Wednesday, June 15, 2022

The UK Million Women Study of Cell Phone Use and Brain Tumor Risk

Journal of the National Cancer Institute publishes two letters critical of
UK Million Women Cell Phone/Brain Tumor Study


RE: Cellular Telephone Use and the Risk of Brain Tumors: Update of the UK Million Women Study

Moskowitz, Joel M. RE: Cellular Telephone Use and the Risk of Brain Tumors: Update of the UK Million Women Study. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2022. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djac109.

No abstract

Excerpts

"Like the Danish Cohort study (1), the recent paper by Schüz et al. (2) which examined cellular telephone use and brain tumor risk in the Million Women Study suffered from poor exposure assessment which likely contributed to exposure misclassification. Moreover, participant attrition in this study was high (68%), and the study was underpowered as the analysis sample included few participants with heavier cell phone use, the group with the greatest brain tumor risk (2)."

"Although the Schüz et al. paper (2) provides sound advice to 'reduce unnecessary exposures,' the abstract in this paper is a disservice to public health because it ends with a misleading assertion: 'Our findings support the accumulating evidence that cellular telephone use under usual conditions does not increase brain tumor incidence.'  How can the authors of this paper argue that their results apply to 'usual conditions' when the amount of cell phone use in their analysis sample was much less than 'usual' for the United Kingdom (UK)?"

"... a recent meta-analysis of 46 case-control studies (6) found significantly increased brain tumor incidence with cumulative call time ≥ 1,000 hours (about 17 minutes per day over a 10-year period). Furthermore, Philips et al. (7) examined brain tumor incidence in England from 1995-2015 and found a two-fold increase in the standardized incidence of the most common malignant brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, along with reduced incidence of lower grade brain tumors which could indicate a tumor promotion effect from the increased uptake in cell phone use during this time period."

"In sum, the Schüz et al. study (2) provides no assurance of safety from brain tumors for most cell phone users, especially those who start using cell phones at a younger age than the middle-aged and elderly women who participated in this study."


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RE: Cellular Telephone Use and the Risk of Brain Tumors: Update of the UK Million Women Study

Birnbaum, Linda S, Taylor, Hugh S, Baldwin, Hillel, Ben-Ishai, Paul, Davis, Devra. RE: Cellular Telephone Use and the Risk of Brain Tumors: Update of the UK Million Women Study. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2022. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djac110.

No abstract

Excerpts

"... a recent analysis of self-reported cell phone use of this original cohort by Shuz et al. 1 contains a number of serious errors and flaws of exposure measurement that undermine the validity of their widely publicized finding purporting that there is no risk of brain cancer from cell phone radiofrequency radiation (RFR) 1."

"Further, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and Ramazzini Institute (RI)  experimental animal studies are inaccurately criticized as based on small numbers, inconsistency across species, and excessively high exposures 3,4."

"Current outdated regulatory limits for phone RFR rest on the incorrect long held assumption that non thermal levels are safe."

"The majority of animal and cell studies have found nonionizing RFR can induce oxidative stress- a key characteristic of human carcinogens and a way that RFR can initiate or promote tumor development as well as play a role in the development of other diseases 5.

Recent experimental and epidemiological studies indicate that RFR also induces cancers of the thyroid and breast 6,7. DNA damage and cancer in these state of the art studies signal the need for the public to reduce exposures to RFR now."



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Response to Moskowitz and Birnbaum, Taylor, Baldwin et al.

Schüz, Joachim, Pirie, Kirstin, Reeves, Gillian K, Floud, Sarah, Beral, Valerie. Response to Moskowitz and Birnbaum, Taylor, Baldwin et al. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2022. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djac111.

No abstract

Excerpts

" We do agree, however, with both Moskowitz (1) and Birnbaum et al. (6) that our study does not include many heavy users of cellular phones."

"A large international prospective study of cellular telephone users including also men and younger women is underway [7] but results have not been published yet. Overall, our findings and those from other studies support our carefully worded conclusion that 'cellular telephone use under usual conditions [our emphasis] does not increase brain tumor incidence'. However, advising heavy users on how to reduce unnecessary exposures remains a good precautionary approach."


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March 30, 2022 (Updated April 1, 2022)

Cellular Telephone Use and the Risk of Brain Tumors: 
Update of the UK Million Women Study

Joachim Schüz, Kirstin Pirie, Gillian K Reeves, Sarah Floud, Valerie Beral, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Cellular Telephone Use and the Risk of Brain Tumors: Update of the UK Million Women Study. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 114, Issue 5, May 2022, Pages 704–711, doi: 10.1093/jnci/djac042.

Abstract

Background

The ongoing debate of whether use of cellular telephones increases the risk of developing a brain tumor was recently fueled by the launch of the fifth generation of wireless technologies. Here, we update follow-up of a large-scale prospective study on the association between cellular telephone use and brain tumors.

Methods

During 1996-2001, 1.3 million women born in 1935-1950 were recruited into the study. Questions on cellular telephone use were first asked in median year 2001 and again in median year 2011. All study participants were followed via record linkage to National Health Services databases on deaths and cancer registrations (including nonmalignant brain tumors).

Results

During 14 years follow-up of 776 156 women who completed the 2001 questionnaire, a total of 3268 incident brain tumors were registered. Adjusted relative risks for ever vs never cellular telephone use were 0.97 (95% confidence interval = 0.90 to 1.04) for all brain tumors, 0.89 (95% confidence interval = 0.80 to 0.99) for glioma, and not statistically significantly different to 1.0 for meningioma, pituitary tumors, and acoustic neuroma. Compared with never-users, no statistically significant associations were found, overall or by tumor subtype, for daily cellular telephone use or for having used cellular telephones for at least 10 years. Taking use in 2011 as baseline, there were no statistically significant associations with talking for at least 20 minutes per week or with at least 10 years use. For gliomas occurring in the temporal and parietal lobes, the parts of the brain most likely to be exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from cellular telephones, relative risks were slightly below 1.0.

Conclusion

Our findings support the accumulating evidence that cellular telephone use under usual conditions does not increase brain tumor incidence.

Open access paper: https://bit.ly/UKwomen2022

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Preliminary comments on "Cellular Telephone Use and the Risk of Brain Tumors: Update of the UK Million Women Study"

Like the earlier cell phone-brain tumor risk study that used data from the UK Million Women study (Benson et al., 2013), the current study (Schüz et al., 2022) is methodologically unsound due to limited assessment of cell phone use over time and misclassification of exposure. Furthermore, participant attrition from this prospective longitudinal study was very high which likely contributed to the fact that few participants in the main analysis were heavy lifetime cell phone users.

Thus, the study provides no assurance of safety to current cell phone users who use their phones more or start using at a younger age. The results of this study are also limited to the study population, namely middle-aged and elderly women who lived in the United Kingdom (UK).

Comparing their study to Interphone, a 13-nation case-control study which found that heavy lifetime use of cell phones (1,640 or more hours -- the top decile or 10%) was associated with significantly increased malignant brain tumor (i.e., glioma) incidence, the authors point out a major limitation of their new study:

"In INTERPHONE, a modest positive association was seen between glioma risk and the heaviest (top decile of) cellular telephone use (odds ratio = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.89). This specific group of cellular telephone users is estimated to represent not more than 3% of the women in our study, so that overall, the results of the 2 studies are not in contradiction (23)."

In the current study, only 18% of cell phone users talked on cell phones more than 30 minutes per week which corresponds to about 4 minutes per day or 26 hours per year which amounts to about 260 hours over a 10-year period -- far less use than what it would take to see a statistically significant association with brain tumor incidence. Even among daily cell phone users in this study, only 41% talked on their cell phones more than 30 minutes per week.

In contrast, we found in our meta-analysis of 46 case-control studies that "cellular phone use with cumulative call time more than 1000 hours statistically significantly increased the risk of tumors" which corresponds to at least 17 minutes per day over a 10-year period (Choi, Moskowitz et al., 2020).

The study also misclassified some "never" and "ever" users: Among participants who completed the 2001 and 2011 surveys, 45.8% of the 2001 never users talked on cellphones more than 1 minute per week (vs. 73.5% of ever users), and 8.8% talked on their cellphones more than 30 minutes per week (vs. 18.2% of ever users). 2001 never users talked on their cellphones an average of 4.3 years (vs. 8.9 years for ever users).

The current study did not control for cordless phone use, a potential confounder, which likely increases brain tumor risk. The study also failed to control for those who kept the cellphone away from their head during phone call phones by using the speaker phone or a headset.

The authors did not report any analyses to determine whether the selection of participants for this study or the high amount of participant attrition (68%) biased the study results.

The paper reported, "For the main malignant subtypes, glioma and glioblastoma, there was no indication of an increase, based on 937 and 702 cases, respectively, in cellular telephone users." 

How can the authors account for the results found in a study that examined brain tumor incidence from 1995 to 2015 in England (which includes about 84% of the UK population, the sampling frame for the current study)?  Philips et al., 2018 found a substantial increase in the incidence of the most common form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), over that time period along with a reduced incidence of lower grade tumors:

"We report a sustained and highly statistically significant ASR [age-standardized incidence rate] rise in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) across all ages. The ASR for GBM more than doubled from 2.4 to 5.0, with annual case numbers rising from 983 to 2531. Overall, this rise is mostly hidden in the overall data by a reduced incidence of lower grade tumours."

This new paper concludes with the following advice: 

"Future research should target specifically the very heavy cellular telephone users, with attention to new features of a continuously evolving technology; hence, advising cellular telephone users on how to reduce unnecessary exposures remains a good precautionary approach."

Unfortunately, those who only read the abstract will see the following disingenuous conclusion:

"Our findings support the accumulating evidence that cellular telephone use under usual conditions does not increase brain tumor incidence."

The phrases, "accumulating evidence" and "under usual conditions" seem misleading given the limitations of the current study. Moreover, multiple case-control studies report increased brain tumor incidence with levels of cell phone use now considered quite common. The U.S. National Cancer Institute should be admonished for publishing this study in their hallmark journal, JNCI.

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No Link Between Cell Phones and Brain Tumors in Large UK Study

Wednesday, June 1, 2022

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since 2016. Several hundred EMF scientists around the world receive these updates. 

The complete collection contains more than 1,500 abstracts. You can download the complete collection of abstracts, a 1,291-page document (pdf) by clicking on the following link:



The abstracts for the most recent papers appear below.


A critical analysis of the MOBI-Kids study of wireless phone use in childhood and adolescence and brain tumor risk

Lennart Hardell, Joel M. Moskowitz. A critical analysis of the MOBI-Kids study of wireless phone use in childhood and adolescence and brain tumor risk. Reviews on Environmental Health, May 5, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2022-0040.

Abstract

The MOBI-Kids case-control study on wireless phone use and brain tumor risk in childhood and adolescence included the age group 10–24 years diagnosed between 2010 and 2015. Overall no increased risk was found although for brain tumors in the temporal region an increased risk was found in the age groups 10–14 and 20–24 years. Most odds ratios (ORs) in MOBI-Kids were <1.0, some statistically significant, suggestive of a preventive effect from RF radiation; however, this is in contrast to current knowledge about radiofrequency (RF) carcinogenesis. The MOBI-Kids results are not biologically plausible and indicate that the study was flawed due to methodological problems. For example, not all brain tumor cases were included since central localization was excluded. Instead, all brain tumor cases should have been included regardless of histopathology and anatomical localization. Only surgical controls with appendicitis were used instead of population-based controls from the same geographical area as for the cases. In fact, increased incidence of appendicitis has been postulated to be associated with RF radiation which makes selection of control group in MOBI-Kids questionable. Start of wireless phone use up to 10 years before diagnosis was in some analyses included in the unexposed group. Thus, any important results demonstrating late carcinogenesis, a promoter effect, have been omitted from analysis and may underestimate true risks. Linear trend was in some analyses statistically significant in the calculation of RF-specific energy and extremely low frequency (ELF)-induced current in the center of gravity of the tumor. Additional case-case analysis should have been performed. The data from this study should be reanalyzed using unconditional regression analysis adjusted for potential confounding factors to increase statistical power. Then all responding cases and controls could be included in the analyses. In sum, we believe the results as reported in this paper seem uninterpretable and should be dismissed.

Summary

  • In our opinion, the results as reported in the MOBI-Kids paper seem uninterpretable and should be dismissed.
  • All brain tumor cases should have been included regardless of histopathology and anatomical localization.

  • Only surgical controls with suspected appendicitis were used. Yet, increased incidence of appendicitis has been postulated to be associated with RF radiation.

  • Start of wireless phone use up to 10 years before diagnosis was in some analyses included in the unexposed group. This would bias the ORs towards unity.

  • The results indicate an increased risk for tumors in the temporal brain region in spite of methodological issues based on low numbers in several categories.

  • Linear trend was in some analyses statistically significant in the calculation of RF-specific energy and ELF-induced current in the center of gravity of the tumor. Additional case-case analysis should have been performed.

  • The data from this study should be reanalyzed using unconditional regression analysis adjusted for potential confounding factors to increase the statistical power.

Finally, it is unfortunate that after such a major investment of resources that little can be learned at this time from the MOBI-Kids study about the risk of brain tumors from wireless phone use in young people. Since the study addresses an issue critical to public health and the majority of the funding was from the European Commission, the MOBI-Kids data set should be publicly archived making it available to the scientific community to enable the data to be re-analyzed using different assumptions and methods.


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Genotoxic effects of electromagnetic field radiations from mobile phones (Review)

Ganesh Chandra Jagetia. Genotoxic effects of electromagnetic field radiations from mobile phones. Environmental Research. 2022. 113321. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.113321.

Highlights

•  The exposure to electromagnetic field radiation has increased tremendously from manmade electronic gadgets in addition to natural sources.
•  A few studies on mobile phone exposure indicated that it does not cause harmful effects.
•  The studies indicated a positive correlation between mobile phone use and genotoxic effects that outnumber the negative effect. 
•  Electromagnetic field radiations increase reactive oxygen species formation that causes mutagenic and genotoxic effects leading to cancer.

Abstract

The use of wireless communication technology in mobile phones has revolutionized modern telecommunication and mobile phones have become so popular that their number exceeds the global population. Electromagnetic field radiations (EMR) are an integral part of wireless technology, which are emitted by mobile phones, mobile towers, electric power stations, transmission lines, radars, microwave ovens, television sets, refrigerators, diagnostic/therapeutic and other electronic devices. The manmade EMR sources have added to the existing burden of natural EMR human exposure arising from the Sun, cosmos, atmospheric discharges, and thunderstorms. EMR including radiofrequency waves (RF) and extremely low frequency radiation (ELF) has generated great interest as their human exposure causes headache, fatigue, tinnitus, concentration problems, depression, memory loss, skin irritation, sleep disorders, nausea, cardiovascular effects, chest pain, immunity and hormonal disorders as the short-term effects and cancer as the late effect. The review has been written by collecting the information using various search engines including google scholar, PubMed SciFinder, Science direct, EMF-portal, saferemr, and other websites on the internet and its main focus is on the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of EMR in humans and mammals. Numerous investigations revealed that exposure in the range of 0–300 GHz EMR is harmless as this did not increase micronuclei and chromosome aberrations. On the contrary, several other studies have demonstrated that exposure to EMR increases the frequency of micronuclei, chromosome aberrations, DNA adducts, DNA single and double strand breaks at the molecular level in vitro and in vivo. The EMR exposure induces reactive oxygen species and changes the fidelity of genes involved in signal transduction, cytoskeleton formation, and cellular metabolism.

Excerpts

Table 1 lists 75 (23 ELF/IF, 52 RF) studies that did not find significant genotoxic effects.

Table 2 lists 145 (47 ELF/IF, 98 RF) studies that reported significant genotoxic effects.

Conclusions

The electromagnetic radiations especially in the radiofrequency range are long wavelength radiation and they have a wide application in wireless communication. Human exposure to EMF-RF-ELF is from electrical transmission lines, mobile signal transmission towers, mobile phones, microwaves and various electronic gadgets which are in daily use. A phenomenal rise in the subscription of mobile phones which continues unabated has drastically increased the exposure to EMF-RF-ELF of children and adults equally. Various agencies worldwide have also raised concern about the ill effects of these radiations. Investigations reporting that EMF-RF-ELF exposures are are genotoxic outnumber the reports that the EMF-RF-ELF exposure are not harmful to the human population, Various preclinical models report the genotoxic effect of EMF-RF-ELF in the form of chromosome condensation, various types of chromosome aberrations, micronuclei formation, sister chromatid exchanges, DNA base damages, DNA adduct formation, DNA SSBs and DNA DSBs. The EMF-RF-ELF triggered the formation of ROS, which seem to be responsible for all the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of EMF-RF-ELF. EMF-RF-ELF also reduces antioxidant status by alleviating GSH, catalase, SOD, GST, GPx and increasing lipid peroxidation. At the molecular level EMF-RF-ELF stimulates the activation NF-κB, TNF-α, HSP 70, p53, Chk-2, p38, LC3-II, pAMPK, PARP, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, DNA-PKcs, RAD9B, BM11, cytochrome c release and cleaved caspase-3 and subsequently downmodulates p21, p62, p-mTOR, GADD45α, XRCC1, XRCC4, Ku80 (XRCC5), Ku70 (XRCC6), and LIG4, caspase3 and Bcl2 which are involved in numerous cellular processes. The repeated EMF-RF-ELF exposures exert a negative effect on human health and cause mutagenesis and cancer in humans. It will be prudent to follow ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle to minimize the adverse effect on humans.


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Analysis of ICNIRP 2020 Basic Restrictions for Localized Radiofrequency Exposure in the Frequency Range Above 6 GHz


Eric Lemay, Gregory B Gajda, Gregory W McGarr, Mykola Zhuk, Jonathan Paradis. Analysis of ICNIRP 2020 Basic Restrictions for Localized Radiofrequency Exposure in the Frequency Range Above 6 GHz. Health Phys. 2022 May 21. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001581.

Abstract

ICNIRP 2020 guidelines have defined a practical temperature elevation threshold for human health effects, namely the operational adverse health effect threshold that forms the basis of the absorbed power and energy density basic restrictions. These basic restrictions for localized exposures at frequencies above 6 GHz were evaluated by comparing numerically computed temperature rise against the target temperature rise of 2.5 oC, which is the operational adverse health effect threshold divided by the occupational safety factor of 2. The numerical model employs the maximum absorbed power and energy density levels allowed by the occupational basic restriction for both pulsed and continuous wave exposures. These analyses were performed considering 3- and 4-tissue layer models and a variety of beam diameters, frequencies, and exposure durations. The smallest beam diameters were based on a study of theoretically achievable beam widths from half-wave resonant dipoles and show the impact of the averaging area on the computed temperature elevation. The results demonstrated that ICNIRP's assumed occupational safety factors in the frequency range above 6 GHz were not sufficiently maintained for all exposure scenarios and particularly for short pulse exposures at frequencies of 30 GHz or higher with small beam diameters. Worst-case tissue temperature elevations were estimated to be as much as 3.6 times higher than ICNIRP's target temperature increases. Consequently, the authors suggest a small modification in the application of the ICNIRP 2020 localized basic restrictions, thereby limiting the worst-case tissue temperature increases to 1.4 times the target value.

Conclusion

Numerical computations of the SAR distribution and resulting temperature rise in models of superficial tissue at levels allowed by the ICNIRP (2020) BRs for frequencies above 6 GHz were carried out to investigate the safety factors from the assumed OAHET thermal thresholds inherent in the BRs.

The results showed that for a range of beam sizes, pulse durations, and carrier frequencies, the safety factors are reduced from their assumed values of 2 times below an OAHET temperature rise of 5 oC for the occupationally exposed. The lowest safety factors (the worst case was 0.56, resulting in a temperature rise of 1.8 times the OAHET) occurred for single pulses with the smallest assumed spot size of FWHM = 0.005 m (or an assumed unperturbed power density beam diameter of 0.0063 m) for short durations (td < 1 s) at 200 GHz.

Examinations of SAR distributions from half-wave resonant dipoles (Appendix) led to the decision to set a lower value of FWHM = 0.005 m for frequencies of 30 GHz and beyond. While it may be argued that current mobile applications may not deliver such small SAR distributions, there exists the theoretical possibility that even smaller spots sizes can be generated at the higher millimeter-wave frequencies covered in the ICNIRP (2020) guideline.

Safety factors for CW exposures (td > 360 s) were generally higher than for a single pulse, with the worst-case (a safety factor of 1.46 as opposed to the assumed value of 2) again occurring for the smallest spot size.

Despite the low worst-case safety factors and high resulting temperature rises, CEM43 calculations suggest that even minor damage to the skin is unlikely at the current BR levels in ICNIRP (2020). The small beam diameters at which the lowest safety factors occur would suggest that maintaining the beam on the skin for a length of time necessary to induce even minor damage would be practically impossible, especially given that under such conditions, exposed individuals would likely remove the affected tissue away from the RF heat source in response to the sensation of warmth and/or heat pain before tissue damage could occur.

Mitigation of the low safety factors that occurred for the smallest beam diameters can be accomplished by changing the 1 cm2 spatial averaging 0 cm2 (essentially the spatial peak of the beam). If this modification to the local BRs is applied, the associated maximum (worst-case) tissue temperature rise is ≈ 3.5 oC for exposures at the occupational BR (≈ 0.7 oC for general public BR). This modification to the BR rules is easy to implement and would allow use of the ICNIRP (2020) AED formulae and APD limits for localized exposures above 6 GHz to 300 GHz to remain unchanged.


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Why electrohypersensitivity and related symptoms are caused by non-ionizing man-made electromagnetic fields: An overview and medical assessment

Dominique Belpomme, Philippe Irigaray.  Why electrohypersensitivity and related symptoms are caused by non-ionizing man-made electromagnetic fields: An overview and medical assessment. Environmental Research. Available online 7 May 2022, 113374. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.113374.

Highlights

•  Electrohypersensitivity is caused by electromagnetic fields.
•  Electrohypersensitivity is a neurological disorder with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood brain barrier opening and neurotransmitter abnormalities.
•  Electrohypersensitivity must be defined by the decrease of brain electromagnetic fields tolerance threshold.

Abstract

Much of the controversy over the cause of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) lies in the absence of recognized clinical and biological criteria for a widely accepted diagnosis. However, there are presently sufficient data for EHS to be acknowledged as a distinctly well-defined and objectively characterized neurologic pathological disorder. Because we have shown that 1) EHS is frequently associated with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) in EHS patients, and 2) that both individualized disorders share a common pathophysiological mechanism for symptom occurrence; it appears that EHS and MCS can be identified as a unique neurologic syndrome, regardless its causal origin. In this overview we distinguish the etiology of EHS itself from the environmental causes that trigger pathophysiological changes and clinical symptoms after EHS has occurred. Contrary to present scientifically unfounded claims, we indubitably refute the hypothesis of a nocebo effect to explain the genesis of EHS and its presentation. We as well refute the erroneous concept that EHS could be reduced to a vague and unproven “functional impairment”. To the contrary, we show here there are objective pathophysiological changes and health effects induced by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in EHS patients and most of all in healthy subjects, meaning that excessive non-thermal anthropogenic EMFs are strongly noxious for health. In this overview and medical assessment we focus on the effects of extremely low frequencies, wireless communications radio frequencies and microwaves EMF. We discuss how to better define and characterize EHS. Taken into consideration the WHO proposed causality criteria, we show that EHS is in fact causally associated with increased exposure to man-made EMF, and in some cases to marketed environmental chemicals. We therefore appeal to all governments and international health institutions, particularly the WHO, to urgently consider the growing EHS-associated pandemic plague, and to acknowledge EHS as a new real EMF causally-related pathology.


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An idiographic approach to Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF) Part II. Ecological momentary assessment of three individuals with severe IEI-EMF


Zsuzsanna Dömötör, Gábor Ruzsa, György Thuróczy, Péter P Necz, Steven Nordin, Ferenc Köteles, Renáta Szemerszky. An idiographic approach to Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF) Part II. Ecological momentary assessment of three individuals with severe IEI-EMF. Heliyon. 2022 May 14;8(5):e09421. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09421.

Abstract

IEI-EMF refers to a self-reported sensitivity characterized by attribution of non-specific physical symptoms to exposure to weak EMFs. The majority of empirical results do not support the existence of a causal relationship between EMF and IEI-EMF. However, this conclusion was drawn from environmental and experimental studies that are not without methodological limitations. In the current study, as part of a complex biopsychosocial approach, an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol was applied for the investigation of the temporal relationship between actual radio frequency (RF) EMF exposure and IEI-EMF, at the individual level. Continuous measurement of autonomic variables by holter electrocardiogram (ECG) monitors and the ambient RF EMF by personal dosimeters, as well as repeated (8/day) paper-and-pencil assessments of momentary internal states (symptoms, mood, perceived EMF intensity) and situational factors was conducted for 21 days with the participation of three individuals with severe IEI-EMF. Temporal relationships were examined by time series analyses. For two participants, the results did not support the association between the suspected EMF frequency range(s) and symptom reports. Nevertheless, the results revealed a reverse association with respect to another frequency range (GSM900 downlink), which contradicts the IEI-EMF condition. Autonomic activation related findings were inconsistent. For the third participant, the claimed association was partly supported, both for symptom reports and autonomic reactions (UMTS downlink, total RF; RMS values). The findings of this study suggest that IEI-EMF does not have a unitary aetiology. For certain individuals, a biophysical background cannot be excluded, whereas no such underlying factor appears to be at work for others. EMA is a useful method for the investigation of the aetiology of IEI-EMF.


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Effect of mobile phone usage duration during pregnancy on the general motor movements of infants

H Bektas, MS Bektas, S Dasdag. Effect of mobile phone usage duration during pregnancy on the general motor movements of infants. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 36(1). 2022. doi: 10.1080/13102818.2022.2046505.

Abstract

Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted from wireless devices increases rapidly and the most sensitive groups are pregnant women and children. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the fidgety movements (FMs) and motor repertoires of the infants of pregnant women with different durations of mobile phone usage (DOMFU) in the prenatal period by performing a general movement assessment (GMA) using the Prechtl method. Infants suitable for the study were divided into 4 groups according to their mothers' duration of mobile phone usage during pregnancy, comprising those who did not talk on a mobile phone (Control Group, n: 31), those with mobile phone usage (MFU) of similar to 20 min a day (Group 1, n: 33), those with MFU of similar to 40 min a day (Group 2, n: 31), and those with MFU of similar to 2 h a day (Group 3, n: 28). The analysis showed that the abnormal fidgety (AF) and absent fidgety (F-), suboptimal motor optimality score (MOS) and reduced motor repertoire were statistically higher in Group 3 compared to the other groups. Normal posture and the quality of other movements were statistically higher in the Control, and Groups 1 and 2 compared to Group 3. According to the findings, infants of mothers with different DOMFU during pregnancy differed with regard to the quality of FMs, MOS, repertoire, posture and other movements. In conclusion, the findings suggested that there may be a relationship between prenatal RFR exposure and motor development in infants. More long-term studies are needed to determine whether these changes are temporary or permanent.


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Microwave Emissions and the Problem of Modern Viral Diseases

S V Avakyan, L A Baranova. Microwave Emissions and the Problem of Modern Viral Diseases. Her Russ Acad Sci. 2022;92(2):177-187. doi: 10.1134/S1019331622020058.

Abstract

The results of a study on the mechanisms of the influence of an increased level of microwave radiation on the growth of infectious, primarily viral, diseases in the environment are presented. This is the radiation of the earth's ionosphere, which reached its maximum in the late 1980s-early 2000s, following an increase in the level of solar activity since the 17th century. Over the past 30 years, the anthropogenic electromagnetic background has increased 100 times due to the development of cellular mobile communications and computerization. The predicted interaction of natural and anthropogenic sources of microwaves sharply increases their negative impact on the ecological situation. Of particular concern is the active spread in recent years of the new 5G communication standard; in the future, it is the development of the most dangerous millimeter range in our country. Energy from the environment in the microwave range can cause "unexpected behavior" in the DNA of viruses. Clarifications to the recommendations of experts on the protection of the population with the help of electromagnetic shielding, obtained in the framework of supramolecular physics of the environment, are proposed.

Excerpt

The effect of a permanent increase in microwave fluxes from the environment on the activation of viral pandemics is considered. This is not only the radiation of the earth’s ionosphere but also the anthropogenic electromagnetic background, caused by an avalanche-like increase in microwave pollution of the habitat during the operation of mobile cellular telephony, household computer equipment, and digitalization systems. The predicted interaction of natural and anthropogenic sources of microwaves sharply increases their negative impact on the ecological situation. Therefore, efforts are needed to reduce drastically the amount of time spent using mobile phones and surfing the Internet among at-risk populations, including secondary school students. This wish of the authors is consistent with the concerns expressed recently by both teachers and parents of students, as well as with the opinion of the General Prosecutor’s Office of the Russian Federation.

The proposed clarifications to the recommendations of experts on the protection of the population using electromagnetic shielding suggest the development of biophysical studies of the cumulative microwave impact both within heliobiology (at the present stage of the decline in the level of solar–geomagnetic activity) and taking into account the resonant mechanisms of increasing anthropogenic exposure at communication frequencies.


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Symptoms reported by Canadians posted in Havana are linked with reduced white matter fibre density

Guillermo Aristi, Lyna Kamintsky, Margaux Ross, Chris Bowen, Cynthia Calkin, Alon Friedman, Javeria A. Hashmi. Symptoms reported by Canadians posted in Havana are linked with reduced white matter fibre density, Brain Communications. 4:2, 2022, fcac053, doi: 10.1093/braincomms/fcac053.

Abstract

Diplomats representing the USA have reported with unusual neurologic symptoms and MRI changes after being posted in Havana, Cuba between late 2016 and 2018. Here, we examined white matter microstructure and network connectivity of individuals stationed in Havana, using diffusion-weighted MRI, fixel-based analysis and structural connectomics as implemented in MRtrix3. MRI data acquisition and clinical assessments were done in a total of 24 diplomats and their family members and 40 healthy controls. The diplomat data were grouped into an exposed cohort (n = 16) and an unexposed cohort (n = 10), and among these, two individuals were assessed before and after potential exposure. Fixel-based analysis revealed a reduction in fibre density in two specific regions: the fornix and the splenium, in exposed individuals, relative to unexposed individuals and healthy controls. Post hoc analyses showed the effect remained present (P < 0.05) in both regions when comparing exposed and unexposed diplomats; and reduced fibre density was correlated with longer time period stationed in Cuba after age correction. Reduction of fibre density was also found to be linked with clinical symptoms of persistent migraine, tinnitus, sound sensitivity and fatigue. Network statistical comparisons revealed decreased structural connectivity in two distinct networks, comprising subcortical and cortical systems in exposed individuals, relative to unexposed and normative data. While the cause for the differences between the groups remains unknown, our results reveal region-specific white matter injury, that is, significantly correlated with clinical symptoms.


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Microwave Auditory Effects Among U.S. Government Personnel Reporting Directional Audible and Sensory Phenomena in Havana

James C. Lin. Microwave Auditory Effects Among U.S. Government Personnel Reporting Directional Audible and Sensory Phenomena in Havana. IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 44577-44582, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3168656.

Abstract: The mysterious incidents on diplomatic and intelligence personnel began in 2016. Since then, nearly 200 incidents have been reported. The illnesses and symptoms are called Havana Syndrome, named for the city where cases were first reported. The initial accounts from Havana include hearing of loud high-pitched sounds, localizing the sources as coming from above or behind the head, experiencing a directional sound that ceases if one steps away, the covering of ears not making any difference, some hearing the sound but others in the same room not hearing it, or hearing it in one part of a room but not in other areas. Assuming the reported symptoms and accounts are consistent, the microwave auditory effect provides a scientific explanation for Havana Syndrome.

Excerpts

Although the required peak power densities are high, they are achievable with existing high-power commercial and military microwave systems operating under pulsed conditions [25]. Significantly, they also fall within the permissible “safe” limits of currently promulgated safety standards and protection guidelines, The required microwave technology is mature and in general, commercially available in many developed countries. confirming the conclusion of earlier studies.

Furthermore, the study showed that to generate tissue injuring level of high-power microwave induced acoustic pressures inside the human brain, the theoretical microwave pulse induced temperature elevation would be substantially below 1o C (see Table 2), which is again “safe” according to currently promulgated RF and microwave safety protection guidelines.


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Editorial: Human Exposure to New-Emerging Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields  

Wu Tongning, Peng Ruiyun, Zhang Lei, Li Kun. Editorial: Human Exposure to New-Emerging Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields. Frontiers in Public Health, 10, 2022. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.894624.

No abstract

With the advancement of wireless technologies and electronic/electrical devices, humans are exposed to more complicated electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (EMF), which has raised public concerns on potential health effects. Researchers have recently conducted a series of studies on diverse exposure scenarios. In addition, international standard organizations have revised safety guidelines and standards (1). These recent results and practices can enhance our knowledge in assessing health risks from the exposure to EMF (2). This Research Topic consists of 14 articles (one review article, two brief research report articles, and 11 original research articles) published in the Radiation and Health section of Frontiers in Public Health....



Paternal Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Causes Sex-Specific Differences in Body Weight Trajectory and Glucose Metabolism in Offspring Mice

Yan Song, Ju Ying, Dong Jie, Lei Hui, Wang Jun, Xu Qian, Ma Yefei, Wang Jingjing, Wang Xiaohong. Paternal Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Causes Sex-Specific Differences in Body Weight Trajectory and Glucose Metabolism in Offspring Mice. Frontiers in Public Health. 10, 2022. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.872198.

Abstract

Nowadays, concerns about the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on male fertility and offspring health are growing. In the present study, we investigated the effects of long-term exposure (at least 10 weeks) to the RF-EMR [2.0 GHz; power density, 2.5 W/m2; whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR), 0.125–0.5 W/kg] on male mice fertility and F1 growth and glucose metabolism. No significant injuries were observed in testis organization, sperm quality, and pregnancy rate. However, mice exposed to RF-EMR exhibited a significantly elevated apoptosis rate in testis germ cells. Interestingly, paternal RF-EMR exposure resulted in sex-specific weight trajectory differences and glucose metabolism changes in male F1 mice but not in female F1 mice. The changed glucose metabolism in F1 male may result from the altered gene expression of liver Gck. These data collectively suggested that 2.0 GHz RF-EMR whole-body exposure of male mice does not cause obvious impairment in testis, sperm quality, and pregnancy rate. Paternal RF-EMR exposure causes male-specific alterations in body weight trajectories and glucose metabolism of F1.


Measurement and Exposure Assessment of Intermediate Frequency Magnetic Fields From Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) Gates in Libraries  

Ikuyo Miwa, Esaki Kaoru, Aimoto Atsuko, Wake Kanako, Yamaguchi-Sekino Sachiko, Kojimahara Noriko, Suzuki Yukihisa, Taki Masao. Measurement and Exposure Assessment of Intermediate Frequency Magnetic Fields From Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) Gates in Libraries. Frontiers in Public Health. 10, 2022. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.871134.

Abstract

Exposure to magnetic fields from the electronic article surveillance (EAS) gate was evaluated in consideration of the application to epidemiological studies of library workers who are exposed continually to intermediate frequency magnetic fields from the EAS gate. Two types of exposures were investigated. One was transient exposure due to passing through or beside the gate and another was chronic exposure in the room. We measured magnetic fields from five EAS gate models which were commonly used in libraries in Japan. Detailed measurements were performed for two of them in consideration of the phase difference of vector components of magnetic flux density. The polarization of the magnetic field in the gate was investigated with the index of ellipticity. The induced electric field in a human body was numerically calculated for exposures to magnetic fields of the two gate models. The results provide a quantitative understanding of exposures during passing through or by the EAS gate. Magnetic field distribution was measured in a large room for one gate model to quantify the chronic exposure of library workers during the work at the desk. It was found that the magnetic field was distributed as a function of the horizontal distance to the nearest gatepost. The 45-point average value BIEC defined by the IEC standard was suggested to be a useful quantity to characterize the magnitude of the magnetic field from the EAS gate. Exposures to different EAS gates are expected to be compared through this quantity without detailed measurements. These results are expected to provide useful means for exposure assessment of epidemiological studies on the association between the IF-EMF exposure and possible health outcomes.


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Letter to the Editor “Mobile phone electromagnetic radiation and the risk of headache: a systematic review and meta‑analysis”

Jalilian, H., Dongus, S., Bosch-Capblanch, X. et al. Letter to the Editor “Mobile phone electromagnetic radiation and the risk of headache: a systematic review and meta‑analysis”. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2022. doi: 10.1007/s00420-022-01890-4

No abstract

In conclusion, this review has not followed a systematic approach and should thus not be labeled as a systematic review. Calculating only an average effect estimate based on a convenient sample of studies without addressing potential risk of bias and not considering the duration and level of exposure is largely uninformative.


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Investigation of the impact of electromagnetic fields emitted close to the head by smart glasses

Philipp Jungk, Matthias Wienke, Christoph Schiefer, Ulrich Hartmann, Volker Harth, Claudia Terschüren, Carsten Alteköster, Daniel Friemert. Investigation of the impact of electromagnetic fields emitted close to the head by smart glasses. Biomed Tech (Berl). 2022 May 17. doi: 10.1515/bmt-2021-0301.

Abstract

The functionality of smart glasses includes the possibility of wireless communication. For this purpose, WiFi or Bluetooth modules are integrated into the glasses. They emit electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of the user's head. This simulation study investigates the impact of varying positions, frequencies, and antenna types of the embedded WiFi or Bluetooth modules on different tissue types in the human head. The absorption of electromagnetic energy causes the main impact on the tissue in the head. This physical process is best described by the specific absorption rate SAR. To investigate the effects of position, frequency, and antenna type on the simulated SAR values multiple simulations have been carried out considering real-world applications of smart glasses. The results show that the type of antenna has little effect on the SAR values of the different tissues. The maximum regulated output powers explain the frequencies' impact on the exposure. According to our findings, the greatest influence on the SAR values can be attributed to the placement of the antenna. Finally, our study reveals that positioning the antenna at the front side of the head is optimal for most tissues because of its maximal distance to the head tissues.


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5G NR Base Station Exposure of the General Public: Comparison of Assessment Methods

Kenneth Deprez, Leen Verloock, Loek Colussi, Sam Aerts, Matthias Van den Bossche, Jos Kamer, John Bolte, Luc Martens, David Plets, Wout Joseph. In-Situ 5G NR Base Station Exposure of the General Public: Comparison of Assessment Methods. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2022 May 3;ncac061. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncac061.

Abstract

New measurement methods and equipment for correct 5G New Radio (NR) electromagnetic field (EMF) in-situ exposure assessment of instantaneous time-averaged exposure (Eavg) and maximum extrapolated field exposure (Emax) are proposed. The different options are investigated with in-situ measurements around 5G NR base stations (FR1) in different countries. The maximum electric field values satisfy the ICNIRP 2020 limit (maximum 7.7%). The difference between Emax and Eavg is <3 dB for the different measurement equipment at multiple sites in case there is only self-generated traffic. However, in a more realistic scenario, Eavg cannot be used to assess the exposure correctly due to influence of other users as the spatial distribution of user equipment (UE) influences Eavg, while Emax is not affected. However, when multiple UEs are collocated, there is no influence of the number of UEs. A broadband measurement can give a first impression of the RF-EMF exposure up to 700 m, but is not enough to assess the 5G-NR exposure.

Conclusions and Future Work

This paper provides an overview of different measurement equipment and optimal settings that can be used to correctly perform in-situ 5G NR electromagnetic field exposure assessment at 3.5 GHz (FR1). Both time-averaged exposure and maximum extrapolated field exposure assessment are proposed and investigated with in-situ measurements in different countries. The maximum electric field values satisfy the ICNIRP 2020 limit (i.e. maximum 7.7%). Furthermore, in a low-traffic environment, one UE is sufficient to attract the beam towards the measurement equipment. The difference between Emax and Eavg is <3 dB for the different measurement equipment at multiple sites. Hence, the current setups are to be recommended in 5G-NR exposure assessment in the current low-traffic scenarios. In a more realistic scenario, not all measurement methods are valid and must thus be adapted. When Eavg is used as metric, the exposure assessment drops with 6 dB when four UEs are spatially separated. However, Emax is not affected by the spatially separated UEs (difference of 0.60 dB between the various measurements) and is the recommended metric to use for exposure assessment in high-traffic environments.

A broadband measurement can give a first impression of the RF-EMF environment up to 700 m (deviations of 0.05–4.86 dB), but is limited in use (larger separations) and not enough to assess the 5G-NR field exposure.

The future work can be divided into two main parts. The first part is to test the measurement methods and equipment in more realistic, higher traffic environments. This will give a more accurate view on the impact of 5G NR on everyday RF-EMF exposure. The second part is to test the measurement methods for the frequency range 2 of 5G-NR (FR2), i.e. mm-waves. Here, more beams, higher bandwidths and more traffic are expected.


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On the Exposure Dose Minimization of Multi-antenna Multi-carrier System Users

F. Heliot, T. Brown. On the Exposure Dose Minimization of Multi-antenna Multi-carrier System Users. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. Apr 27, 2022. doi: 10.1109/TVT.2022.3170606.

Abstract

From the fourth generation (4G) of cellular systems onward, wireless personal devices (WPDs) support multi-input multi-output (MIMO) communication. However, the impact of MIMO communication on the electromagnetic field (EMF) of WPD users has yet to be fully understood and analyzed at the system level. In this paper, we first provide a generic model for assessing the individual exposure dose of multi-antenna WPD users in a multi-user multi-carrier communication system. An optimization framework for minimizing this exposure dose is then developed based on our exposure model. This framework helps us to identify a new criterion, i.e., the ratio between the normalized exposure dose and the channel to noise ratio (CNR), as the main system level criterion for minimizing the individual exposure dose of multi-antenna WPD users. This criterion is further integrated in the design of two novel centralized resource allocation schemes that take advantage of the multiple antennas at the WPD to minimize the per-user exposure dose, when full or limited knowledge of each user channel is available. Our new schemes can significantly reduce the individual exposure dose of WPD users (by approximately $80\%$) in comparison with the most relevant existing resource allocation schemes. Our results also provide insights into the logarithmic relationship between the per-user exposure dose and the number of receive antennas (or the number of time slots), and how such a parameter can be exploited to further reduce the exposure and/or provide a higher SE while maintaining a low exposure dose.


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Methodology to determine threshold distance for estimating main electromagnetic exposure in wireless local area network (WiFi)

Marta Fernández, David Guerra. Methodology for determining the threshold distance for estimating the main EM exposure contribution in WLAN. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal. Volume 25, 2022, 100997. doi:10.1016/j.jestch.2021.05.001.

Abstract

The location of radiation sources in wireless networks is a key factor to characterize their contribution to electromagnetic exposure levels in order to deploy future networks that account for minimizing electromagnetic field levels. In relation to wireless local area networks, considering that mobile communication devices comply with the SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) limits imposed by the international standardization organizations for preserving human health, the interest is nowadays focused on the signal levels coming from the WiFi access points. This paper presents a methodology to determine the threshold distance at which the field strength levels from the AP are negligible in comparison with the radiation generated by a user equipment. The theoretical concepts, which can be applied to other technologies, were implemented by means of simulations and experimental measurements. For the simulations, actual WiFi antennas were modelled. Experimental measurements completed the results obtained in simulations, resulting in a greater number of real situations. Results showed that the threshold distance depends on the WiFi standard employed by the devices connected to the network.


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Quasi-Deterministic Channel Propagation Model for 60 GHz Urban WiFi Access from Light Poles

S.Y. Jun, C. Lai, D. Caudill, J. Wang, J. Senic, N. Varshney, C. Gentile. Quasi-Deterministic Channel Propagation Model for 60 GHz Urban WiFi Access from Light Poles. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. Published online Apr 29, 2022. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2022.3171503.

Abstract

There is strong impetus by the Telecom Infra Project to exploit the 60 GHz unlicensed band for public WiFi in urban environments, by installing access points on light poles. Although many 60 GHz urban channel measurements have been recorded to date, they have resulted only in path loss models or RMS delay spreads. What is needed at millimeter-wave is a spatially consistent channel model for beamtracking that embodies the characteristics of these short wavelengths sparsity and rough surface scattering such as the Quasi-Deterministic model. In this letter, we fit the model to channel measurements we recorded in an urban environment. The measurements were recorded at 4 m, 6 m, and 9 m antenna heights to investigate the tradeoffs between light pole heights. The large-scale channel metrics between the model and the measurements were shown to match very well.


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Effects of Long-Term and Multigeneration Exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to 9.4 GHz Microwaves

Sun A, Zhao X, Li Z, Gao Y, Liu Q, Zhou H, Dong G, Wang C. Effects of Long-Term and Multigeneration Exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to 9.4 GHz Microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 May 11. doi: 10.1002/bem.22409.

Abstract

A large number of studies on the biological effects of microwaves are carried out using rodents and cells, but the conditions are difficult to control, and the irradiation period is short; the results obtained have always been controversial and difficult to reproduce. In this study, we expose nematodes to an electromagnetic environment for a long-term and multigeneration period to explore the possible biological effects. Wild-type N2 strains of Caenorhabditis elegans are exposed to 9.4 GHz microwaves at a specific adsorption rate of 4 W/kg for 10 h per day from L1 larvae to adults. Then, adult worms are washed off, and the laid eggs are kept to hatch L1 larvae, which are continuously exposed to microwaves until passing through 20 generations. The worms of the 10th, 15th, and 20th generations are collected for index detection. Interestingly, we found that the fecundity of C. elegans decreased significantly in the exposed group from the 15th generation. At the same time, we found that the growth of C. elegans decreased, motility decreased, and oxidative stress occurred in the exposed group from the 10th generation, which may play roles in the decreased spawning in worms. We preliminarily believe that the microwave energy received by worms leads to oxidative stress, which causes a decrease in the spawning rate, and the underlying mechanism needs to be further studied.


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Semi-quantitative methodology to assess health and safety risks arising from exposure to electromagnetic fields up to 300 GHz at workplaces according to Italian regulations

Laura Filosa, Vanni Lopresto. Semi-quantitative methodology to assess health and safety risks arising from exposure to electromagnetic fields up to 300 GHz at workplaces according to Italian regulations. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2022 May 16;1-41. doi: 10.1080/10803548.2022.2077511. 3557482410803548.2022.2077511.

Abstract

This paper is focused a semi-quantitative methodology to assess and manage the health and safety risks arising from exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) up to 300 GHz at workplaces as well as to identify the priorities of intervention, based on the requirements of European directive 2013/35/EU and Italian regulations. The study includes a synthetic overview on the effects arising from EMF exposure and the related regulatory framework on protection. Furthermore, an in-depth analysis is carried-out on the risk assessment process as well as on the technical and organisational measures for risk mitigation and their adaptation to the specific requirements of workers at particular risk, based on technical standards and best practice guides issued by international and national (Italian) standardisation bodies.

Conclusions

The EMF risk assessment process outlined in this paper takes into account the provisions of Directive 2013/35/EU [32] and of technical standard EN 50499:2019 [48], as well as the peculiar requirements of Italian regulations as referred to in the Framework Law 36/2001 [43] and relevant implementation decrees [41][42] along with the Legislative Decree 81/2008 and s.m.a. [39]. To this end, a useful compass to assess and manage EMF exposure at workplaces taking into account the specific provisions of Italian regulations is represented by the EMF Guide CEI 106-45 [44].

A semi-quantitative methodology for EMF risk assessment is proposed based on a two-dimensional matrix for risk analysis. The matrix reports the indexes of risk calculated as the product of the severity rate of a dangerous event and the likelihood of occurrence of such an event. The severity rating assigned to the effect should reflect the expected outcome of the hazardous event, meanwhile the probability of occurrence should take into account a number of factors related to the workplace and work practice. In relation to assessed index of risk can be identified the prevention and protection measures for risk mitigation as well as the intervention priorities, which shall be adapted to the workers at particular risk. The outcomes of the risk assessment process should be documented in the risk assessment report along with the improvement actions included in the Company Program for the Reduction of Exposure to EMF.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35574824/

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Evaluation of oxidative stress and genotoxicity of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiations using Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) test system


Surbhi Sharma, Shalini Bahel, Jatinder Kaur Katnoria. Evaluation of oxidative stress and genotoxicity of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiations using Trigonella foenum-graecum test system. Protoplasma. 2022 May 11. doi: 10.1007/s00709-022-01768-9.

Abstract

Unprecedented growth in the communication sector and expanded usage of the number of wireless devices in the past few decades have resulted in a tremendous increase in emissions of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) in the environment. The widespread EMRs have induced many significant changes in biological systems leading to oxidative stress as well as DNA damage. Considering this, the present study was planned to study the effects of EMRs at 900 MHz frequency with the power density of 10.0 dBm (0.01 W) at variable exposure periods (0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, and 8 h per day for 7 days) on percentage germination, morphological characteristics, protein content, lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde content (MDA), and antioxidant defense system of Trigonella foenum-graecum test system. The genotoxicity was also evaluated using similar conditions. It was observed that EMRs significantly decreased the germination percentage at an exposure time of 4 h and 8 h. Fresh weight and dry weight of root and shoot did not show significant variations, while the root and shoot length have shown significant variations for 4 h and 8 h exposure period. Further, EMRs enhanced MDA indicating lipid peroxidation. In response to exposure of EMRs, there was a significant up-regulation in the activities of enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the roots and shoots of Trigonella-foenum graecum. The genotoxicity study showed the induction of chromosomal aberrations in root tip cells of the Trigonella foenum-graecum test system. The present study revealed the induction of oxidative stress and genotoxicity of EMRs exposure in the test system.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35546647/

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A Systematic Method to Explore Radio-Frequency Non-Thermal Effect on the Growth of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

D. Ye, G. Cutter, T. P. Caldwell, S. W. Harcum, P. Wang. A Systematic Method to Explore Radio-Frequency Non-Thermal Effect on the Growth of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology. 6(1):52-60. March 2022, doi: 10.1109/JERM.2021.3101408.

Abstract

Radio frequency (RF) non-thermal (NT) bio-effects have been a subject of debate and attracted significant interests due to potential health risks or beneficial applications. In this work, we report a systematic method for broadband investigation of RF NT effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast growth. The method includes a transverse electro-magnetic (TEM) device and a dielectric spectroscopy technique for RF frequency selection. A stripline-based TEM device has two  240-μL chambers 3D printed for cell cultures. The fabricated device operates up to a few GHz and produces uniform RF fields for cell exposure testing. A vector network analyzer (VNA) was used to provide ~20 dBm continuous-wave (CW) RF power. The heating effects on cell growth were estimated to be negligible. Frequency regions, where large permittivity differences between the medium and yeast cultures were obtained and used to select RF testing frequencies, e.g., 1.0 MHz, 3.162 MHz, 10 MHz. These differences may indicate RF field gradients near cell membrane, and the gradients may affect local nutrient transport. Additionally, RF at 905 MHz is tested for comparison purpose. Yeast cells in the exponential growth phase were examined at four RF frequencies and compared with two controls. One control device held at the same temperature as the test device, while the other control was held at a temperature 1 degree C higher. The results showed that the RF fields at 3.162 MHz reduced yeast growth rates by 15.1%; however, the RF fields at 1.0 MHz enhanced cell growth by 13.7%, while the observed 4.3% growth rate increase at 10 MHz is insignificant and the RF fields at 905 MHz had no effects on the cell growth. These results showed a clear RF NT effects on S. cerevisiae growth that was frequency dependent. The hypothesized mechanisms of these effects, i.e., non-uniform RF fields near cell membranes and fluidic diodes in cell membrane ion channels may play important roles in nutrient transport, need to be further investigated.

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Comparison of the effect of changing the spatial distance with exposure time to mobile phones radiation on the structure and function of the testis in NMRI mice

Homa Soleimani, Mahbobeh Gafori Ghadarijani, Fatemeh Rafiei, Parvindokht Bayat. Comparison of the effect of changing the spatial distance with exposure time to mobile phones radiation on the structure and function of the testis in NMRI mice. Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy, 56(2):87-102. 2022. doi:10.1080/08327823.2022.2066769.

Abstract

The present study was conducted to compare the effect of changing the spatial distance and time radio frequency (RF) radiation from mobile phone in standby mode on the structure and function of testicles. NMRI mice were randomly divided into three groups. The first group was the control and the second group (exposed group) was divided into four subgroups: groups A (A1 and A2) and groups B (B1 and B2), which were placed in plastic holder units at two distances of 5 cm and 20 cm from RF radiation, respectively. A1 and B1, and A2 and B2 were exposed to RF radiation for six and 10 weeks, respectively. The exposure duration was 5 days/week, 6 hours/day. The third group with two subgroups (sham1 and sham2) were kept in plastic holder units without being exposed to radiation and were evaluated after six and 10 weeks, respectively. The changes in the external diameters of seminiferous tubules and the height of germinal epithelium obviously depended more on the distance from the radiation source than on the exposure time. The decrease in the diameter of the testicles and sperm motility were found to be time-dependent. These effects had a clear but unpredictable dependence on the two variables of distance and RF radiation time.

Excerpts

The intensity of waves was measured at a distance of 5 and 20 cm every 10 seconds in water within 6 minutes (the time of thermal balance of human body, at a density similar to the body density). Measurement of the electromagnetic field intensity showed that the mean value in both cases, without mobile phone (1.39 μW/m2) and with the mobile phone, in standby mode at a distance of 20 cm were almost equal. However, the amount of electromagnetic field fluctuated over time in the presence of a mobile phone (Table 1)....

We also exhibited that each of the factors of stress and radiation alone led to a significant decrease in sperm motility (Grade 1 and 2). Meanwhile, the effects of stress and RF field were not synergistic. Moreover, sperm motility (Grade 1) in sham2 group was not significantly different with that in control group. This may be attributed to the adaptation of biological tissues to stressor factors.

It seemed as though the effect of RF field and decreased distance from the radiation source leads to a decrease in the rate of sperm in Grades 1 and 2 and an increase rate sperm in Grades 3 and 4. According to the obtained results, the effect of the RF exposure on sperm motility might probably change according to the distance from the radiation source, which is more important than the exposure time.

Conclusion

This research shed light on the fact that although decreased distance or increased irradiation time led to histological or physiological changes in the structure and function of the male reproductive system, these effects were not similar. These changes had significant impacts, but unforeseeable dependence, on the two variables of distance and radiation time of mobile phone in standby mode. Our findings also depicted the significant and superior role of stress against mobile phone radiation in the decrease in the diameter of testis, sperm motility, and the reduction in sperm count. Furthermore, stress was the predominant factor in comparison with radiation exposure and once the stress was eliminated due to the habituation of the animal, the biological effects of radiation exposure on the tissue became detectable.


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Preliminary Chronic Effects of Radiation from Mobile Phones on Heart Rate Variability, Cardiac Function, Blood Profiles, and Semen Quality in Healthy Dogs

Dong VNK, Tantisuwat L, Setthawong P, Tharasanit T, Sutayatram S, Kijtawornrat A. The Preliminary Chronic Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Phones on Heart Rate Variability, Cardiac Function, Blood Profiles, and Semen Quality in Healthy Dogs. Vet Sci. 2022 Apr 21;9(5):201. doi: 10.3390/vetsci9050201.

Abstract

The present study aims to determine the effects of long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones (MPs) on heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac function, blood profiles, body surface temperature, and semen quality in healthy dogs. Eight male dogs were exposed to MPs (1962-1966 MHz; specific absorption rate 0.96 W/kg) for 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 10 weeks. Holter monitoring for HRV analysis was performed at baseline (BL) and every 2 weeks, until the end of the study. Electrocardiograms (ECG), blood pressure (BP), echocardiography, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), hematology and biochemistry profiles, body surface temperature, and semen quality were evaluated at BL, week 5, and week 10 during exposure. The results showed that most of the HRV parameters did not significantly differ among timepoints, except for the mean of an interval between continuous normal R waves in week 6 that was higher than that at BL (p = 0.022). The RR and QT intervals from ECG in week 5 were prolonged, compared to the BL values (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively), but those parameters were within the normal limits. The echocardiography, BP, cTnI concentrations, body surface temperature, and semen quality results were not different from BL values. In conclusion, this study found no evidence suggesting an adverse effect of cell phone exposure on HRV, cardiac function, blood profiles, body surface temperature, or semen quality in healthy dogs, when exposed for 10 weeks.


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Experimental Evidence of Radio Frequency Radiation From Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

M. Rao, K. Sarabandi, J. Soukar, N. A. Kotov and J. S. VanEpps. Experimental Evidence of Radio Frequency Radiation From Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms.IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology, doi: 10.1109/JERM.2022.3168618.

Abstract

This paper reports the first successful detection of electromagnetic (EM) radiation from Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in the gigahertz (GHz) frequency range. Two novel sensing systems are deployed for the measurement. A very sensitive wideband near-zone radiative system specifically designed for this application is first used to search for signals in the 1–50 GHz frequency region. Notable radiation is observed in the 3–4 GHz band. Exposure to lethal doses of Zinc oxide nanopyramids (ZnO-NPY) is used to verify that the signals are indeed produced by living cells rather than material thermal emission. Afterwards, a spiral antenna system is exploited to further examine the band of interest in the near-field region. Radiation from 3 identical biofilm samples is monitored and recorded over 70 days. Two distinct frequency bands, namely the 3.18 GHz and the 3.45 GHz bands, are identified as potential “communication bands”. Furthermore, long-term and short-term cycles of the total radiation intensity within the band are observed over the course of the experiment. This work confirms the presence of EM radiation within bacterial communities, which is a key requirement to demonstrate EM signaling among bacterial cells. The insight could lead to breakthroughs in demystifying how cells communicate as well as advancement of important technologies in biology and communication systems.

 Conclusion

Although it has long been suggested that biological cells may transmit and receive EM waves, no prior convincing experimental evidence has been generated to support this hypothesis prior to this paper. Our work is the first successful attempt to measure EM radiation from S. aureus biofilms in the GHz frequency range. Two measurement systems are used in the experiments. Two distinct radiating bands in the 3-4 GHz frequency range are identified. Over the course of a 70-day experiment, we discovered a long-term cycle of the radiated signal with short-term fluctuations. This work proves the existence of EM radiation in biofilm communities, which is validated by examining multiple samples over a long period of time and comparing the measured power with that of PNG media (no biofilms) in the same petri dish. In addition, it is shown that exposing biofilms with significant RF radiation to lethal doses of ZnO-NPYs, which inhibits metabolic activity, eliminates the biofilm RF emission.


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Exposure effects of non-ionizing radiation of radio waves on antimicrobial potential of medicinal plants

Chandni Upadhyaya, Trushit Upadhyaya, Ishita Patel. Exposure effects of non-ionizing radiation of radio waves on antimicrobial potential of medicinal plants. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences. 15(1):1-10. 2022. doi:10.1016/j.jrras.2022.01.009.

Abstract

The high frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves have been proven as potent environmental polluters. The radio towers are considerably increasing to cater to the growing telecommunication requirements. The presented research focuses on the investigation of EM waves on antimicrobial potential of pharmaceutically important medicinal plants viz. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum L.) and Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri). The similar work has not been reported till date at the best of our knowledge. The medicinal plants were exposed to EM waves of 900 MHz possessing a 1.9 mG magnetic field. Our former investigation on plant physiology gave deteriorative effects on selected plants physiology in terms of growth, chlorophyll content, protein and carbohydrate content. In the presented article, the antimicrobial activity of two plants was inspected through various bacterial and fungal species. In case of B. monnieri, investigations revealed raise in Zone of Inhibition (ZOI) for both the bacterial and fungal strains in the range of 50%, whereas for O. sanctum increase of 63.26% and 59.42% ZOI for bacterial and fungal strains were noted respectively upon 24 h of exposure. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) also decreased for 24 and 48 h of exposure. The transient raise in antimicrobial activity indicated the induction of plant defense system which can be considered as positive influence of short term radiation on medicinal properties of plants. Both plants exhibited the highest antimicrobial potential for E. coli and P. chrysogenum showing a prominent decline after 72 h of exposure. A substantial decline in antimicrobial in MIC of B. monnieri reported was 211% against E. coli and 166% against P. chrysogenum upon 144 h of exposure compared to control plants. The antimicrobial potential of O. sanctum was also decreased upon radiation, which is having a 392% reduction against E. coli and a 225% reduction against P. chrysogenum upon 144 h of exposure. The noteworthy deteriorative effects of radio waves on antimicrobial potential have been observed for both the medicinal plants.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1687850722001091

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Preliminary Study: the Electromagnetics Radiation from Epipremnum Aureum (Money Plant) Using Frequency Detector

F. A. A. Shahrien, Z. H. Murat, R. S. S. A. Kadir. Preliminary Study: the Electromagnetics Radiation (EMR) from Epipremnum Aureum Using Frequency Detector. 2021 6th IEEE International Conference on Recent Advances and Innovations in Engineering (ICRAIE), 2021, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/ICRAIE52900.2021.9703990.

Abstract

Epipremnum Aureum or money plant is a popular indoor plant known to emanate positive energy flow into space. Energy or aura is essentially the frequency radiated from a body, including from plants, and scientifically known as Electromagnetics Radiation (EMR). This preliminary study is to investigate the EMR pattern from money plant using frequency detector. The EMR are measured in a common sized room during five specific time range each day for three weeks with the presence of money plants and for two weeks without money plants (absence). The seven observation points of the EMR are taken around the money plant and in the middle of the room. The results shows that the EMR increases by 24% in the presence of money plant. This finding asserts that money plant radiates and influence the EMR frequency to increase in the surrounding.


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Magnetic field interactions between current consumer electronics and cardiac implantable electronic devices

Xu K, Sengupta J, Casey S, Peltier J, Stahl W, Peterson N, Settimi D, Taylor A, Kippola J, Steele E, Hauser R. Magnetic field interactions between current consumer electronics and cardiac implantable electronic devices. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2022 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s10840-022-01241-w.

Abstract

Background: Electronic products, including the iPhone 12, Apple Watch Series 6, and 2nd Generation AirPods, contain magnets to facilitate wireless charging. Permanent magnets may affect CIED magnet mode features by causing pacemakers to pace asynchronously and defibrillators to suspend arrhythmia detection. This study determined if CIEDs are affected by static magnetic fields from commonly used portable electronics (PE) at any distance and intends to reinforce FDA recommendations concerning consumer PE which contain permanent magnets.

Methods: The maximum magnet field measurement was evaluated by a Gauss meter. The interaction between PE and CIEDs from Boston Scientific and Medtronic were tested ex vivo using a body torso model. The CIED was placed in physiologic saline, and the PE was placed at the surface and at increasing distances of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm. Interactions were recorded by assessment of magnet mode status.

Results: The iPhone 12 had almost three times the static magnetic field measured at the surface as the iPhone XR, but magnetic field strength decreased dramatically with increasing distance. At the surface of the model, PE triggered magnet mode in all CIEDs. The maximum interaction distance for all combinations of CIEDs and Apple products was 1.5 cm.

Conclusions: The iPhone 12 produces a stronger static magnetic field than previous iPhone models. Magnets in PE tested will not interact with CIEDs when they are 15 cm from the implanted device. Since no interaction was observed beyond 1.5 cm, it is unlikely that magnet mode activation will occur during most daily activities.


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Exposure of Infants to Gradient Fields in a Baby MRI Scanner

Fangfang Tang, Luca Giaccone, Jiahao Hao, Fabio Freschi, Tongning Wu, Stuart Crozier, Feng Liu. Exposure of Infants to Gradient Fields in a Baby MRI Scanner.  Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 Feb;43(2):69-80. doi: 10.1002/bem.22387.

Abstract

In pediatric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), infants are exposed to rapid, time-varying gradient magnetic fields, leading to electric fields induced in the body of infants and potential safety risks (e.g. peripheral nerve stimulation). In this numerical study, the in situ electric fields in infants induced by small-sized gradient coils for a 1.5 T MRI scanner were evaluated. The gradient coil set was specially designed for the efficient imaging of infants within a small-bore (baby) scanner. The magnetic flux density and induced electric fields by the small x, y, z gradient coils in an infant model (8-week-old with a mass of 4.3 kg) were computed using the scalar potential finite differences method. The gradient coils were driven by a 1 kHz sinusoidal waveform and also a trapezoidal waveform with a 250 µs rise time. The model was placed at different scan positions, including the head area (position I), chest area (position II), and body center (position III). It was found that the induced electric fields in most tissues exceeded the basic restrictions of the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines for both waveforms. The electric fields were similar in the region of interest for all coil types and model positions but different outside the imaging region. The y-coil induced larger electric fields compared with the x- and z- coils.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35005795/

Conclusions

In this paper, we have numerically studied the field exposure of an infant model inside the baby x, y, z gradient coils during an MRI scan. The B-fields have exceeded the reference level 0.08 mT in most tissues for the frequency 1 kHz in ICNIRP 2010 guidelines. Based on the simulation results, it has been found that baby positioning primarily affected the induced E-field profiles. In most tissues, the EI values are larger than 1, indicating that the exposures have exceeded the reference level 0.4 V/m in ICNIRP 2010 guidelines for the frequency of 1 kHz. The largest E99.9% and EI are 5.41 V/m and 9.56, found in fat produced by y-coil in position III. The EI is determined based on the basic restrictions of ICNIRP 2010 guidelines; the results are possibly conservative as applicable guidelines/restrictions are not yet accessible for exposure of infants in MRI gradient fields.

The field exposure varies due to the variation of the driving current and rise time. It is likely stronger when all three gradient coils are switched faster and simultaneously during a realistic MRI scan. Further work is required to characterize more realistic field-infant tissue interactions with detailed nerve models, and it is hoped that these simulations will help inform compliance of clinical procedures.

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The effect of exposure to non-ionising radiofrequency field on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

Dobroslava Bujňáková, Samuel Bucko, Marek Češkovič, Vladimír Kmeť, Lívia Karahutová. The effect of exposure to non-ionising radiofrequency field on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. Environ Technol. 2022 May 4;1-21. doi: 10.1080/09593330.2022.2074317.

Abstract

An environment with a higher accumulation of electromagnetic non-ionising radiofrequency (RF) emissions generated by various telecommunication, data transport and navigation devices (mobile phones, Wi-Fi, radar, etc.) may have a major impact on biological systems. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of an electromagnetic field (EMF) on the development of bacterial biofilm. Quantification of biofilm production was done by using microtiter plate assay. Bacterial isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exposed with EMF of frequencies 1-5 and 2.4 GHz with an exposure time 3 or 24 hours, respectively. Exposure of bacteria to EMF produced a statistically significant increase in biofilm production mainly at 1, 2 and 4 GHz, and in contrast, a significant inhibition of biofilm development occurred at frequencies 3 and 5 GHz, both with exception of Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Wi-Fi operating at 2.4 GHz caused biofilm reduction. The results indicate that EMF exposure act on bacteria in both ways, depending on the frequency: as stressful by enhancing bacterial biofilm formation (under environmental stress, bacteria produce a polysaccharide matrix and aggregate to form biofilms to increase virulence and resistance), although some frequencies leading to biofilm damage could be caused by changes to the physicochemical properties of bacteria.

Conclusions

In conclusion, the results of our study revealed that EMF can stimulate/inhibit the ability of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilms, depending on the frequency and/or specific type of bacteria used. Based on the acquired results of the biofilm modulation (increasing/decreasing) EMF can also be expected to influencs the pathogenicity of microorganisms, since biofilm-associated bacteria are considered more resistant and difficult to treat; however, some results demonstrated EMF as a potential tool for biofilm removal, for example, on medical devices and biomaterials. Further studies are in progress (and need to be performed) to extend the current state of knowledge of the influence of EMF on microorganisms and to gather more information on other bacterial biological changeovers that may occur due to exposure to EMF, including antibiotic susceptibility (resistance) as a next substantial factor of bacterial pathogenicity. Undervaluing the problem of exposure to electromagnetic non-ionising RF radiation generated by various telecommunication and data transport as common part of the environment could lead to a further rise in infectious diseases or their complications.


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Thapsigargin blocks electromagnetic field-elicited intracellular Ca 2+ increase in HEK 293 cells


Federico Bertagna, Rebecca Lewis, S Ravi P Silva, Johnjoe McFadden, Kamalan Jeevaratnam.  Thapsigargin blocks electromagnetic field-elicited intracellular Ca 2+ increase in HEK 293 cells. Physiol Rep. 2022 May;10(9):e15189. doi: 10.14814/phy2.15189.

Abstract

Biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have previously been identified for cellular proliferation and changes in expression and conduction of diverse types of ion channels. The major effect elicited by EMFs seems to be directed toward Ca2+ homeostasis. This is particularly remarkable since Ca2+ acts as a central modulator in various signaling pathways, including, but not limited to, cell differentiation and survival. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying this modulation have yet to be unraveled. Here, we assessed the effect of EMFs on intracellular [Ca2+ ], by exposing HEK 293 cells to both radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and static magnetic fields (SMFs). We detected a constant and significant increase in [Ca2+ ] subsequent to exposure to both types of fields. Strikingly, the increase was nulled by administration of 10 μM Thapsigargin, a blocker of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPases (SERCAs), indicating the involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in EMF-related modulation of Ca2+ homeostasis.

Open access paper: https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.14814/phy2.15189

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Extremely low frequency magnetic field enhances expression of a specific recombinant protein in bacterial host

Behnaz Rashidieh, Alireza Madjid Ansari, Mahdi Behdani, Behrad Darvishi, Mahdi Habibi-Anbouhi. Extremely low frequency magnetic field enhances expression of a specific recombinant protein in bacterial host. Anal Biochem. 2022 May 21;114745. doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2022.114745.

Abstract

Expression of proteins in bacterial host cells, particularly E.coli, has gained much attention in recent years. Low expression outcome is the main technical drawback associated with this procedure, further restricting its largescale application in industry. Therefore, application of new amendments or reformations are required before further proceedings. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) have shown to significantly affect biological processes, including gene expression, in E.coli. In current study, we investigated whether application of ELF-MF could result in overexpression of proteins in E.coli or not. Cluster of differentiation-22 (CD22), as a model protein, was expressed in E.Coli Rosetta (DE3) under continuous exposure to ELF-MF after applying various concentrations of Isopropyl ß-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) (0.25-1.25 mM) as inducer. The strength and frequency of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) ranged between 15-100 mT and 2.5-20 Hz respectively. Interestingly, application of 55mT EMFs with frequencies ranging from 2.5 to 2.8 Hz significantly enhanced the yield of expression at all studied IPTG concentrations. Contrarily, EMFs with intensities other than 55 mT meaningfully declined protein expression at IPTG concentrations equal to 1 and 1.25 mM. In conclusion, application of specific range of ELF-MFs may be exploited as a new modification for enhancing heterologous expression of proteins in E.coli.


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Commercial outdoor plant nurseries as a confounder for electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia risk

A Nguyen, C M Crespi, X Vergara, L Kheifets. Commercial outdoor plant nurseries as a confounder for electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia risk.  Environ Res. 2022 May 10;212(Pt C):113446. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.113446.

Highlights

• Close proximity to plant nurseries is a potential childhood leukemia risk factor.
• Proximity to nurseries did not explain distance to power lines and CL associations.
• Proximity to nurseries did not explain magnetic field and CL associations.
• First detailed study of pesticides as a confounder for magnetic fields and CL.

Abstract

Background: Close residential proximity to powerlines and high magnetic fields exposure may be associated with elevated childhood leukemia risks as reported by prior studies and pooled analyses. Magnetic fields exposure from high-voltage powerlines is associated with proximity to these powerlines and consequently with any factor varying with distance. Areas underneath powerlines in California may be sites for commercial plant nurseries that can use pesticides, a potential childhood leukemia risk factor.

Objectives: Assess if potential pesticide exposure from commercial plant nurseries is a confounder or interacts with proximity or magnetic fields exposure from high-voltage powerlines to increase childhood leukemia risk.

Methods: A comprehensive childhood leukemia record-based case-control study with 5788 cases and 5788 controls (born and diagnosed in California, 1986-2008) was conducted. Pesticide, powerline, and magnetic field exposure assessment utilized models that incorporated geographical information systems, aerial satellite images, site visits and other historical information.

Results: The relationship for calculated fields with childhood leukemia (odds ratio (OR) 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-3.23) slightly attenuated when controlling for nursery proximity (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.65-3.16) or restricting analysis to subjects living far (>300 m) from nurseries (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.79-2.60). A similar association pattern was observed between distance to high-voltage powerlines and childhood leukemia. The association between nursery proximity and childhood leukemia was unchanged or only slightly attenuated when controlling for calculated fields or powerline distance; ORs remained above 2 when excluding subjects with high calculated fields or close powerline proximity (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.82-5.67 and OR 2.15, 95% CI 0.82-5.64, respectively). The observed relationships were robust to different time periods, reference categories, and cut points.

Discussion: Close residential proximity to nurseries is suggested as an independent childhood leukemia risk factor. Our results do not support plant nurseries as an explanation for observed childhood leukemia risks for powerline proximity and magnetic fields exposure, although small numbers of subjects concurrently exposed to high magnetic fields, close powerline proximity and plant nurseries limited our ability to fully assess potential confounding.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935122007733?via%3Dihub

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An overview of the biological effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields combined with ionizing radiation

Bahareh Gholipour Hamedani, Bahram Goliaei, Seyed Peyman Shariatpanahi, Maryamsadat Nezamtaheri. An overview of the biological effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields combined with ionizing radiation. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2022 May 2;S0079-6107(22)00037-2. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2022.04.008.

Abstract

By growing the electrical power networks and electronic devices, electromagnetic fields (EMF) have become an inseparable part of the modern world. Considering the inevitable exposure to a various range of EMFs, especially at extremely low frequencies (ELF-EMF), investigating the biological effects of ELF-EMFs on biological systems became a global issue. The possible adverse consequences of these exposures were studied, along with their potential therapeutic capabilities. Also, their biological impacts in combination with other chemical and physical agents, specifically ionizing radiation (IR), as a co-carcinogen or as adjuvant therapy in combination with radiotherapy were explored. Here, we review the results of several in-vitro and in-vivo studies and discuss some proposed possible mechanisms of ELF-EMFs' actions in combination with IR. The results of these experiments could be fruitful to develop more precise safety standards for environmental ELF-EMFs exposures. Furthermore, it could evaluate the therapeutic capacities of ELF-EMFs alone or as an improver of radiotherapy.


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Toxicant-Associated Fatty Liver Disease and Liver Neoplastic Progress in Rats Treated with Aflatoxin B1 Alone or in Combination with Extremely Low Frequency EMF

Vornoli A, Tibaldi E, Gnudi F, Sgargi D, Manservisi F, Belpoggi F, Tovoli F, Mandrioli D. Evaluation of Toxicant-Associated Fatty Liver Disease and Liver Neoplastic Progress in Sprague-Dawley Rats Treated with Low Doses of Aflatoxin B1 Alone or in Combination with Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. Toxins (Basel). 2022 May 3;14(5):325. doi: 10.3390/toxins14050325. PMID: 35622572; PMCID: PMC9143281.

Abstract

The term toxicant-associated fatty liver disease (TAFLD) has been proposed to describe fatty liver diseases connected to toxicants other than alcohol. Aflatoxins are mycotoxins commonly found as contaminants in foods and feeds, which are known liver toxicants and potential candidates as potential causes of TAFLD. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was administered at low doses to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, alone or in combination with S-50 Hz an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELFEMF), to study the evolution of TAFLD, preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the liver and the potential enhancing effect of lifespan exposure to ELFEMF. Steatosis, inflammation and foci of different types were significantly increased in both aflatoxin-treated males and females, which is consistent with a pattern of TAFLD. A significant increase in adenomas, cystic dilation of biliary ducts, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hypertrophy and oval cell hyperplasia were also observed in treated females only. The administration of low doses of AFB1 caused TAFLD in SD rats, inducing liver lesions encompassing fatty infiltration, foci of different types and adenomas. Furthermore, the pattern of change observed in preneoplastic liver lesions often included liver steatosis and steatohepatitis (TASH). ELFEMF did not result in any enhancing or toxic effect in the liver of SD rats.


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Lung Cell Toxicity of Co-Exposure to Airborne Particulate Matter and Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field

Zahra Panjali, Parviz Abdolmaleki, Behnam Hajipour, Omar Hahad, Rezvan Zendehdel. Lung Cell Toxicity of Co-Exposure to Airborne Particulate Matter and Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field. Xenobiotica. 2022 May 24;1-34. doi: 10.1080/00498254.2022.2082342.

Abstract

Although the toxic effects of urban airborne particulate matter (PM) have been known on lung cells, there is less attention to co-exposure to PM and extremely low frequency magnetic (ELF-MF) in occupational settings. The present study investigated the influences of PM and ELF-MF co-exposure on toxicity in human lung cells (A549). In this case, total PM (TPM) was evaluated according to NIOSH-0500. The TPM SiO2 and metal contents were determined based on NIOSH-7602 and 7302, respectively. Besides, 900 mG ELF-MF exposure was simulated based on field measurements. The toxicity mechanisms were assessed by examining malondialdehyde, glutathione ratio, gene expression, and DNA strand breaks. Also, the toxicity indicators of the TPM samples were MDA generation, glutathione depletion, and DNA damage, and their impacts were analyzed at doses below the LD50 (4 µg). In addition, gene expression of OGG1 and MTH1 was upregulated after TPM exposure at the lowest dose (2 µg). But ITPA was upregulated in the presence of ELF-MF. The co-exposure to TPM and ELF-MF decreased oxidative stress and DNA damage levels compared to a single exposure to TPM. Although the ELF-MF reduced toxicity in response to TPM, this reduction was not lower than the unexposed cells.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35608272/

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The effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on synthesis and release of steroid hormones by the porcine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period

Anita Franczak, Ewa Monika Drzewiecka, Wiktoria Kozlowska, Agata Zmijewska, Pawel Jozef Wydorski, Anna Koziorowska. The effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on synthesis and release of steroid hormones by the porcine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2022 May 2. doi: 10.1071/RD22040.

Abstract

Context: Electrical devices and power systems are the sources of EM-waves which propagate everywhere in the environment.

Aims: The study aimed to determine whether EMF induced changes in the steroidogenesis of conceptuses and whether progesterone (P4) may be a possible protectant against the effects of EMF radiation.

Methods: The entire porcine conceptuses were collected during the peri-implantation period (days 15-16 of pregnancy), divided into fragments (100mg) and treated in vitro with EMF (50Hz or 120Hz, 2 or 4h exposure), and examined to determine of CYP17A1, HSD3B1, CYP19A3, and HSD17B4 mRNA transcript and encoded protein abundance and the release of steroid hormones. Selected fragments of conceptuses were treated with P4.

Key results: In conceptuses incubated without P4, EMF at 120Hz decreased androstenedione (A4) and testosterone (T) release after 2h and increased oestrone (E1) release at 50Hz and 120Hz after 4h exposure. In P4-treated conceptuses, EMF (50 and 120Hz, 4h exposure) decreased CYP19A3 mRNA transcript abundance, and increased (120Hz, 2h exposure) oestradiol-17β (E2) release.

Conclusions: The EMF radiation alters androgen and oestrogen synthesis and release from the conceptuses of pigs during the peri-implantation period. The P4 exerts protective effects on androgens and E1 release but it sensitises the conceptuses when comes to the mechanism of oestrogen synthesis and release during EMF radiation.

Implications: The effect of EMF radiation on the steroidogenic pathway in conceptuses may induce disturbances in their proper development and implantation.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35491406/


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Scrutinizing the Impact of Alternating Electromagnetic Fields on Molecular Features of the Model Plant Arabidopsis thaliana


Sonja Michèle Schmidtpott, Saliba Danho, Vijay Kumar, Thorsten Seidel, Wolfgang Schöllhorn, Karl-Josef Dietz. Scrutinizing the Impact of Alternating Electromagnetic Fields on Molecular Features of the Model Plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Apr 23;19(9):5144. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19095144.

Abstract

Natural and anthropogenic electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the environment and interfere with all biological organisms including plants. Particularly the quality and quantity of alternating EMFs from anthropogenic sources are increasing due to the implementation of novel technologies. There is a significant interest in exploring the impact of EMFs (similar to those emitted from battery chargers of electric cars) on plants. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was exposed to a composite alternating EMF program for 48 h and scrutinized for molecular alterations using photosynthetic performance, metabolite profiling, and RNA sequencing followed by qRT-PCR validation. Clear differences in the photosynthetic parameters between the treated and control plants indicated either lower nonphotochemical quenching or higher reduction of the plastoquinone pool or both. Transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing revealed alterations in transcript amounts upon EMF exposure; however, the gene ontology groups of, e.g., chloroplast stroma, thylakoids, and envelope were underrepresented. Quantitative real-time PCR validated deregulation of some selected transcripts. More profound were the readjustments in metabolite pool sizes with variations in photosynthetic and central energy metabolism. These findings together with the invariable phenotype indicate efficient adjustment of the physiological state of the EMF-treated plants, suggesting testing for more challenging growth conditions in future experiments.

Conclusions

EMF exposure occurs ubiquitously on Earth and is a regular environmental parameter all life forms have to deal with. Anthropogenic alternating and rapidly changing EMF emission accentuate the requirement to research the EMF–life and, as conducted here, EMF–plant interaction. The data show that alternating EMF-exposed plants undergo significant alterations at the levels of photosynthesis, transcriptome, and metabolome. The underlying perception and response mechanisms to weak EMF still need deeper scrutiny and could involve changes in cell signaling, e.g., by interfering with Ca2+ fluxes and concentrations [57]. The changes in photosynthetic features are remarkable particularly since the gross growth parameters were unaltered. A profound metabolic readjustment was detectable upon EMF exposure that would merit further experiments, both in the context of photosynthesis and respiratory energy metabolism. The growth conditions with about 5% of full sunlight (100 µmol photons.m−2 s−1) might not be ideal to work out possible negative effects of the EMF treatment on plant performance. In future experiments, it would be worthwhile to combine such EMF treatments with challenging growth conditions, e.g., by growth in saturating light or combinatorial stress applications [58]. Future experiments could also include the study of early development such as seed germination and seedling establishment similar to [57].


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Prussian blue technique is prone to yield false negative results in magnetoreception research

Franziska Curdt, Katrin Haase, Laura Ziegenbalg, Helena Greb, Dominik Heyers, Michael Winklhofer.  Prussian blue technique is prone to yield false negative results in magnetoreception research. Sci Rep. 2022 May 25;12(1):8803. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-12398-9.

Abstract

Perls's Prussian blue staining technique has been used in magnetoreception research to screen tissues for iron-rich structures as proxies for putative magnetoreceptor structures based on magnetic particles. However, seemingly promising structural candidates in the upper beak of birds detected with Prussian blue turned out to be either irreproducible or located in non-neuronal cells, which has spurred a controversy that has not been settled yet. Here we identify possible pitfalls in the previous works and apply the Prussian blue technique to tissues implicated in magnetic-particle-based magnetoreception, in an effort to reassess its suitability for staining single-domain magnetite, i.e., the proposed magnetic substrate for the interaction with the external magnetic field. In the upper beak of night-migratory songbirds, we found staining products in great numbers, but not remotely associated with fiber terminals of the traced ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. Surprisingly, staining products were absent from the lamina propria in the olfactory rosette of rainbow trout where candidate magnetoreceptor structures were identified with different techniques earlier. Critically, magnetosome chains in whole cells of magnetotactic bacteria remained unstained. The failure to label single-domain magnetite in positive control samples is a serious limitation of the technique and suggests that two most influential but antipodal studies conducted previously stood little chances of obtaining correct positive results under the assumption that magnetosome-like particles were present in the tissues. Nonetheless, the staining technique appears suitable to identify tissue contamination with iron-rich fine dust trapped in epithelia already in vivo.


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Effects of pre and postnatal 2450 MHz continuous wave (CW) radiofrequency radiation on thymus: Four generation exposure


Fazile Cantürk Tan, Betül Yalçin, Arzu Hanım Yay, Burak Tan, Korkut Yeğin, Süleyman Daşdağ. Effects of pre and postnatal 2450 MHz continuous wave (CW) radiofrequency radiation on thymus: Four generation exposure. Electromagn Biol Med. 2022 May 30;1-10. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2022.2079673.

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the effects of pre- and postnatal 2450 MHz continuous wave (CW) radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the thymus of rats spanning four generations. Four groups; sham, irradiated female, irradiated male, irradiated male and female, each consisting of four rats (one male and three females), were created. During the experiment, rats in the exposure groups were whole-body exposed to 2450 MHz CW-RFR for 12 h/day. Irradiation started one month before the fertilization in the experimental group. When the offspring were two months old, four rats, one male and three female, were allocated for the second-generation study. The remaining offspring were sacrificed under general anesthesia, and their thymuses were removed. The same procedure was applied to the next generation. Two months after the second generation gave birth, third-generation rats were decapitated, and their thymuses were removed. In all groups, cortex, medulla and resident cells could be clearly distinguished in the second and third generations. No differences were observed between the control and two experimental groups, defined as irradiated female and irradiated male. In contrast, vascularization was observed in the thymus of the fourth-generation offspring of the group where both males and females were irradiated. The number of offspring and mass of all rats decreased in the third-generation group. Pre-and postnatal 2450 MHz continuous wave radiofrequency radiation exposure may potentially affect the thymus of future generations.


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Effect of an Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field on the Concentration of Salivary Immunoglobulin A


Piotr Skomro, Danuta Lietz-Kijak, Olga Bogdziewicz-Wałęsa, Joanna Janiszewska-Olszowska. Effect of an Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field on the Concentration of Salivary Immunoglobulin A. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 May 10;19(10):5786. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19105786.

Abstract

Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF MF) therapy is effective in the treatment of injury, inflammation and postoperative complications. Its clinical applications relate to bone unification, pain reduction, soft tissue oedema and the decrease of electric potentials in the oral cavity. It enhances regeneration of periapical bone lesions. It is obvious that cells (leukocytes, platelets, keratinocytes, osteoblasts) and proteins (fibrin, collagen, elastin and growth factors) exhibit alterations when exposed to an Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF MF) on the parotid gland on the concentration of salivary immunoglobulin A. The study group consisted of 24 patients, aged 14-16, who underwent ELF MF on the parotid gland region. The control group comprised 25 matching persons. The IgA concentration in saliva samples was established using radial immunodiffusion. Following ELF MF, a statistically significant increase in the concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A was found in the study group, whereas in the control group, no statistically significant differences were noted. It can be concluded that an Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field increases the activity of the immune system of the parotid gland.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9141657/

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Interference thresholds for active implantable cardiovascular devices in occupational low-frequency electric and magnetic fields: a numerical and in vitro study

Zhou M, Kourtiche D, Claudel J, Deschamps F, Magne I, Roth P, Schmitt P, Souques M, Nadi M. Interference thresholds for active implantable cardiovascular devices in occupational low-frequency electric and magnetic fields: a numerical and in vitro study. Med Eng Phys. 2022 Jun;104:103799. doi: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2022.103799.

Abstract

In light of concerns regarding the occupational safety and health of workers wearing active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), this study aims to investigate the potential risks of electromagnetic interference (EMI) between AIMDs and low-frequency 50/60 Hz electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the workplace. A total of 58 AIMDs, consisting of pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) of different brands, models, and configurations were tested to determine the immunity thresholds for high-voltage electric fields (EFs) and magnetic fields (MFs) at 50/60 Hz. The EFs and MFs at the levels in workplaces are reproduced by setups using Helmholtz coils and aluminum plates, respectively, to ensure that the EM/MF exposures are controllable and reproducible. The EMI thresholds were recorded by observing the occurrences of PM or ICD dysfunctions. In addition, numerical studies on anatomical models were carried out using CST® software. The results indicate that the recorded thresholds all exceed the EF and MF public exposure limits given in the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines. No dysfunction was observed among four ICDs tested under MF exposure up to 2750 µT at 50 Hz and 2480 µT at 60 Hz. However, among the 43 PMs and 11 ICDs tested under EF exposures, potential hazards may occur below the occupational exposure level proposed in the ICNIRP guidelines.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35641069/

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Human magnetic sense is mediated by a light and magnetic field resonance-dependent mechanism

Kwon-Seok Chae, Soo-Chan Kim, Hye-Jin Kwon, Yongkuk Kim. Human magnetic sense is mediated by a light and magnetic field resonance-dependent mechanism. Sci Rep. 2022 May 30;12(1):8997. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-12460-6.

Abstract

Numerous organisms use the Earth's magnetic field as a sensory cue for migration, body alignment, or food search. Despite some contradictory reports, yet it is generally accepted that humans do not sense the geomagnetic field. Here, we demonstrate that a magnetic field resonance mechanism mediates light-dependent magnetic orientation in men, using a rotary chair experiment combined with a two-alternative forced choice paradigm. Two groups of subjects were classified with different magnetic orientation tendencies depending on the food context. Magnetic orientation of the subjects was sensitive to the wavelength of incident light and was critically dependent on blue light reaching the eyes. Importantly, it appears that a magnetic field resonance-dependent mechanism mediates these responses, as evidenced by disruption or augmentation of the ability to orient by radiofrequency magnetic fields at the Larmor frequency and the dependence of these effects on the angle between the radiofrequency and geomagnetic fields. Furthermore, inversion of the vertical component of the geomagnetic field revealed a non-canonical inclination compass effect on the magnetic orientation. These results establish the existence of a human magnetic sense and suggest an underlying quantum mechanical magnetoreception mechanism.