaker than intermolecular fields. The rotation of dipolar molecules results in restructuring hydrogen bonds between the molecules despite the energy of MW radiation is much less than the energy of bonding. The cumulative impact of coherent MW field in a medium has been convincingly confirmed by the measurable dielectric permittivity of the medium. The described mechanism of MW field-induced effect confirms that the nature of the effect differs from the thermal effect and that the exposure by MW radiation can create the specific consequences in biology and materials not characteristic for conventional heating.
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Assessment of genotoxicity and genomic instability in rat primary astrocytes exposed to 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation and chemicals

Herrala M, Mustafa E, Naarala J, Juutilainen J. Assessment of genotoxicity and genomic instability in rat primary astrocytes exposed to 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation and chemicals. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):883-889. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1450534. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Abstract

PURPOSE: We examined genotoxicity, co-genotoxicity and induced genomic instability (IGI) in primary astrocytes exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat primary astrocytes were exposed to 872 MHz GSM-modulated or continuous wave (CW) RF radiation at specific absorption rates of 0.6 or 6.0 W/kg for 24 h. Menadione (MQ) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; only in genotoxicity experiments) were used as co-exposures. Alkaline Comet assay and flow cytometric micronucleus scoring were used to detect genetic damage.

RESULTS: No IGI was observed from RF radiation alone or combined treatment with MQ. RF radiation alone was not genotoxic. RF radiation combined with chemical exposure showed some statistically significant differences: increased DNA damage at 6.0 W/kg but decreased DNA damage at 0.6 W/kg in cells exposed to GSM-modulated RF radiation and MQ, and increased micronucleus frequency in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 0.6 W/kg and MMS.

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to GSM modulated RF radiation at levels up to 6.0 W/kg did not induce or enhance genomic instability in rat primary astrocytes. Lack of genotoxicity from RF radiation alone was convincingly shown in multiple experiments. Co-genotoxicity of RF radiation and genotoxic chemicals was not consistently supported by the results.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29528766

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After-effect induced by microwave radiation in human electroencephalographic signal: a feasibility study

Bachmann M, Päeske L, Ioannides AA, Lass J, Hinrikus H. After-effect induced by microwave radiation in human electroencephalographic signal: a feasibility study. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):896-901. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1478164. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Abstract

PURPOSE: This feasibility study is aimed to clarify the possibility of detection of microwave radiation (MWR)-induced event related potential (ERP) in electroencephalographic (EEG) signal.

METHODS: To trigger onset and offset effects in EEG, repetitive MWR stimuli were used. Four 30-channel EEG recordings on a single subject were performed, each about one month apart. The subject was exposed to 450 MHz MWR modulated at 40 Hz at the 1 g peak spatial average specific absorption rate of 0.3 W/kg. During a recording, 40 cycles of 30 s on-off MWR exposure were used. The artifact-free responses to 126 MWR-ON stimuli and 134 MWR-OFF stimuli were averaged over stimuli and channels.

RESULTS: Regarding EEG signals locked to MWR-OFF stimulus, the enhanced signal level at alpha frequency band and about twice higher signal to noise ratio at 200 to 440 ms after the stimulus have been detected. No remarkable response in EEG signals locked to MWR-ON stimulus.

CONCLUSIONS: The detection of offset effect confirms that there should be an imprint generated by MWR in brain. The results of this preliminary study provide evidence for the detection of MWR-induced ERP in EEG signal and encourage further research in this direction.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29775395
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A pilot study on the reproductive risks of maternal exposure to magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance systems

Khan MW, Roivainen P, Herrala M, Tiikkaja M, Sallmén M, Hietanen M, Juutilainen J. A pilot study on the reproductive risks of maternal exposure to magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance systems. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):902-908. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1439197. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Abstract

PURPOSE: We investigated the feasibility of a large-scale epidemiological study on reproductive effects of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic field (MF) exposure among cashiers working near electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort included 4157 women who had worked as cashiers in supermarkets with EAS devices (considered as exposed) or grocery stores without EAS devices (considered as unexposed) between 2008 and 2015. 536 births and 38 miscarriages occurred among these women during the study period, based on information from nationwide health registries. Measurements were also performed to characterize the MF exposure of cashiers.

RESULTS: Cashiers were found to be exposed to 8.2 MHz MFs only when passing by the gates at short distance. Static fields of about 0.1 mT were observed at cashier's seat. Extremely low frequency MFs were higher at stores without EAS devices. No differences on the risk of miscarriage, reduced birth weight or preterm birth were observed between cashiers in different store types.

CONCLUSIONS: Any further studies should attempt to include study subjects working near EAS systems that produce stronger IF MFs at kHz frequencies. Exposure to ELF MFs should be assessed as a possible confounding factor.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29419348
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Evaluation of the influence of in vivo exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats

Wyszkowska J, Jędrzejewski T, Piotrowski J, Wojciechowska A, Stankiewicz M, Kozak W. Evaluation of the influence of in vivo exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):909-917. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1503428. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Abstract

PURPOSE: Epidemiological data suggest that there is a link between exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs), immune response, and the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. The exact nature of this phenomenon remains speculative and requires detailed laboratory investigation. In the present study, we evaluate changes in plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines as well as alternations of the hematological parameters in rats exposed to an ELF-MF.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were repeatedly exposed for either 1 h/day for 7 days, or continuously for 24 h, to a sinusoidal ELF-MF (50 Hz, 7 mT). Control groups were sham exposed for either 1 h/day for 7 days, or continuously for 24 h, respectively. The levels of cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma obtained from blood samples were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in blood parameters were determined using an automatic hematology analyzer in whole blood samples immediately after collection.

RESULTS: We found that a single continuous (lasting 24 h) exposure provoked a significant increase of the plasma IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-2 levels, and caused an elevation in blood parameters, such as white blood cells, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels. In contrast, however, repetitive exposure of rats to an ELF-MF for 1 h/day for 7 days did not lead to any changes in plasma levels of cytokines and hematological counts.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on these data we conclude that exposure duration (dose-response) plays a significant role in the immune response, specifically at the cellular level. While single 24 h-lasting exposure provoked changes that indicate an immune alarm stimulation, under the conditions which are typical for therapeutic use of ELF-MFs (repeated short daily exposure) the immune potentially harmful response has not been observed.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30028649
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Evaluation of the inter-person variability of hazards to the users of BAHA hearing implants caused by exposure to a low frequency magnetic field

Zradziński P. Evaluation of the inter-person variability of hazards to the users of BAHA hearing implants caused by exposure to a low frequency magnetic field.

Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):918-925. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1454619. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Abstract

PURPOSE: In this work, the inter-person variability of hazards caused by a low frequency magnetic field exposure (of various polarization and homogeneity near to the magneto therapy applicator) to users of bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA) hearing implants were investigated with respect to various head structures.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The effects of exposure were evaluated by numerical simulations of the electric field (Ein) induced in head phantoms (regular or with implant model). Phantoms mimic head dimensions and thicknesses of layers of skin, fat, skull bones, and brain.

RESULTS:The values of Ein obtained in the phantom of the BAHA user's head were several times (up to 4.5) higher than in a regular person. The highest differences in Ein values were found in the skin and fat tissues - up to 80% in phantoms of various structures (statistically significant differences related to various tissues thicknesses, not-significant with relation to phantom dimensions - Kruskal-Wallis test with Bonferroni correction, p < .017) and up to 3 times with magnetic field spatial distribution (statistically significant with different polarization).

CONCLUSIONS:The results support the need to assess the electromagnetic fields hazards to individual implant user exposed to the magnetic field at a level approaching the exposure limits set by international guidelines.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29557703
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In silico modelling of influence from low or intermediate frequency magnetic fields on users of wearable insulin pumps

Zradziński P, Karpowicz J, Gryz K. In silico modelling of influence from low or intermediate frequency magnetic fields on users of wearable insulin pumps. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):926-933. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2017.1419305. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Abstract

PURPOSE: The aim was to model the effects of exposure to a low or intermediate frequency electromagnetic field (LIF-EMF), characterized by the electric field induced in the body, in order to evaluate how the type of insulin needle and the way it is injected influences the exposed user of a wearable insulin pump.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Numerical models of exposure scenarios (sources of LIF-EMF, with a dominant magnetic component: 50Hz-1MHz; the insulin needle type; the way it is injected and insulin pump user) were worked out. The influence of the insulin needle on the user's safety (the ratio of the induced electric field in tissues surrounding the needle and tissues of a person without an injection, both exposed identically) were calculated.

RESULTS. The effects of LIF-EMF exposure in insulin pump users were found to be up to approximately 7-times higher, varying with statistically significance (p < .05) with the material of the needle, the way it is injected and the polarization of the affecting magnetic field.

CONCLUSIONS: When steel insulin needles is used, the assessment of user's EMF exposure should be carried out using magnetic field limits at least 5-times lower than given in general international requirements.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29265909
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Electroencephalographic signals during anesthesia recorded from surface and depth electrodes

Jäntti V, Ylinen T, Subramaniyam NP, Kamata K, Yli-Hankala A, Kauppinen P, Sonkajärvi E.Electroencephalographic signals during anesthesia recorded from surface and depth electrodes. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):934-943. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1478159. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Abstract

PURPOSE: Anesthesiologists have increasingly started to use EEG-based indexes to estimate the level and type of unconsciousness. However, the physiology and biophysics are poorly understood in anesthesiological literature.

METHODS: EEG was recorded from electrodes on the surface of head, including scalp, as well as DBS (deep brain stimulation) electrodes implanted deep in the brain. Mathematical modeling with a realistic head model was performed to create illustrative images of the sensitivity of electrode montages.

RESULTS: EEG pattern of anesthesia, burst-suppression, is recordable outside of scalp area as well in the depth of brain because the EEG current loops produce recordable voltage gradients in the whole head. The typical electrodes used in anesthesia monitoring are most sensitive to basal surface of frontal lobes as well as frontal and mesial parts of temporal lobes.

CONCLUSIONS: EEG currents create closed-loops, which flow from the surface of the cortex and then return to the inside of the hemispheres. In the case of widespread synchronous activity like physiological sleep or anesthesia, the currents recorded with surface and depth electrodes return through the base of brain and skull. 

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Toxicity assessment of biological suspensions using the dielectric impedance spectroscopy technique

Muñoz S, Sebastián JL, Antoranz P, García-Cambero JP, Sanchis-Otero A.Toxicity assessment of biological suspensions using the dielectric impedance spectroscopy technique. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct;94(10):944-950. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1439196. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Abstract

PURPOSE: This article studies the variation of the electromagnetic parameters of a suspension of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to assess its potential applications to toxicological and biomedical research areas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose, the dielectric impedance spectroscopy technique is applied to a modified coaxial line enclosing the biological suspension to be characterized in the frequency range from 100 kHz to 100 MHz. The electrical parameters of the suspension under test were obtained by fitting the impedance spectra to the resulted from the simulation of the test fixture using finite elements (FE).

RESULTS: Variation of the complex permittivity of the suspensions makes possible to identify viable and non-viable embryos after a toxic exposure, as well as different stages during the blastula period of embryonic development of the zebrafish.

CONCLUSIONS: The approach presented here, combining experimental and simulation techniques, may provide a basis for a non-invasive method to assess toxicity in any biological suspension.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29431558

Tuesday, October 16, 2018

5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype

The CTIA, the wireless industry trade association, has launched an advertising campaign entitled, "The Global Race to 5G." The ads claim that unless the U.S. wins this "global race" to become the first nation to deploy the fifth generation of wireless technology or 5G, we will not reap the economic benefits of this technology. 

The CTIA claims that "compared to today's 4G networks, 5G will be up to 100x faster, support 100x more devices, and provide a 5x faster response time." Moreover, the association asserts that the nation's wireless industry is prepared to invest $275 billion in 5G which will yield three million new jobs and $500 billion in economic growth. If we win the global race, the "next-generation of wireless will drive $2.7 trillion of new economic benefits to American families and businesses."

The CTIA has denied for decades that there are adverse health effects from exposure to wireless radiation. By establishing a revolving door between its leadership and the FCC's, the CTIA ensures that the federal regulatory agency maintains the inadequate, obsolete radio frequency exposure limits which the FCC adopted in 1996.

The FCC and federal health agencies have been oblivious to the health concerns raised by more than 230 scientists from 41 nations who have published peer-reviewed research on the biologic or health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.

This September more than 180 scientists and doctors from 35 countries signed a declaration demanding a moratorium on the planned increase of cell antennas for 5G deployment in the European Union. Concerns over health effects from higher radiation exposure include potential neurological impacts, infertility, and cancer.

The following excerpts were extracted from a 23-page special report from RCR Wireless that cuts through much of the hype surrounding the deployment of 5G. The excerpts are direct quotes from the report.

RCR Wireless is a trade publication that has reported on the wireless industry and wireless technology since 1982.

Transitioning to a 5G World

Kelly Hill, RCR Wireless, Nov. 2017

Excerpts from the Report
Hype is certainly high for 5G, given that the industry is still technically in a pre-standard phase and that standalone 5G systems are still some time off.
5G is coming even faster than originally expected. In December, the first official specification from the Third Generation Partnership Project is expected to be released; 5G New Radio will finally make its standardized debut – although like Long Term Evolution, 5G will continue to evolve and be refined in the coming years.
“5G will not replace LTE,” Rysavy Research concluded in an August report for the GSMA. “In most deployments, the two technologies will be tightly integrated and co-exist through at least the late-2020s.”
Although the industry is preparing for 5G, LTE [4G] capabilities will continue to improve in LTE Advanced Pro through the rest of the decade,”  Rysavy wrote .... 5G will eventually play an important role, but it must be timed appropriately so that the jump in capability justifies the new investment.
KT, for example, plans to support two different frequencies from the get-go in its 5G network: 3.5 GHz as an anchor with better propagation, complemented by 28 GHz in dense areas. Given that networks are expected to initially be 4G/5G networks, testing will have to continue to support LTE alongside 5G.
Hurtarte of LitePoint noted that although “millimeter wave” tends to be treated as one category, there are significant differences between the components and frequency planning needed at 28 GHz versus 39 GHz. In addition, although some frequencies are widely agreed upon, there are other frequencies that may get the nod for 5G use: 24 GHz in China, possibly 40-43 Ghz and possibly even above 70 GHz.
There are some major challenges to the success of 5G, which are all interrelated: the move to mmwave, the need for ultra-density, and the question of when the economics of 5G will actually work well enough to take off.
Mmwave [millimeter wave] provides the huge bandwidths that are needed for fast speeds and high capacity, but the higher the frequency, the shorter its range and more susceptible it is to being easily blocked and reflected (thus the need for beamforming in order to focus the energy more tightly). Seasonal foliage, energy efficient glass windows with special coatings, and standard housing materials all present effective barriers to mmwave reaching indoors to customer premise equipment, operators and vendors have found in their field testing.
Denisowski pointed out that fixed wireless is one thing, but moving objects are another. Obstruction, not radiating sources of energy, is likely to be the main cause of interference in 5G systems: vehicles driving back and forth, or even wind farms can scatter microwave radiation.
Density of foliage “plays a big role,” said Thadasina of Samsung, which has been working with a number of carriers on 5G trials. “What we found is that for the mmwave signal, as it penetrated through trees, the thickness of the trees matters. Initially the impedence offered by foliage is linear, but beyond a certain density it is no longer linear … it kills the signal.” Building materials are well-known to play a role in transmission from outdoors to indoors, he added, but the angle of incidence does as well. The difference between 30 degrees to 60 degrees to 90 degrees can create additional impedance, Thadasina said, “some of those things make it challenging in terms of closing the link.” Moisture levels play a role as well, he said ....
Fiber is fuel for 5G, and its prevalence is increasing. SNL Kagan found earlier this year that global fiber residential investment increased sharply in 2016, and that fiber is on track to reach 1 billion subscribers by 2021. Meanwhile, in the U.S., Vertical Systems Group reported that 49.6% of multi-tenant and enterprise buildings had access to fiber last year, compared to only 10% in 2004.

Deloitte said earlier this year that it expects to see $130 billion-$150 billion in “deep fiber” investment in the U.S. over 5-7 years, due to a combination of broadband competition, ensuring 5G readiness, and expanding fiber into new areas.

Murphy of Nokia said that operators should expect that, depending on which frequency they deploy in, they will need 2.5 to 10 times as many sites as they have now. That’s a tall order, especially given that small cell sites in cellular frequencies can take 18 to 24 months to get site approvals – scaling small cells has been hard enough in LTE, with the market moving much more slowly than analysts had predicted or carriers would like.
“It’s going to take a long time,” Einbinder said. “Constructing a cell tower is hard. A micro-cell has a lot of the same issues”: power and fiber and access to a site, which a community may be reluctant to grant – California, for instance, recently rejected a measure passed at the state level that would have streamlined processes for small cells.
... Einbinder thinks that some communities will take initiative and want to be 5G economic centers. While that’s encouraging for operators, it may also mean that 5G coverage maps look very different from the familiar red, blue, yellow and magenta maps indicating nationwide coverage. “The resulting coverage maps might have a lot more to do with [communities] than any economic or technological drivers – it’s going to be driven by local preference.”
While early work estimated that as many as 40 to 50 homes could be covered by a single fixed wireless site, according to Rouault of EXFO, that number has turned out to be around five in testing because of the complexity of beamforming necessary to support multiple homes. “It’s not at the point we would say the verdict is out,” Rouault added. “The technology is proven to work, but to make the business case work, the scale is the problem right now.”
So the biggest question is where a breakthrough is going to happen that becomes the point at which 5G becomes a more attractive investment than LTE. “What can 5G do that other systems can’t? This is where there is no clear answer,” said Hemant Minocha, EVP for device and IoT at TEOCO. There is no 5G requirement for IoT [Internet of Things], he points out, and the business case hasn’t yet been proven out for ultra-low latency (not to  mention that LTE is capable of lower latency than it has achieved to this point in networks).
Key Takeaways:
• The industry is moving quickly toward 5G, with momentum in testing and trials. The first official 5G specification from 3GPP is expected in December, with a protocol-focused release coming in the spring of 2018.
• Many features and architectures in LTE, particularly gigabit LTE, will both underpin future 5G networks and provide lessons learned in making 5G systems work. These include dense fiber deployment, higher-order and massive MIMO, network slicing, virtualization, and mobile edge computing.
• The biggest challenge for 5G lies in a millimeter-wave based RAN, with significant challenges ahead for designing and deploying a workable, optimized and profitable mmwave network on a large scale.

The RCR Wireless report, "Transitioning to a 5G World," can be downloaded at http://bit.ly/5Ghype.


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