The latest additions appear below.
The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 1,000 scientific papers. This 947-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:
David Schuermann, Meike Mevissen. Manmade Electromagnetic Fields and Oxidative Stress—Biological Effects and Consequences for Health. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3772; https://doi.org/10.3390/
Concomitant with the ever-expanding use of electrical appliances and mobile communication systems, public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the extremely-low-frequency and radiofrequency range has become a widely debated environmental risk factor for health. Radiofrequency (RF) EMF and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) MF have been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially leading to cellular or systemic oxidative stress, was frequently found to be influenced by EMF exposure in animals and cells. In this review, we summarize key experimental findings on oxidative stress related to EMF exposure from animal and cell studies of the last decade. The observations are discussed in the context of molecular mechanisms and functionalities relevant to health such as neurological function, genome stability, immune response, and reproduction. Most animal and many cell studies showed increased oxidative stress caused by RF-EMF and ELF-MF. In order to estimate the risk for human health by manmade exposure, experimental studies in humans and epidemiological studies need to be considered as well.
Radiation Protection Standard for Limiting Exposure to Radiofrequency Fields - 100 kHz to 300 GHz (ARPANSA)
Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). Radiation Protection Standard for Limiting Exposure to Radiofrequency Fields - 100 kHz to 300 GHz. 2021, Radiation Protection Series S-1 (Rev. 1)
The Effect of GSM Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Waking Electroencephalogram: Methodological Influences
Anna Dalecki, Adam Verrender, Sarah P Loughran, Rodney J Croft. The Effect of GSM Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Waking Electroencephalogram: Methodological Influences. Bioelectromagnetics. 12 April 2021.https://doi.org/10.1002/
Although there is consistent evidence that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) increases the spontaneous resting alpha spectral power of the electroencephalogram (EEG), the reliability of this evidence is uncertain as some studies have also failed to observe this effect. The present study aimed to determine whether the effect of RF-EMF exposure on EEG alpha power depends on whether EEG is derived from eyes open or closed conditions and assessed earlier (<5-min) versus later (>25-min) in the exposure interval. Thirty-six adults participated in three experimental sessions, each involving one exposure: "Sham," "Low," and "High" RF-EMF corresponding to peak spatial specific absorption rates averaged over 10 g of 0, 1, and 2 W/kg, respectively. Resting EEG was recorded at baseline (no exposure), during, and after exposure. Alpha power increase was found to be greater for the eyes open than eyes closed EEG during both the High (P = 0.04) and Low (P = 0.04) RF-EMF exposures. There was also a trend toward it being larger at the end, versus the start of the "High" 30-min exposure (P < 0.01; eyes open condition). This suggests that the use of eyes closed conditions, and insufficient RF-EMF exposure durations, are likely explanations for the failure of some studies to detect an RF-EMF exposure-related increase in alpha power, as such methodological choices decrease signal-to-noise ratios and increase type II error.
Simulated mobile communication frequencies (3.5 GHz) emitted by a signal generator affects the sleep of Drosophila melanogaster
Yahong Wang, Hongying Zhang, Ziyan Zhang, Boqun Sun, Chao Tang, Lu Zhang, Zhihao Jiang, Bo Ding, Yanyan Liao, Peng Cai. Simulated mobile communication frequencies (3.5 GHz) emitted by a signal generator affects the sleep of Drosophila melanogaster. Environ Pollut. 2021 Apr 5;283:117087. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117087.
With the rapid development of science and technology, 5G technology will be widely used, and biosafety concerns about the effects of 5G radiofrequency radiation on health have been raised. Drosophila melanogaster was selected as the model organism for our study, in which a 3.5 GHz radiofrequency radiation (RF-EMR) environment was simulated at intensities of 0.1 W/m2, 1 W/m2, and 10 W/m2. The activity of parent male and offspring (F1) male flies was measured using a Drosophila activity monitoring system under short-term and long-term 3.5 GHz RF-EMR exposure. Core genes associated with heat stress, the circadian clock and neurotransmitters were detected by QRT-PCR technology, and the contents of GABA and glutamate were detected by UPLC-MS. The results show that short-term RF-EMR exposure increased the activity level and reduced the sleep duration while long-term RF-EMR exposure reduced the activity level and increased the sleep duration of F1 male flies. Under long-term RF-EMR, the expression of heat stress response-related hsp22, hsp26 and hsp70 genes was increased, the expression of circadian clock-related per, cyc, clk, cry, and tim genes was altered, the content of GABA and glutamate was reduced, and the expression levels of synthesis, transport and receptor genes were altered. In conclusion, long-term RF-EMR exposure enhances the heat stress response of offspring flies and then affects the expression of circadian clock and neurotransmitter genes, which leads to decreased activity, prolonged sleep duration, and improved sleep quality.
- • This study was simulating the most representative 3.5 GHz radio frequency radiation band of 5G in environment.
- •This study was exploring the impact on the activity and sleep of organism under long-term RF-EMR.
- • This study provided a reference for the hidden health effects brought by the development of science and technology.
Faisal Taufiq, Mohammed Bhilal Babu, Aqeel Ahmad, Mohammed Eajaz, Ahmed Shariff, Noureldaim Elnoman Elbadawi, Semmal Syed Meerasa. The Adverse Effect of Mobile Phone Radiations on Dorsal Root Ganglion of Albino Rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 19 March 2021. Page 54-60. DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1331266.
Objectives: To assess the effect of Mobile Phone Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation (RF-EMR) on the histological structure of dorsal root ganglia in albino rats.
Methods: Twenty-four albino rats divided into one control and three experimental groups were studied for four weeks. The experimental groups were exposed to three different levels of RF-EMR through complete missed calls of 80,120 and160 calls per day respectively, using a GSM mobile phone of 0.9 GHz to1.8 GHz in silent mode. The dorsal root ganglia of the sacrificed Rats were examined under light and transmission electron microscope (TEM).
Results: Dorsal root ganglions of exposed rats showed considerable histological changes like reduction in cell size, condensation of cytoplasm, peripherally located heterochromatin nucleus, loss of nucleolus and densely packed myelinated nerve fibers. No such changes were observed in control rats.
Conclusion: Dorsal root ganglionic cells showed enduring and continuous changes when exposed to RF-EMR. The severity of histomorphological changes was dose-dependent, which increased constantly with radiation dosage increment. It might be fair to conclude that degenerative changes in the Dorsal Root Ganglion of the spinal cord, could be attributed to the long-term exposure to RF-EMR.
Effects of mobile phone emissions on human red blood cells
Aniket Chowdhury, Yashveer Singh, Uttam Das, Deepak Waghmare, Raktim Dasgupta, Shovan Kumar Majumder. Effects of mobile phone emissions on human red blood cells. J Biophotonics. 2021 Apr 19;e202100047. doi: 10.1002/jbio.202100047.
Raman spectroscopy was performed on GSM 900 MHz and 1800 MHz mobile phone signal exposed red blood cells (RBCs). The observed changes in the Raman spectra of mobile signal exposed RBCs compared to unexposed control suggest reduced hemoglobin-oxygen affinity for the exposed cells. The possible mechanism may involve activation of the voltage gated membrane Ca2+ channels by the mobile phone emissions resulting in an increase in the levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in cells via altered metabolic activities. Further studies carried out with fluorescent Ca2+ indicator confirmed increased intracellular Ca2+ level in the exposed cells. Since intracellular ATP level influences the shape and mechanics of RBCs, exposed cells were studied using diffraction phase microscopy and optical tweezers. Detectable changes in shape and mechanical properties were observed due to mobile signal exposure.
"At microwave frequencies, the difference in exposure levels between children and adults was investigated –. It was demonstrated that, up to 5.6 GHz, the whole-body-average specific absorption rate (SAR) in children can go beyond the exposure limits ,  by 40%–45% whereas remaining below these limits for adults (given the same incident field) , . A more recent study  investigated the whole-body average SAR using the child models specified by the Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) instead of the scaled adult phantoms."
"This study deals with the electromagnetic exposure under near-field conditions considering typical reconfigurable antennas at 26 GHz and 60 GHz. For the first time, the analysis is performed taking into account biological tissue permittivity variations with age and presence of a textile in proximity or in contact with skin."
WLAN (wireless local area network) is used as an important worldwide communication-technique. By this, always there is an electromagnetic field exposure. In contrast to the ICNIRP-safety guidelines, whereby no bioeffect is possible by these low-energetic electromagnetic fields, we found artificial signals in the nervous system in dependence on WLAN- exposure.
Open access letter: http://www.annexpublishers.
30 Hz, Could It Be Part of a Window Frequency for Cellular Response? (Review)
Olga García-Minguillán, Ceferino Maestú. 30 Hz, Could It Be Part of a Window Frequency for Cellular Response? Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Mar 31;22(7):3642. doi: 10.3390/ijms22073642
Many exogenous and endogenous risk factors have been proposed as precursors of brain tumors, including the exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields. Nevertheless, there is still a debate among the scientific community about the hazard of the effects produced by non-ionizing radiation (NIR) because conflicting results have been found (number of articles reviewed >50). For that reason, to provide new evidence on the possible effects produced by exposure to NIR, we performed different studies with several combinations of extremely low frequencies, times, and field intensities in tumoral and non-tumoral cells. The results of our studies showed that cell viability was frequency dependent in glioblastoma cells. In fact, our results revealed that a frequency of 30 Hz-or even other frequencies close to 30 Hz-could constitute a window frequency determinant of the cellular response in tumoral and non-tumoral cells.
Activation of matrix metalloproteinases and FoxO3a in HaCaT keratinocytes by radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure
Ju Hwan Kim, Dong-Jun Kang, Jun-Sang Bae, Jai Hyuen Lee, Sangbong Jeon, Hyung-Do Choi, Nam Kim, Hyung-Gun Kim, Hak Rim Kim. Activation of matrix metalloproteinases and FoxO3a in HaCaT keratinocytes by radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure. Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7680. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-87263-2.
As the skin is the largest body organ and critically serves as a barrier, it is frequently exposed and could be physiologically affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. In this study, we found that 1760 MHz RF-EMF (4.0 W/kg specific absorption rate for 2 h/day during 4 days) exposure could induce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HaCaT human keratinocytes using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescent probe analysis. However, cell growth and viability were unaffected by RF-EMF exposure. Since oxidative stress in the skin greatly influences the skin-aging process, we analyzed the skin senescence-related factors activated by ROS generation. Matrix metalloproteinases 1, 3, and 7 (MMP1, MMP3, and MMP7), the main skin wrinkle-related proteins, were significantly increased in HaCaT cells after RF-EMF exposure. Additionally, the gelatinolytic activities of secreted MMP2 and MMP9 were also increased by RF-EMF exposure. FoxO3a (Ser318/321) and ERK1/2 (Thr 202/Tyr 204) phosphorylation levels were significantly increased by RF-EMF exposure. However, Bcl2 and Bax expression levels were not significantly changed, indicating that the apoptotic pathway was not activated in keratinocytes following RF-EMF exposure. In summary, our findings show that exposure to 1760 MHz RF-EMF induces ROS generation, leading to MMP activation and FoxO3a and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data suggest that RF-EMF exposure induces cellular senescence of skin cells through ROS induction in HaCaT human keratinocytes.
Chunhai Chen, Qinglong Ma, Ping Deng, Min Lin, Peng Gao, Mindi He, Yonghui Lu, Huifeng Pi, Zhixin He, Chao Zhou, Yanwen Zhang, Zhengping Yu, Lei Zhang. 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Impairs Neurite Outgrowth Through Inhibiting EPHA5 Signaling. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 Apr 12;9:657623.doi: 10.3389/fcell.2021.657623.
Maternal Use of Induction Heating Cookers During Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes: The Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study
Akiko Tokinobu, Keiko Tanaka, Masashi Arakawa, Yoshihiro Miyake. Maternal Use of Induction Heating Cookers During Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes: The Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study. Bioelectromagnetics. 2021 Apr 12. doi: 10.1002/bem.22339.
The effects of exposure to intermediate-frequency electromagnetic fields (IF-EMFs) during pregnancy on birth outcomes are uncertain. We investigated the association between the use of induction heating (IH) cookers, which are major sources of IF-EMFs, during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and birth weight, using data from a prebirth cohort study in Japan. Study participants were 1,565 mothers with singleton pregnancies and the babies born from these pregnancies. We collected the data presented here using self-administered questionnaires. An adjustment was made for maternal age, region of residence, number of children, family structure, maternal education, maternal employment, maternal alcohol intake, smoking during pregnancy, maternal body mass index, baby's sex, and gestational age at birth. IH cooker use during pregnancy was independently associated with a reduced risk of PTB: the adjusted odds ratio was 0.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.78). IH cooker use during pregnancy was not associated with LBW, SGA, or birth weight. This is the first study to show that IH cooker use during pregnancy is independently inversely associated with PTB.
Effects of Long-Term Exposure of Intermediate Frequency Magnetic Fields (20 kHz, 360 µT) on the Development, Pathological Findings, and Behavior of Female Mice
Alexander Lerchl, Karen Drees Née Grote, Isabel Gronau, Dirk Fischer, Julia Bauch, Axel Hoppe. Effects of Long-Term Exposure of Intermediate Frequency Magnetic Fields (20 kHz, 360 µT) on the Development, Pathological Findings, and Behavior of Female Mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 2021 Apr 6. doi: 10.1002/bem.22337.
The use of magnetic fields in the intermediate-frequency (IF) range to wirelessly charge electric cars with power transfer in the kilowatt range has become increasingly widespread, leading to unavoidable stray fields in the microtesla range. Only a handful of studies have assessed the potential biological risks associated with exposure to such fields. We exposed female mice (n = 80 per group) to either 20 kHz, 360 µT (rms), or sham in Helmholtz coils to conduct a blind design study. Exposure started at 3 months of age (24 h/day). Body mass was recorded every 1-2 weeks. At 10 months of age, three behavioral tests were performed on 24 animals per group. Three months later, the mice were sacrificed and organs (brain, liver, kidney, spleen, and lung) were removed and prepared for microscopic analysis. Our findings demonstrate no differences in the development of body mass and survival rates (96% and 89%, respectively). Similarly, no significant differences were observed in tumor incidence rates. When it comes to behavioral tests, the 8-arm maze results revealed no significant differences. In contrast, the Rotarod data were significantly (P < 0.001) different with longer retention times seen in the exposed mice. In the open field, the number of supported rears was significantly lower (P < 0.01), whereas the other endpoints did not show any differences. Overall, our data reveal no adverse effects of exposure to 20 kHz, 360 µT on the development and tumor incidences, while the significant differences in the behavioral tests may indicate higher levels of alertness in mice.
Dejan Tanikić, Alessia Amelio. Classification of the Laptop’s Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field With Alternating Current and Battery. 2021 20th International Symposium INFOTEH-JAHORINA (INFOTEH). 17-19 March 2021.DOI: 10.1109/INFOTEH51037.2021.
Honey Bee Proteolytic System and Behavior Parameters under the Influence of an Electric Field at 50 Hz and Variable Intensities for a Long Exposure Time
Paweł Migdał, Agnieszka Murawska, Aneta Strachecka, Paweł Bieńkowski, Adam Roman. Honey Bee Proteolytic System and Behavior Parameters under the Influence of an Electric Field at 50 Hz and Variable Intensities for a Long Exposure Time.
Animals (Basel). 2021 Mar 18;11(3):863. doi: 10.3390/ani11030863.
The effect of an artificial electromagnetic field on organisms is a subject of extensive public debate and growing numbers of studies. Our study aimed to show the effect of an electromagnetic field at 50 Hz and variable intensities on honey bee proteolytic systems and behavior parameters after 12 h of exposure. Newly emerged worker bees were put into cages and exposed to a 50 Hz E-field with an intensity of 5.0 kV/m, 11.5 kV/m, 23.0 kV/m, or 34.5 kV/m. After 12 h of exposure, hemolymph samples were taken for protease analysis, and the bees were recorded for behavioral analysis. Six behaviors were chosen for observation: walking, flying, self-grooming, contact between individuals, stillness, and wing movement. Bees in the control group demonstrated the highest number of all behavior occurrences, except flying, and had the lowest protease activity. Bees in the experimental groups showed a lower number of occurrences of walking, self-grooming, and contacts between individuals than the control bees and had significantly higher protease activity than the control bees (except that of alkaline proteases in the 23.0 kV/m group).
The amount of electromagnetic field (EMF) in the environment emitted by electrical and electronic devices, mobile phone masts, or power lines is constantly increasing. Honey bees can be exposed to the EMF in the environment, and the influence of this factor on bees is still under consideration. Studying the impact of EMF on honey bees can give valuable information about whether it poses a threat to them. The honey bee is an important pollinator, playing a significant role in maintaining biodiversity and food production. Our research showed that a 50 Hz electric field at various intensities reduced the number of occurrences of walking, contacts between individuals, and self-grooming, and increased the activity of proteases, which are involved in the immune system response.
The amount of artificial electromagnetic field in the environment is constantly increasing, thus the honey bee is exposed to this factor. In our study, bees in the control group demonstrated the highest number of all behavior occurrences, except flying, and had the lowest activity of all types of proteases. Bees in the experimental groups showed a lower number of walking, self-grooming, and contact between individual occurrences than control bees and had higher protease activity than control bees. Our results show that an E-field is potential harmful factor to the honey bee. However, we do not know if the changes in behavior and protease activity of the honey bee after E-field exposure persist and for how long. It would be important to investigate behavior parameters and biochemical markers at different time intervals after the end of exposure to an E-field. It can be helpful to determine the interaction between the biochemical marker activity and behavioral parameters. Such an observation could provide a better understanding of the immune response of the honey bee exposing to environmental stressors.
Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Entrain Locust Wingbeats
Sebastian Shepherd, Christopher W Jackson, Suleiman M Sharkh, Hitoshi Aonuma, Eugenio E Oliveira, Philip L Newland. Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Entrain Locust Wingbeats. Bioelectromagnetics. 2021 Apr 6. doi: 10.1002/bem.22336.
Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) have been shown to impact the behavior and physiology of insects. Recent studies have highlighted the need for more research to determine more specifically how they affect flying insects. Here, we ask how locust flight is affected by acute exposure to 50 Hz EMFs. We analyzed the flights of individual locusts tethered between a pair of copper wire coils generating EMFs of various frequency using high-speed video recording. The mean wingbeat frequency of tethered locusts was 18.92 ± 0.27 Hz. We found that acute exposure to 50 Hz EMFs significantly increased absolute change in wingbeat frequency in a field strength-dependent manner, with greater field strengths causing greater changes in wingbeat frequency. The effect of EMFs on wingbeat frequency depended on the initial wingbeat frequency of a locust, with locusts flying at a frequency lower than 20 Hz increasing their wingbeat frequency, while locusts flying with a wingbeat frequency higher than 20 Hz decreasing their wingbeat frequency. During the application of 50 Hz EMF, the wingbeat frequency was entrained to a 2:5 ratio (two wingbeat cycles to five EMF cycles) of the applied EMF. We then applied a range of ELF EMFs that were close to normal wingbeat frequency and found that locusts entrained to the exact frequency of the applied EMF. These results show that exposure to ELF EMFs lead to small but significant changes in wingbeat frequency in locusts. We discuss the biological implications of the coordination of insect flight in response to electromagnetic stimuli.