Tuesday, July 7, 2020

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below.

The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 900 scientific papers. This 681-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:

Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.



Effects of Prenatal Exposure to EMF

Mobile Phone Use During Pregnancy: Which Association With Fetal Growth?

Nathalie Boileau, François Margueritte, Tristan Gauthier, Nedjma Boukeffa, Pierre-Marie Preux, Anaïs Labrunie, Yves Aubard. Mobile Phone Use During Pregnancy: Which Association With Fetal Growth? J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod. 2020 Jul 2;101852. doi: 10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101852.

Abstract

Introduction: Few studies have investigated the effect of electromagnetic waves on the human fetus whereas nowadays mobile phone use is ubiquitous. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between mobile phone use by pregnant women and fetal development during pregnancy in the general population.

Material and methods: Data came from the NéHaVi cohort ("prospective follow-up, from intrauterine development to the age of 18 years, for children born in Haute-Vienne"), a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter (three maternity units in Haute-Vienne) observational cohort focusing on children born between April 2014 and April 2017. Main objective was to investigate the association of mobile phone use on fetal growth. Univariate and multivariate models were generated adjusted for the socioprofessional category variables of the mother, and other variables likely to influence fetal growth.

Results: For the analysis 1,378 medical charts were considered from which 1,368 mothers (99.3%) used their mobile phones during pregnancy. Mean phone time was 29.8 minutes (range: 0.0 - 240.0 minutes) per day. After adjustment, newborns whose mothers used their mobile phones for more than 30 minutes/day were significantly more likely to have an AUDIPOG score ≤ 10th percentile than those whose mothers used their mobile phones for less than 5 minutes/day during pregnancy (aOR = 1.54 [1.03; 2.31], p = 0.0374). For women using their cell phones 5 to 15 min and 15 to 30 min, there wasn't a significant association with an AUDIPOG score ≤ 10th, respectively aOR = 0.98 [0.58; 1.65] and aOR = 1.68 [0.99; 2.82].

Conclusion: Using a mobile phone for calls for more than 30 minutes per day during pregnancy may have a negative impact on fetal growth. A prospective study should be performed to further evaluate this potential link.


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Consequences of Electromagnetic Field Radiation During Early Pregnancy - Androgen Synthesis and Release From the Myometrium of Pigs in Vitro

Anita Franczak, Ewa M Waszkiewicz, Wiktoria Kozlowska, Agata Zmijewska, Anna Koziorowska. Consequences of Electro
magnetic Field Radiation During Early Pregnancy - Androgen Synthesis and Release From the Myometrium of Pigs in Vitro. Animal Reproduction Science. Vol. 218, July 2020, 106465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2020.106465

Highlights
  • EMF radiation causes alterations in myometrial androgens synthesis and release.
  • The consequences of EMF mainly depend on the frequency and duration of EMF exposure.
  • The presence of P4 does not protect from EMF during the peri-implantation period.
Abstract

An electromagnetic field (EMF) has been found to affect reproductive processes in females. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low, non-ionizing EMF radiation on the steroidogenic activity of myometrium collected from pigs during the fetal peri-implantation period. Myometrial slices were treated with an EMF (50 and 120 Hz, 2 and 4 h of incubation) and examined for the aromatase cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/C17-20lyase (CYP17A1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (HSD3B1) mRNA transcript abundance, cytochrome P450c17 and 3βHSD protein abundance and the secretion of androstenedione (A4) and testosterone (T). To determine whether progesterone (P4) functions as a protectant from EMF radiation, the selected slices were treated with P4. In slices incubated without P4, EMF at 50 Hz altered cytochrome P450c17 protein abundance (4 h), HSD3B1 mRNA transcript abundance (4 h) and A4 release (2 h) as well as T release (2 h) in P4-treated slices. The EMF at 120 Hz in non P4-treated slices altered A4 release (2 and 4 h) whereas in P4-treated slices altered CYP17A1 mRNA transcript abundance (4 h), 3βHSD protein abundance (4 h), A4 (4 h) and T release (2 h). In conclusion, EMF radiation in the myometrium collected during the peri-implantation period alters the CYP17A1 and HSD3B1 mRNA transcript and encoded protein abundance, and androgen release due to the time of treatment and P4 presence or absence. The P4 did not function directly as an obvious protector against EMF radiation in the myometrium of pigs during the fetal peri-implantation period.



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The Effects of Prenatal Radiation of Mobile Phones on White Matter in Cerebellum of Rat Offspring

Mei-Li Yang, Shan-Yan Hong, Hong-Hong Huang, Guo-Rong Lyu, Ling-Xing Wang. [The Effects of Prenatal Radiation of Mobile Phones on White Matter in Cerebellum of Rat Offspring] [Article in Chinese]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2020 Jan 28;36(1):77-81. DOI: 10.12047/j.cjap.5880.2020.017.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the effects of prenatal radiation of 850 -1,900 MHz mobile phone on white matter in cerebellum of adult rat offspring.

Methods: Pregnant rats were randomly divided into short term maternal radiation group, long term maternal radiation group and control group. Rats in short term and long term maternal radiation group were exposed to 6 h/d and 24 h/d mobile phone radiation during 1-17 days of pregnancy, respectively. The cerebellums of offspring rats at the age of 3 month (n=8) were taken. Cell morphology in cerebellum was studied by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The expressions of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-L (NF-L) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in cerebellum of rat offspring were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot.

Results: Compared to control group, the morphological changes of purkinje cells in cerebellum were obvious in rat offspring of short term and long term maternal radiation group. Compared to control group, decreased MBP and NF-L expressions and increased GFAP expression were observed in long term maternal radiation group(all P<0.05). Compared to short term radiation group, the expressions of MBP and NF-L were down-regulated (all P<0.05) and the expression of GFAP was up- regulated(P<0.05) in long term radiation group.

Conclusion: Prenatal mobile phone radiation might lead to the damage of myelin and axon with activity of astrocytes in cerebellum of male rat offspring, which is related to the extent of radiation.


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Enriched Environment Decreases Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Rats With Prenatal Mobile Phone Exposure

Shanyan Hong, Honghong Huang, Meili Yang, Haining Wu, Lingxing Wang. Enriched Environment Decreases Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Rats With Prenatal Mobile Phone Exposure.  Front Aging Neurosci. 2020 Jun 4;12:162. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2020.00162.

Abstract

Mobile phone use has rapidly increased worldwide, and pregnant women are passively or actively exposed to the associated electromagnetic radiation. Maternal cell phone exposure is related to behavioral difficulties in young offspring. However, whether prenatal mobile phone exposure can predispose the elderly offspring to cognitive impairment is unclear. The enriched environment (EE) has shown positive effects on cognition in an immature brain, but its impact on aging offspring after prenatal cell phone exposure is unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether prenatal exposure to mobile phone exerts long-term effects on cognition in elderly rat offspring and whether EE during adulthood can rescue cognitive impairment by altering the synaptic plasticity. Pregnant rats were subjected to prenatal short-term or long-term cell phone exposure and offspring rats were randomly assigned to standard or EE. Spatial learning and memory were investigated using Morris water maze (MWM) in elderly rat offspring. Hippocampal cellular morphology was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and synaptic ultrastructure was evaluated with transmission electron microscopy. Expression of synaptophysin (SYN), postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were detected by western blot. The results demonstrated that prenatal long-term but not short-term exposure to mobile phone lead to cognitive impairment, morphological changes in the hippocampal cells, reduced synaptic number, decreased SYN, PSD-95, and BDNF expression in elderly offspring, which were alleviated by postnatal EE housing. These findings suggest that prenatal long-term mobile phone exposure may pose life-long adverse effects on elderly offspring and impair cognition by disrupting the synaptic plasticity, which may be reversed by postnatal EE housing.


Ecological Study on the Penetration of Induction Heating Cookers and Birth Outcomes in Japan

Yasuto Sato, Kosuke Kiyohara, Sachiko Takehara, Noriko Kojimahara. Ecological Study on the Penetration of Induction Heating Cookers and Birth Outcomes in Japan. AIMS Public Health. 2020 Jun 5;7(2):336-343. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2020028.

Abstract

In recent years, equipment that generates intermediate-frequency electromagnetic fields (IF-EMFs) has become increasingly prevalent, and the influence of IF-EMFs on human health is thus attracting increasing attention. The present study was conducted with the aim of analyzing whether there is a relationship between the penetration of induction heating cookers and birth outcomes using an ecological study design at the prefectural level. We created data sets for all 47 prefectures in Japan using previously published statistics. Spontaneous fetal death rate, fetal death rate after 22 weeks of pregnancy, perinatal mortality rate, and proportion of newborns weighing less than 2500 g were used as birth outcomes in correlation analysis. A weak positive association was observed between the penetration of induction heating cookers and the fetal death rate after the 22nd week of pregnancy (r = 0.27, p = 0.07), but it was not statistically significant. In addition, a weak negative association was observed between the penetration of induction heating cookers and the spontaneous fetal death rate (r = -0.27, p = 0.07), but it was not statistically significant. In the present ecological study, no statistically significant association were shown between the penetration of induction heating cookers and birth outcomes. To demonstrate further the safety of induction heating cooker use, observations in epidemiological studies of other designs should be considered.




Other New Papers

Telecommunications health and safety: US FCC affirms its current safety limits for RF radiation and 5G wireless

James C Lin. Telecommunications health and safety: US FCC affirms its current safety limits for RF radiation and 5G wireless. Radio Science Bulletin; 2019 (371): 87-89. doi:10.23919/URSIRSB.2019.9117254.

No Abstract


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IEEE COMAR Technical Information Statement: Health and Safety Issues Concerning Exposure to Electromagnetic Energy from 5G Networks

Bushberg JT, Chou CK, Foster KR, Kavet R, Maxson DP, Tell RA, Ziskin MC.  IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation—COMAR Technical Information Statement: Health and Safety Issues Concerning Exposure of the General Public to Electromagnetic Energy from 5G Wireless Communications Networks. Health Physics: June 22, 2020. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001301.

Abstract

This COMAR Technical Information Statement (TIS) addresses health and safety issues concerning exposure of the general public to radiofrequency (RF) fields from 5G wireless communications networks, the expansion of which started on a large scale in 2018 to 2019. 5G technology can transmit much greater amounts of data at much higher speeds for a vastly expanded array of applications compared with preceding 2-4G systems; this is due, in part, to using the greater bandwidth available at much higher frequencies than those used by most existing networks. Although the 5G engineering standard may be deployed for operating networks currently using frequencies extending from 100s to 1,000s of MHz, it can also operate in the 10s of GHz where the wavelengths are 10 mm or less, the so-called millimeter wave (MMW) band. Until now, such fields were found in a limited number of applications (e.g., airport scanners, automotive collision avoidance systems, perimeter surveillance radar), but the rapid expansion of 5G will produce a more ubiquitous presence of MMW in the environment. While some 5G signals will originate from small antennas placed on existing base stations, most will be deployed with some key differences relative to typical transmissions from 2-4G base stations. Because MMW do not penetrate foliage and building materials as well as signals at lower frequencies, the networks will require “densification,” the installation of many lower power transmitters (often called “small cells” located mainly on buildings and utility poles) to provide for effective indoor coverage. Also, “beamforming” antennas on some 5G systems will transmit one or more signals directed to individual users as they move about, thus limiting exposures to non-users. In this paper, COMAR notes the following perspectives to address concerns expressed about possible health effects of RF field exposure from 5G technology. First, unlike lower frequency fields, MMW do not penetrate beyond the outer skin layers and thus do not expose inner tissues to MMW. Second, current research indicates that overall levels of exposure to RF are unlikely to be significantly altered by 5G, and exposure will continue to originate mostly from the “uplink” signals from one’s own device (as they do now). Third, exposure levels in publicly accessible spaces will remain well below exposure limits established by international guideline and standard setting organizations, including ICNIRP and IEEE. Finally, so long as exposures remain below established guidelines, the research results to date do not support a determination that adverse health effects are associated with RF exposures, including those from 5G systems. While it is acknowledged that the scientific literature on MMW biological effect research is more limited than that for lower frequencies, we also note that it is of mixed quality and stress that future research should use appropriate precautions to enhance validity. The authorship of this paper includes a physician/biologist, epidemiologist, engineers, and physical scientists working voluntarily and collaboratively on a consensus basis.


Open access paper: https://journals.lww.com/health-physics/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=9000&issue=00000&article=99768


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Absorption of 5G radiation in brain tissue as a function of frequency, power and time

David H. Gultekin, Peter H. Siegel. Absorption of 5G radiation in brain tissue as a function of frequency, power and time. IEEE Access. Published online June 12, 2020. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3002183.

Abstract

The rapid release of 5G wireless communications networks has spurred renewed concerns regarding the interactions of higher radiofrequency (RF) radiation with living species. We examine RF exposure and absorption in ex vivo bovine brain tissue and a brain simulating gel at three frequencies: 1.9 GHz, 4 GHz and 39 GHz that are relevant to current (4G), and upcoming (5G) spectra. We introduce a highly sensitive thermal method for the assessment of radiation exposure, and derive experimentally, accurate relations between the temperature rise (ΔT), specific absorption rate (SAR) and the incident power density (F), and tabulate the coefficients, ΔT/ΔF and Δ(SAR)/ΔF, as a function of frequency, depth and time. This new method provides both ΔT and SAR applicable to the frequency range below and above 6 GHz as shown at 1.9, 4 and 39 GHz, and demonstrates the most sensitive experimental assessment of brain tissue exposure to millimeter-wave radiation to date, with a detection limit of 1 mW. We examine the beam penetration, absorption and thermal diffusion at representative 4G and 5G frequencies and show that the RF heating increases rapidly with frequency due to decreasing RF source wavelength and increasing power density with the same incident power and exposure time. We also show the temperature effects of continuous wave, rapid pulse sequences and single pulses with varying pulse duration, and we employ electromagnetic modeling to map the field distributions in the tissue. Finally, using this new methodology, we measure the thermal diffusivity of ex vivo bovine brain tissue experimentally.

Summary

In this paper, we present for the first time, a simple, highly accurate test system for measuring the temperature rise and the specific absorption rate in tissue samples and liquid or gel simulants as a function of frequency, RF exposure power and time – pulsed and CW. We use this set up to make, and compare, carefully calibrated measurements of bovine brain tissue and a gel simulant, Triton X and water, at both 4G (1.9 GHz) and newly allocated 5G frequency bands (4 GHz - 39 GHz). We show the effects of beam concentration, focusing, absorption and heat diffusion at all three frequencies and delineate a linear range over which we can derive highly accurate coefficients (ΔT/ΔF and Δ(SAR)/ΔF) that can be used to predict the temperature rise and the specific absorption rate at prescribed depths and exposure times within the tissue or gel at power levels that go down to detectable limits (<1 mW). This method may be used to evaluate a wide range of RF radiation sources, tissues and simulants.

We also note that the impact of relatively modest incident RF power (1 W) and short exposure times (6 minutes CW and 30 second pulsed) at 39 GHz using a single mode waveguide source for the exposure, results in extremely large power density (16.5 kW/m2) and temperature rise (> 60°C for CW, > 35°C for 30 s pulse) in both bovine brain tissue and gel. This same temperature rise can be expected on skin (which has very similar dielectric properties) when such large surface power densities are present in very close proximity to the RF source or antenna, perhaps emanating from millimeter-wave base stations, handsets, or wireless-enabled appliances or kiosks. Although, current safety limits of 28.76 and 143.8 W/m2 for power density in unrestricted (public) and restricted (occupational) environments, respectively should prevent such exposures, the resulting limits on RF power generation of only 1.7 to 8.5 mW from a directional RF source, such as our waveguide at 39 GHz, in the vicinity, will greatly limit the application potential for any such communications system.

In the USA, the FCC and FDA are overseeing the implementation of millimeter wave technology in the public realm and more studies are needed to help guide the science, technology and policy. Our experimental method can provide threshold temperature and SAR values for both occupational and public exposures to millimeter waves with surface power densities from 16.5 W/m2 to 16.5 kW/m2 and exposure times from 1 second to 30 minutes.

Finally, we use our new data and this RF method to derive a thermal diffusivity coefficient for the ex vivo bovine brain tissue that is consistent with our prior measurements using an MRI. This is the first time that the thermal diffusivity of ex vivo bovine brain tissue has been directly measured by this thermal RF method [47, 50, 51, 70].


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Central nervous system lymphoma and radiofrequency radiation – a case report and incidence data in the Swedish Cancer Register on non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Lennart Hardell, Michael Carlberg, Tarmo Koppel, Marie Nordström, Lena K Hedendahl. Central nervous system lymphoma and radiofrequency radiation – a case report and incidence data in the Swedish Cancer Register on non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Medical Hypotheses. Available online 29 June 2020, 110052. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110052

Abstract

Earlier animal studies have provided evidence that non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may be caused by exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. This was recently confirmed by the U.S. National Toxicology (NTP) study that showed an increased incidence of malignant lymphoma in female mice exposed to the GSM modulated or the CDMA modulated cell phone RF radiation. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare malignancy in humans with poor prognosis. An increasing incidence has been reported in recent years. Based on a case-report we present the hypothesis that use of the hand-held mobile phone may be a risk factor for PCNSL. The increasing incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Sweden is discussed in relation to etiologic factors.


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Exposure of 1800 MHz Radiofrequency With SAR 1.6 W/kg Caused a Significant Reduction in CD4+ T Cells and Release of Cytokines In-Vitro

Maimun Zulhaidah Arthamin, Anis Sulalah, Resvina Resvina, Chomsin Widodo, Agustina Tri Endharti, Edi Widjajanto, Tedy Juliandhy. Exposure of 1800 MHz Radiofrequency With SAR 1.6 W/kg Caused a Significant Reduction in CD4+ T Cells and Release of Cytokines In-Vitro. Iran J Immunol. 2020 Jun;17(2):154-166. doi: 10.22034/iji.2020.84760.1671.


Abstract

Background: Although there have been many studies investigating the effects of electromagnetic fields on humans cells and tissues, the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields exposure on the cells of the immune system are still controversial.

Objective: To investigate the effects of 1800 MHz RF-EMF exposure on peripheral blood mononuclear cells by measuring T helper cells count and the cytokine profile under different conditions of durations and distances.

Methods: The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy human subjects were exposed to 1800 MHz RF-EMF, with durations of 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes and distances of 5 and 25 cm. The effects of RF-EMF exposure on the number of CD4+ T cells, and the expression of IL-2, IL-10, and IL-17a after 48 hours of culture were evaluated using flow cytometry.

Results: Our findings indicated that closer distance and longer exposure induced lower number of CD4+ T cells. Similarly the percentages of IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17a expressing CD4+ T cells were decreased significantly. The number of IL-2 expressing CD4+T cells was increased significantly as the duration of exposure was increased, but the number was decreased after 60 minutes exposure when compared with control group with no exposure.

Conclusion: Exposure to RF-EMF for 60 minutes at 5 cm distance causes a significant reduction in the number of CD4+ T cells, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17a expressing T cells.



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A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Field Level Radiated by 5G Base Stations

Adda S, Aureli T, D’elia S, Franci D, Grillo E, Migliore MD, Pavoncello S, Schettino F, Suman R. A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Field Level Radiated by 5G Base Stations. IEEE Access 2020 [in press]. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2998448.

Abstract

This paper presents some theoretical considerations and experimental results regarding the problem of maximum power extrapolation for the assessment of the exposure to electromagnetic fields radiated by 5G base stations. In particular the results of an extensive experimental campaign using an extrapolation procedure recently proposed for 5G signal is discussed and experimentally checked on a SU-MIMO signal. The results confirm the effectiveness of the extrapolation technique. Starting from an analysis (that represents a further novel contribution of this paper) on the impact of Spatial Division Multiple Access techniques used in 5G on the measurement of EMF level, some indications of possible extension of the technique to the highly complex MU-MIMO case are also given.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9103530

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Correlation of Blood Oxidative Stress Parameters to Indoor Radiofrequency Radiation: A Cross Sectional Study in Jordan

Yazan Akkam, Ahmed A Al-Taani, Salam Ayasreh, Abeer Almutairi, Nosaibah Akkam. Correlation of Blood Oxidative Stress Parameters to Indoor Radiofrequency Radiation: A Cross Sectional Study in Jordan. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jun 29;17(13):E4673. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17134673.

Abstract

Background: Electromagnetic pollution is a general health concern worldwide, as cell phone towers are ubiquitous and are located adjacent to or on the roof of schools, and hospitals. However, the health risks are still inconclusive. This cross-sectional study evaluated the potential effect of electromagnetic radiation generated from various resources including cell phone towers on blood glutathione S transferase activity (e-GST) and total antioxidant activity of the Jordanian population.

Methods: The power density of three districts in the city of Irbid, Jordan was mapped to generate "outside the houses" and "inside the houses" maps. The effect of categorical variables (gender, using a cell phone, presence of Wi-Fi modem, previous exposure to medical imaging) and continuous variables (distance from the base station, the elevation of the house, the duration of stay in the house, power density outside houses, power density inside houses) on e-GST and total antioxidant activity were investigated.

Results: The EMR generated outside the houses-including cell phone towers-did not reach inside the houses at the same power and had no significant influence on e-GST activity. The EMR inside the house, which primarily came from internal resources, has a significant effect on e-GST activity. The duration of stay inside the house, the use of cell phones, and the presence of a Wi-Fi modem had a proportional effect on e-GST activity. The total antioxidant activity was statistically equal between the tested and control groups.

Conclusions: Several factors such as building materials restricted the penetration of EMR reaching inside the houses. EMR generated inside rather than outside the houses had a proportional effect on e-GST. The differences in e-GST were compensated successfully by other antioxidant mechanisms. Further research is needed to identify other possible sources of antioxidants, and to evaluate long-term effects and genetic polymorphism.


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Technical Assessment of Ultrasonic Cerebral Tomosphygmography and New Scientific Evaluation of Its Clinical Interest for the Diagnosis of Electrohypersensitivity and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity


Frédéric Greco. Technical Assessment of Ultrasonic Cerebral Tomosphygmography and New Scientific Evaluation of Its Clinical Interest for the Diagnosis of Electrohypersensitivity and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Diagnostics (Basel). 2020 Jun 24;10(6):E427. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics10060427.

Abstract

Ultrasonic cerebral tomosphygmography (UCTS), also known as "encephaloscan", is an ultrasound-based pulsatile echoencephalography for both functional and anatomical brain imaging investigations. Compared to classical imaging, UCTS makes it possible to locate precisely the spontaneous brain tissue pulsations that occur naturally in temporal lobes. Scientific publications have recently validated the scientific interest of UCTS technique but clinical use and industrial development of this ancient brain imaging technique has been stopped notably in France, not for scientific or technical reasons but due to a lack of financing support. UCTS should be fundamentally distinguished from transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TDU), which, although it also uses pulsed ultrasounds, aims at studying the velocity of blood flow (hemodynamics) in the cerebral arteries by using Doppler effect, especially in the middle cerebral artery of both hemispheres. Instead, UCTS has the technical advantage of measuring and locating spontaneous brain tissue pulsations in temporal lobes. Recent scientific work has shown the possibility to make an objective diagnosis of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by using UCTS, in conjunction with TDU investigation and the detection of several biomarkers in the peripheral blood and urine of the patients. In this paper, we independently confirm the clinical interest of using UCTS for the diagnosis of EHS and MCS. Moreover, it has been shown that repetitive use of UCTS in EHS and/or MCS patients can contribute to the objective assessment of their therapeutic follow-up. Since classical CT scan and MRI are usually not contributive for the diagnosis and are poorly tolerated by these patients, UCTS should therefore be considered as one of the best imaging technique to be used for the diagnosis of these new disorders and the follow-up of patients.



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Electric Field and SAR Distribution in the Vicinity of Orthodontic Brace Exposed to the Cell Phone Radiation

Jovanovic DB, Krasic DD, Stankovic VB, Cvetkovic, NN, Vuckovic DD. Electric Field and SAR Distribution in the Vicinity of Orthodontic Brace Exposed to the Cell Phone Radiation. Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal 34(12):1904-1914. Dec 2019.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of orthodontic brace on the electric field distribution and amount of the absorbed energy from the cell phone within the teeth. A comparative analysis of the models (child and adult) with and without brace has been carried out due to different morphological and tissue characteristics of child's and adult's head. The 3D realistic models of the child's and adult's head, with the jaw having the orthodontic brace, have been designed. The shapes and features of the child and adult head model, as well as the distance between the electromagnetic source and the exposed object, have an important role in the evaluation of the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). The applied procedure is based on the numerical solution of the electromagnetic waves propagation equations. The numerical analysis has been performed at the frequency of 3G (0.9GHz). The obtained results are represented within the teeth positioned on the side of the electromagnetic radiation source. Based on the obtained results, one can conclude that the presence of orthodontic brace affects the increase of electric field and SAR within the teeth.

Excerpts

"According to previous studies, one can find that the metal objects can significantly increase the amount of absorbed energy. The authors in [1] have found that the SAR values can be several times greater in the presence of metal object. The effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone on nickel release from orthodontic brackets has been taken into consideration in study [2]. It is found that the concentration of nickel in the artificial saliva in the exposure group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The level of the nickel released in this investigation was far below the toxic level but maybe enough that can lead to allergic reaction in humans. One of the previously studies [3] reported the involuntary movements of the subjects, which had gold (metal) alloy dental inlay, caused by electromagnetic waves."

"It is evident that the value of the electric field is significantly greater in the presence of an orthodontic brace for both models. Based on the results shown in Figs. 6-8, as well as the results given in Table 3, the overall conclusion is that the presence of an orthodontic brace increases the electric field strength within the teeth.

Also it is noticeable that the electric field strength in the case of a child is higher comparing to the adult case."

"Since the referent value for the electric field, prescribed by adequate standards at 0.9 GHz, is 41 V/m, comparing the results obtained by numerical calculation with values prescribed by safety standards, it is evident that obtained results exceed the referent levels inside all teeth in both models (with and without the orthodontic brace). However, it should be kept in mind that in the case of model with orthodontic brace the values are many times greater than the allowable values."

"Regarding the obtained results for SAR within the teeth, in the presence of an orthodontic brace, a significant increase in the amount of absorbed energy can be observed. The maximum of SAR1g occurs in the tooth No. 6 in the case of a child (2.46W/kg). This value is about 65% higher comparing to the adult with orthodontic brace and 45% higher comparing to the results obtained for a child without orthodontic brace. In this tooth and tooth No. 5, the SAR1g overcomes the safety values but only in the case of child in the presence of the orthodontic brace. The amount of absorbed energy inside the other teeth satisfies basic restriction. However, the increase in the amount of absorbed energy in the presence of an orthodontic brace is not negligible."

"Based on the obtained results, one can conclude that the presence of orthodontic brace causes increase of electric field and SAR within the teeth. In some cases, those values overcome referent limits for electric field strength, i.e., safety limits for SAR values."

"Because of the mentioned before and the fact that each standard contains specific safety limits of exposure to electromagnetic fields but they have been developed based on the research for adults, it should be established if they are sufficiently valid also in case of children.

The future researches should be focused on the impact of orthodontic brace on the electric field strength and amount of absorbed energy at the frequency of LTE-4G, and the latest generation of mobile networks – 5G."


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Comparison of Intraocular Pressure Changes Due to Exposure to Mobile Phone Electromagnetics Radiations in Normal and Glaucoma Eye

Saeed Shokoohi-Rad, Mohammad-Rez Ansari, Fatemeh Sabzi, Rahim Saffari, Parisa Rajaei, Farshid Karimi. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure Changes Due to Exposure to Mobile Phone Electromagnetics Radiations in Normal and Glaucoma Eye. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol. 2020 Apr 29;27(1):10-13. doi: 10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_20_19. DOI: 10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_20_19

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted by a mobile phone on the intraocular pressure (IOP) in the eyeball.

Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 166 eyes from 83 individuals in the 40-70 age range who referred to "Khatam-al-Anbia Hospital, Mashhad, Iran" in 2016. There were two groups of participants, and the first one consisted of 41 participants who had normal eyes, whereas the second one comprised 42 participants who suffered from open-angle glaucoma disease. The IOP in both groups was measured and recorded by a specialist before and after talking 5 min on the cellphone with the help of the Goldman method. Statistical analysis such as paired t-test and analysis of variance was performed and all tests are statistically significant at (P < 0.05). For this purpose, the SPSS software (version 16) was applied.

Results: IOP in the glaucoma eye (42 eyes) ipsilateral to mobile phone before and after the intervention was 18.64 ± 6.7 and 23.53 ± 6.3, respectively (P < 0.001). However, IOP in the control group (41 eyes) ipsilateral to mobile phone before and after the intervention was 12.95 ± 3.5 and 13.39 ± 2.8, respectively (P = 0.063). IOP change in the opposite glaucomatous eye to mobile phone in glaucoma group (39 eyes) and normal group (44 eyes) was not significantly different before and after the phone call (P = 0.065 and P = 0.85, respectively).

Conclusion: We found that the acute effects of EMWs emitted from the mobile phones can significantly increase the IOP in glaucoma eye, while such changes were not observed in normal eyes.



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Continuous Exposure to 1.7 GHz LTE (4G) Electromagnetic Fields Increases Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species to Decrease Human Cell Proliferation and Induce Senescence


Jisu Choi, Kyeongrae Min, Sangbong Jeon, Nam Kim, Jeong-Ki Pack, Kiwon Song. Continuous Exposure to 1.7 GHz LTE Electromagnetic Fields Increases Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species to Decrease Human Cell Proliferation and Induce Senescence. Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 8;10(1):9238. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-65732-4.

Abstract

Due to the rapid development of mobile phone technology, we are continuously exposed to 1.7 GHz LTE radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs), but their biological effects have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the non-thermal cellular effects of these RF-EMFs on human cells, including human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs), Huh7 and Hep3B liver cancer stem cells (CSCs), HeLa and SH-SY5Y cancer cells, and normal fibroblast IMR-90 cells. When continuously exposed to 1.7 GHz LTE RF-EMF for 72 h at 1 and 2 SAR, cell proliferation was consistently decreased in all the human cells. The anti-proliferative effect was higher at 2 SAR than 1 SAR and was less severe in ASCs. The exposure to RF-EMF for 72 h at 1 and 2 SAR did not induce DNA double strand breaks or apoptotic cell death, but did trigger a slight delay in the G1 to S cell cycle transition. Cell senescence was also clearly observed in ASC and Huh7 cells exposed to RF-EMF at 2 SAR for 72 h. Intracellular ROS increased in these cells and the treatment with an ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenger recapitulated the anti-proliferative effect of RF-EMF. These observations strongly suggest that 1.7 GHz LTE RF-EMF decrease proliferation and increase senescence by increasing intracellular ROS in human cells.

Excerpt

Altogether, this study as well as other studies strongly suggest that RF-EMF exposure leads to a change in intracellular ROS levels that may result in genotoxic stress, decreased proliferation and cell senescence, or no physiological effects depending on ROS concentration and the differential sensitivity of various cells to ROS. Thus, the mechanism behind RF-EMF exposure altering intracellular ROS levels should be further studied to elucidate the biological effects of RF-EMFs.

It is not plausible to directly predict the physiological effects of 1.7 GHz LTE RF-EMF from our cell-based study. However, the anti-proliferative effect of 1.7 GHz LTE RF-EMF on various human cells in this study suggests that the exposure to 1.7 GHz LTE RF-EMF would be more harmful to children, whose adult stem cells should be very active for growth and may accelerate the aging of body cells. We also carefully suggest that the anti-proliferative effect of various cancer cells by 1.7 GHz LTE RF-EMF would be interpreted with care, considering that both positive and negative effects of RF-EMF have been reported on cancer development.


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Electromagnetic Exposure Study on a Human Located inside the Car Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

Jeladze VB, Nozadze TR, Tabatadze VA, et al. Electromagnetic Exposure Study on a Human Located inside the Car Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources J Communications Technology Electronics. 65(5): 457-464. May 2020.

Abstract

The article studies the effect of the electromagnetic field of wireless communications on a human inside a car in the frequency ranges of 450, 900, and 1800 MHz, corresponding to the operational range of police radios and modern mobile phones. A comparative analysis of the influence of the Earth’s surface under the car is presented. The results of numerical calculations using the Method of Auxiliary Sources show the presence of resonance phenomena and a high reactive field inside the car, which leads to an undesirable increase in the level of absorbed energy in human tissues.

Conclusions

The Method of Auxiliary Sources was used to study the exposure of the electromagnetic field of a mobile phone’s antenna on a human inside a car. The calculations took into account the effect of Earth’s reflective surface under the car. The results showed that high-amplitude reactive fields inside the car can lead to a multiple increase in the SAR coefficient in human tissues compared to values obtained in the free space. It is recommended to reduce the duration of mobile phone calls inside a car.


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Effect of Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Mouse Brain Morphological and Histopathological Profiling

Judita Zymantiene, Vida Juozaitiene, Rasa Zelvyte, Vaidas Oberauskas, Ugne Spancerniene, Antanas Sederevicius, Albina Aniuliene. Effect of Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Mouse Brain Morphological and Histopathological Profiling. J Vet Res. 2020 May 8;64(2):319-324. doi: 10.2478/jvetres-2020-0030.


Abstract

Introduction: Mobile phones (MP) and other electronic and communication devices that are used daily expose users to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and contribute to an increasing incidence of neurological disorders. Brain tissue is the closest organ to the MP as it operates, thus the influence of MP radiation on brain tissue is of particular concern, although research is still inconclusive. The present study investigated the possible effect of an EMF (1,350-1,375 megahertz (MHz)) from an MP on morphological and histopathological profiles in the mouse brain.

Material and methods: Healthy BALB/c mice were assigned to three equal groups (a control and two experimental groups, n = 10 each). Experimental mice were exposed to EMFs continuously for 72 h, those of experimental group I to a 1,350 MHz field at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.0 W/kg, and group II to a 1,375 MHz field EMF at an SAR of 4.0 W/kg. Brain segmentation and histopathological analysis were applied to detect changes in the morphometric parameters of the brain lobes and identify pathological lesions, respectively.

Results: Histopathology results revealed shrinkage of pyramidal neurons, presence of mild perivascular and perineural oedema, and some vacuolation of neurons and glial cells derived from mouse great hemispheres. The lesions also included reduction of Purkinje cells, vacuolisation of neurons and glial cells, and interstitial oedema in the cerebellum.

Conclusion: MP distance of 3 cm from the cage may induce appreciable morphological changes in mouse brain structures; therefore, more comprehensive research is essential for assessment of safe distance. These pronounced effects may interfere with the results of laboratory tests on murine experimental models in veterinary or biomedical research.



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Investigating the impact of mobile range electromagnetic radiation on the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat during working memory

Tafakori S, Farrokhi A, Shalchyan V, Daliri MR. Investigating the impact of mobile range electromagnetic radiation on the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat during working memory.  Behavioural Brain Research. Available online 24 May 2020, 112703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112703.

Highlights

• Investigating the effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on local field potential signal.
• Monitoring the effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on working memory of the rat.
• Evaluating the impact of mobile phone range exposure on medial prefrontal cortex of the rat.
• Radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation may lead to temporary abnormal brain functioning.
• Theta band of medial prefrontal cortex during working memory affected by mobile phone range radiation.

Abstract

Research has been focused on the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from a mobile phone on general health, especially the nervous system.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of RF-EMR on the brain mechanism of rats by recording local field potentials (LFPs) signals during working memory (WM) task.

Subjects were exposed to 900 MHz from a dipole antenna daily for three hours. Exposure was applied, first on a short term base (1 week) and then on a long term base (4 weeks). Behavioral parameters were measured weekly while rats performed T-maze tasks in two types of normal and delayed. LFPs signals were simultaneously recorded by implanted microelectrode arrays on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats.

Results showed a significant increase (*p < 0.05) in the task completion time of exposed rats which vanished shortly after the end of short term RF-EMR exposure. Before exposure, during correctly performed delayed tasks, an increase (peak) in power changes of theta band (4-12 Hz) was observed. But during correctly performed normal tasks, an increase appeared only by applying RF-EMR exposure. The similarity in power changes pattern of theta band in both types of tasks was observed after long term exposure. Classification accuracy of LFPs in truly done normal and delayed tasks was compared in pre and post-exposure states. Initial classification accuracy was 84.2% which decreased significantly (*P < 0.05) after exposure.

These observations indicated that RF-EMR may cause unusual brain functioning which is temporary at least for short term exposure.


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Neuroprotective Efficacy of Luteolin on a 900-MHz Electromagnetic Field-Induced Cerebellar Alteration in Adult Male Rat

Ahmad Yahyazadeh, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak. Neuroprotective Efficacy of Luteolin on a 900-MHz Electromagnetic Field-Induced Cerebellar Alteration in Adult Male Rat. Brain Res. 2020 May 30;146919. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2020.146919.

Abstract

The adverse health consequences of exposure to electromagnetic field emitted from cell phone has recently raised public concerns worldwide. Also, the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standard that operates in 900 MHz frequency is the most popular. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the adverse effect of exposure to 900 MHz EMF (1 h/day) on the cerebella of 12-week-old rats. We also evaluated the protective activity of luteolin (20 μg/kg/day) against possible biological change in the cerebellar tissues exposed to EMF. Twenty-four male wistar albino rats were randomly assigned into four group of six rats: Control, EMF, EMF+luteolin, luteolin. Serological and biochemical analyses, as well as histopathological examination were performed on all cerebellar samples. We found that SOD (superoxide dismutase) level was significantly increased in the EMF group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). To the contrary, decreased SOD activity was detected in the EMF+luteolin group compared to control group (p < 0.05). The total number of Purkinje and granular cells was significantly decreased in the EMF group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In the EMF+luteolin group, the total number of Purkinje and granular cells was significantly higher than the EMF group (p < 0.05). Histopathological evaluation also showed destructive damage to the architectures of cerebellar tissues. Our results suggest that exposure to EMF may cause cellular damage to the rat cerebellum. Further, the improvement of cerebellar damage may have resulted from antioxidant efficacy of luteolin by alleviating oxidative stress.


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Decreased Level of Plasma nesfatin-1 in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation Is Correlated With Thyroid Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis

Noha I Hussien, Ayman M Mousa, Abeer A Shoman. Decreased Level of Plasma nesfatin-1 in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation Is Correlated With Thyroid Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis Arch Physiol Biochem. 2020 Jun 17;1-7. doi: 10.1080/13813455.2020.1778037.

Abstract

Context: Exposure to Electomagnetic radiation fields of cell phones causes thyroid dysfunction and a previous study revealed that nesfatin-1 may affect functions of the thyroid gland.

Objective: To study the role of nesfatin-1 on functions of rat's thyroid gland exposed to EMRF.

Materials and methods: Thirty adult male rats were divided equally into 3 groups as group I, group II and group III. The experiment extended for 30 days then the plasma nesfatin-1 level, thyroid functions, and thyroid tissue oxidative stress were assessed. Also; histological and immunohistochemical study studies were done to evaluate structural and apoptotic changes of the thyroid gland.

Results: There was a significant decrease in plasma nesfatin-1 level and thyroid functions with an increase in oxidative stress and apoptosis. Interestingly, there was a correlation between nesfatin-1 level and markers of thyroid function, oxidative stress and apoptosis.

Conclusion: Nesfatin-1 plays a role in thyroid dysfunctions of rats exposed to mobile phone radiation.


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Machine Learning-Based Identification of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation (RF-EMR) Effect on Brain Morphology: A Preliminary Study

Ritesh Maurya , Neha Singh , Tanu Jindal, Vinay Kumar Pathak , Malay Kishore Dutta. Machine Learning-Based Identification of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation (RF-EMR) Effect on Brain Morphology: A Preliminary Study. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2020 Jun 1. doi: 10.1007/s11517-020-02198-6.

Abstract

The brain of a human and other organisms is affected by the electromagnetic field (EMF) radiations, emanating from the cell phones and mobile towers. Prolonged exposure to EMF radiations may cause neurological changes in the brain, which in turn may bring chemical as well as morphological changes in the brain. Conventionally, the identification of EMF radiation effect on the brain is performed using cellular-level analysis. In the present work, an automatic image processing-based approach is used where geometric features extracted from the segmented brain region has been analyzed for identifying the effect of EMF radiation on the morphology of a brain, using drosophila as a specimen. Genetic algorithm-based evolutionary feature selection algorithm has been used to select an optimal set of geometrical features, which, when fed to the machine learning classifiers, result in their optimal performance. The best classification accuracy has been obtained with the neural network with an optimally selected subset of geometrical features. A statistical test has also been performed to prove that the increase in the performance of classifier post-feature selection is statistically significant. This machine learning-based study indicates that there exists discrimination between the microscopic brain images of the EMF-exposed drosophila and non-exposed drosophila. Graphical abstract Proposed Methodology for identification of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) effect on the morphology of brain of Drosophila.


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Repeated exposure to nanosecond high power pulsed microwaves increases cancer incidence in rat


René de Seze, Carole Poutriquet, Christelle Gamez, Emmanuelle Maillot-Maréchal, Franck Robidel, Anthony Lecomte, Caroline Fonta. Repeated exposure to nanosecond high power pulsed microwaves increases cancer incidence in rat. PLOS One. 2020; 15(4): e0226858. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226858

Abstract

High-power microwaves are used to inhibit electronics of threatening military or civilian vehicles. This work aims to assess health hazards of high-power microwaves and helps to define hazard threshold levels of modulated radiofrequency exposures such as those emitted by the first generations of mobile phones. Rats were exposed to the highest possible field levels, under single acute or repetitive exposures for eight weeks. Intense microwave electric fields at 1 MV m-1 of nanoseconds duration were applied from two sources at different carrier frequencies of 10 and 3.7 GHz. The repetition rate was 100 pps, and the duration of train pulses lasted from 10 s to twice 8 min. The effects on the central nervous system were evaluated, by labelling brain inflammation marker GFAP and by performing different behavioural tests: rotarod, T-maze, beam-walking, open-field, and avoidance test. Long-time survival was measured in animals repeatedly exposed, and anatomopathological analysis was performed on animals sacrificed at two years of life or earlier in case of precocious death. Control groups were sham exposed. Few effects were observed on behaviour. With acute exposure, an avoidance reflex was shown at very high thermal level (22 W kg-1); GFAP was increased some days after exposure. Most importantly, with repeated exposures, survival time was 4-months shorter in the exposed group, with eleven animals exhibiting a large sub-cutaneous tumour, compared to two in the sham group. A residual X-ray exposure was also present in the beam (0.8 Gy), which is probably not a bias for the observed result. High power microwaves below thermal level in average, can increase cancer prevalence and decrease survival time in rats, without clear effects on behaviour. The parameters of this effect need to be further explored, and a more precise dosimetry to be performed.

Open access paper: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226858


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Revisiting 35 and 94 GHZ Millimeter Wave Exposure to the Non-human Primate Eye

James E Parker, Charles W Beason, Stephen P Sturgeon, William B Voorhees, Samuel S Johnson, Kaitlin S Nelson, Leland R Johnson, Jeffrey N Whitmore. Revisiting 35 and 94 GHZ Millimeter Wave Exposure to the Non-human Primate Eye. Health Phys. 2020 Jun 3. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001216.

Abstract

A previous study reported thermal effects resulting from millimeter wave exposures at 35 and 94 GHz on non-human primates, specifically rhesus monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) corneas, but the data exhibited large variations in the observed temperatures and uncertainties in the millimeter wave dosimetry. By incorporating improvements in models and dosimetry, a non-human primate experiment was conducted involving corneal exposures that agreed well with a three-layer, one-dimensional, thermodynamic model to predict the expected surface temperature rise. The new data indicated that the originally reported safety margins for eye exposures were underestimated by 41 ± 20% over the power densities explored. As a result, the expected minimal visible lesion thresholds should be raised to 10.6 ± 1.5 and 7.1 ± 1.0 J cm at 35 and 94 GHz, respectively, provided that the power density is less than 6 W cm for subjects that are unable to blink. If the blink reflex was active, a power density threshold of 20 W cm could be used to protect the eye, although the eyelid could be burned if the exposure was long enough.



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Safety Assessment of Electromagnetic Exposure in High-Speed Train Carriage With Full Passengers

Rui Tian, Mai Lu. Safety Assessment of Electromagnetic Exposure in High-Speed Train Carriage With Full Passengers. Ann Work Expo Health. 2020 Jun 2;wxaa048. doi: 10.1093/annweh/wxaa048.

Abstract

The objective of this work is to evaluate the safety of the electromagnetic environment in the carriage of high-speed trains exposed to power cables when the train is full of passengers. The electromagnetic model of a real carriage, two sets of power cables and the 84 passengers were set up by using COMSOL Multiphysics software based on CRH5. The distributions of induced electric and magnetic fields in the carriage, inside and on the surface of passengers were investigated. The results show that the induced electric and magnetic fields on the windows are greater than on the passengers and the max value of induced magnetic field is 2627.10 µT, and the max value of induced electric field is 2.0 × 105 mV m-1. The maximum values of the induced electric and magnetic fields in 84 passengers' brain tissues were obtained, and it was found that the maximum values occurred in the third row passengers. The distribution of induced electric and magnetic fields at the cross-section of passengers' heads in the third row was also obtained, and we found that the passengers at the window side were greater than those of aisle passengers. In the third row, the maximum values of the induced electric and magnetic fields in the head of two passengers near the window were 94.6 mV m-1, 90.9 µT, 96.3 mV m-1, and 90.4 µT, respectively. We also found the all data were below the ICNIRP Reference Levels, which indicates the electromagnetic exposure caused by power cables when the train is full of passengers will not threat passengers' health.


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Circadian Potency Spectrum with Extended Exposure to Polychromatic White LED Light under Workplace Conditions

Martin Moore-Ede, Anneke Heitmann, Rainer Guttkuhn. J Biological Rhythms.  Circadian Potency Spectrum with Extended Exposure to Polychromatic White LED Light under Workplace Conditions. June 16, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0748730420923164

Abstract

Electric light has enabled humans to conquer the night, but light exposure at night can disrupt the circadian timing system and is associated with a diverse range of health disorders. To provide adequate lighting for visual tasks without disrupting the human circadian timing system, a precise definition of circadian spectral sensitivity is required. Prior attempts to define the circadian spectral sensitivity curve have used short (≤90-min) monochromatic light exposures in dark-adapted human subjects or in vitro dark-adapted isolated retina or melanopsin. Several lines of evidence suggest that these dark-adapted circadian spectral sensitivity curves, in addition to 430- to 499-nm (blue) wavelength sensitivity, may include transient 400- to 429-nm (violet) and 500- to 560-nm (green) components mediated by cone- and rod-originated extrinsic inputs to intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which decay over the first 2 h of extended light exposure. To test the hypothesis that the human circadian spectral sensitivity in light-adapted conditions may have a narrower, predominantly blue, sensitivity, we used 12-h continuous exposures of light-adapted healthy human subjects to 6 polychromatic white light-emitting diode (LED) light sources with diverse spectral power distributions at recommended workplace levels of illumination (540 lux) to determine their effect on the area under curve of the overnight (2000–0800 h) salivary melatonin. We derived a narrow steady-state human Circadian Potency spectral sensitivity curve with a peak at 477 nm and a full-width half-maximum of 438 to 493 nm. This light-adapted Circadian Potency spectral sensitivity permits the development of spectrally engineered LED light sources to minimize circadian disruption and address the health risks of light exposure at night in our 24/7 society, by alternating between daytime circadian stimulatory white light spectra and nocturnal circadian protective white light spectra.


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Propagation of THz Irradiation Energy Through Aqueous Layers: Demolition of Actin Filaments in Living Cells

Shota Yamazaki, Masahiko Harata, Yuya Ueno, Masaaki Tsubouchi, Keiji Konagaya, Yuichi Ogawa, Goro Isoyama, Chiko Otani, Hiromichi Hoshina. Propagation of THz Irradiation Energy Through Aqueous Layers: Demolition of Actin Filaments in Living Cells. Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 2;10(1):9008. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-65955-5.

Abstract

The effect of terahertz (THz) radiation on deep tissues of human body has been considered negligible due to strong absorption by water molecules. However, we observed that the energy of THz pulses transmits a millimeter thick in the aqueous solution, possibly as a shockwave, and demolishes actin filaments. Collapse of actin filament induced by THz irradiation was also observed in the living cells under an aqueous medium. We also confirmed that the viability of the cell was not affected under the exposure of THz pulses. The potential of THz waves as an invasive method to alter protein structure in the living cells is demonstrated.



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Insights in the Biology of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields Exposure on Human Health

Abbas Karimi, Farzaneh Ghadiri Moghaddam, Masoumeh Valipour. Insights in the Biology of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields Exposure on Human Health. Mol Biol Rep. 2020 Jun 8. doi: 10.1007/s11033-020-05563-8.

Abstract

The extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-EMF) are generated by electrical devices and power systems (1 to 300 Hz). In recent decades, exposure to ELF-EMF has emerged potential concerns on public health. Here, we discuss recent progress in the understanding of ELF-EMF biology with a focus on mechanisms of ELF-EMF-mediated disease and summarize the results of more recent experimental and epidemiological studies of ELF-EMF exposure effects on cancer, neurological, cardiovascular, and reproductive disorders. Current views on genomic instability effects, as well as scientific evidence about ELF-EMF therapy, are put forth. According to our literature review, exposure to ELF-EMF has an adverse biological effect depending on the current intensity, strength of the magnetic field, and duration of exposure. Accumulated epidemiologic evidence indicates a correlation between exposure to ELF-EMF and childhood cancer incidence, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and miscarriage. However, adult cancer does not show augmented risk caused by the ELF-EMF. Also, no consistent evidence exists in cardiovascular disease mortality due to ELF-EMF exposure. There is a lack of comprehensive mechanisms for explaining the biological effect of ELF-EMF. Eventually, more studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of these magnetic fields.


Conclusion

This review suggest that exposure to ELF-EMF has an adverse biological effect, which depends on the current intensity, strength of the magnetic field, and duration of exposure. Accumulated epidemiologic evidence indicates a correlation between exposure to ELF-EMF and childhood cancer incidence, AD, and miscarriage. However, adult cancer does not show augmented risk caused by the ELF-EMF. Besides, no consistent evidence exists on the mortality of cardiovascular disease due to ELF-EMF exposure. Additional epidemiological studies in large study populations with improved exposure assessments are needed to clarify current inconclusive relationships. The in vivo and in vitro evidence confirms the association between DNA strands breaks and exposure to ELF-EMF. On the other hand, some studies show the therapeutic effect of these fields. There is a lack of a comprehensive mechanism for explaining the biological effect of ELF-EMF on human health. Eventually, more studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of these magnetic fields.


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Biological and Health-Related Effects of Weak Static Magnetic Fields (≤ 1 mT) in Humans and Vertebrates: A Systematic Review

Sarah Driessen, Lambert Bodewein, Dagmar Dechent, David Graefrath, Kristina Schmiedchen, Dominik Stunder, Thomas Kraus, Anne-Kathrin Petri. Biological and Health-Related Effects of Weak Static Magnetic Fields (≤ 1 mT) in Humans and Vertebrates: A Systematic Review. PLoS One. 2020 Jun 9;15(6):e0230038. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.

Abstract

Background: There is a rapid development in technologies that generate weak static magnetic fields (SMF) including high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines, systems operating with batteries, such as electric cars, and devices using permanent magnets. However, few reviews on the effects of such fields on biological systems have been prepared and none of these evaluations have had a particular focus on weak SMF (≤ 1 mT). The aim of this review was to systematically analyze and evaluate possible effects of weak SMF (≤ 1 mT) on biological functioning and to provide an update on the current state of research.

Methods: This review was prepared in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Methodological limitations in individual studies were assessed using the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) Risk-of-Bias Rating Tool.

Results: Eleven studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. All included studies were experimental animal studies as no human studies were among the eligible articles. Eight of the eleven studies reported responses of rat, rabbits and quails to weak SMF exposure that were expressed as altered melatonin biosynthesis, reduced locomotor activity, altered vasomotion and blood pressure, transient changes in blood pressure-related biochemical parameters, or in the level of neurotransmitters and increases in enzyme activities. It remained largely unclear from the interpretation of the results whether the reported effects in the evaluated studies were beneficial or detrimental for health.

Conclusion: The available evidence from the literature reviewed is not sufficient to draw a conclusion for biological and health-related effects of exposure to weak SMF. There was a lack of homogeneity regarding the exposed biological systems and the examined endpoints as well as a lack of scientific rigor in most reviewed studies which lowered credibility in the reported results. We therefore encourage further and more systematic research in this area. Any new studies should particularly address effects of exposure to SMF on biological functioning in humans to evaluate whether SMF pose a risk to human health.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests existed during the conduct of the study. However, during the revision of the document, DS has become an employee of Amprion GmbH, a German grid operator.

Open access paper: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230038


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Inter-individual Variations in Electric Fields Induced in the Brain by Exposure to Uniform Magnetic Fields at 50 Hz

Marco Soldati, Takenobu Murakami, Ilkka Laakso. Inter-individual Variations in Electric Fields Induced in the Brain by Exposure to Uniform Magnetic Fields at 50 Hz. Phys Med Biol. 2020 Jul 2. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/aba21e.

Abstract



The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard establish safety limits for human exposure to electromagnetic fields. At low frequencies, only a limited number of computational body models or simplified geometrical shapes are used to relate the internal induced electric fields and the external magnetic fields. As a consequence, both standard/guidelines derive the exposure reference levels for the external magnetic field without considering the variability between individuals. Here we provide quantitative data on the variation of the maximum electric field strengths induced in the brain of 118 individuals when exposed to uniform magnetic fields at 50 Hz. We found that individual characteristics, such as age and skull volume, as well as incident magnetic field direction, have a systematic effect on the peak electric field values. Older individuals show higher induced electric field strengths, possibly due to age-related anatomical changes in brain. Peak electric field strengths are found to increase for larger skull volumes, as well as for incident magnetic fields directed along the lateral direction. Moreover, the maximum electric fields provided by the anatomical models used by ICNIRP for deriving exposure limits are considerably higher than those obtained here. On the contrary, the IEEE elliptical exposure model produces a weaker peak electric field strength. Our findings are useful for the revision and harmonization of the current exposure standard and guidelines. The present investigation reduces the dosimetric uncertainty of the induced electric field among different anatomical induction models. The obtained results can be used as a basis for the selection of appropriate reduction factors when deriving exposure reference levels for human protection to low-frequency electromagnetic exposure.


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The Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Decreasing and Increasing of the Growth and Proliferation Rate of Dermal Fibroblast Cell


Mehran Naghibzadeh, Seifollah Gholampour, Majid Naghibzadeh, Fatemeh Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Habib Nikukar. The Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Decreasing and Increasing of the Growth and Proliferation Rate of Dermal Fibroblast Cell. Dermatol Ther. 2020 Jun 11;e13803. doi: 10.1111/dth.13803.

Abstract

Maintaining the health of dermal fibroblast cells and controlling their growth and proliferation would directly affect the health of skin tissues. The present study encompassed three control and three experimental specimens, which were different in terms of the duration of exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) and intensity. With a decrease in intensity from 2 mT to 1 mT during 24, 48, and 72 hours after exposing the cells to EMF, the frequency of the sample fibroblast cells increased by 60.3%, 144.9%, and 90.1%, respectively. With an increase in intensity from 3 mT to 4 mT during 48 and 72 hours of exposure to EMF, the frequencies of the sample fibroblast cells decreased by 6.8% and 86.7%, respectively. It seems to be possible to achieve the most desirable condition to help the restoration of wounds and skin lesions through decreasing the exposure intensity from 2 mT to 0.5 mT and increasing EMF exposure time from 24 hours to 72 hours simultaneously and non-invasively. The most desirable approach to improve the treatment of skin cancers non-invasively is to increase the intensity from 3 mT to 5 mT and to enhance EMF exposure time from 48 to 72 hours.


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Effects of Moderate Static Magnetic Field on Neural Systems Is a Non-invasive Mechanical Stimulation of the Brain Possible Theoretically?


Antonio Hernando, Fernando Galvez, Miguel A García, Vanesa Soto-León, Carlos Alonso-Bonilla, Juan Aguilar, Antonio Oliviero. Effects of Moderate Static Magnetic Field on Neural Systems Is a Non-invasive Mechanical Stimulation of the Brain Possible Theoretically? Front Neurosci. 2020 May 19;14:419. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2020.00419.

Abstract

Static magnetic fields have been shown to induce effects on the human brain. Different experiments seem to support the idea that moderate static magnetic field can exert some influence on the gating processes of the membrane channels. In this article we visit the order of magnitude of the energy magnetic terms associated with moderate applied field (between 10 and 200 milliteslas). It is shown that gradients of the Zeeman energy associated with the inhomogeneous applied fields can induce pressures of the order of 10-2Pa. The surface tension generated by the magnetic pressure, on the surface delimiting the brain region subject to relevant field and gradients, is found to range between 10-1 and 1 mN⋅m-1. These pressures seem to be strong enough to interfere with the elastic and electrostatic energies involved in the channel activation-inactivation-deactivation mechanisms of biological membranes. It has been described that small mechanical force can activate voltage gated potassium channels. Moreover, stretch-activated ion channels are widely described in different biological tissues. Virtually, all these channels can modify their activity if stressed by a sufficient pressure delivered for enough time. We propose mechanical stimulation - possibly not exclusively - as a candidate mechanism how static magnetic field can produce effects in biological systems. It must be emphasized, that such field gradients were not previously proposed as a possible source of neural activity modification.


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Electric Field-Induced Changes in Biomechanical Properties in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and a Human Skin Equivalent


Se Jik Han, Donggerami Moon, Moon Young Park, Sangwoo Kwon, Minjoo Noh, Jihui Jang, Jun Bae Lee , Kyung Sook Kim. Electric Field-Induced Changes in Biomechanical Properties in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and a Human Skin Equivalent. Skin Res Technol. 2020 Jun 28. doi: 10.1111/srt.12894.

Abstract

Purpose: An electric field (EF) can be used to change the mechanical properties of cells and skin tissues. We demonstrate EF-induced elasticity changes in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and a human skin equivalent and identify the underlying principles related to the changes.

Methods: HDFs and human skin equivalent were stimulated with electric fields of 1.0 V/cm. Change in cellular elasticity was determined by using atomic force microscopy. Effects of EF on the biomechanical and chemical properties of a human skin equivalent were analyzed. In cells and tissues, the effects of EF on biomarkers of cellular elasticity were investigated at the gene and protein levels.

Results: In HDFs, the cellular elasticity was increased and the expression of biomarkers of cellular elasticity was regulated by the EF. Expression of the collagen protein in the human skin equivalent was changed by EF stimulation; however, changes in density and microstructure of the collagen fibrils were not significant. The viscoelasticity of the human skin equivalent increased in response to EF stimulation, but molecular changes were not observed in collagen.

Conclusions: Elasticity of cells and human skin equivalent can be regulated by electrical stimulation. Especially, the change in cellular elasticity was dependent on cell age.



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Magnetic Alignment Enhances Homing Efficiency of Hunting Dogs

Kateřina Benediktová, Jana Adámková, Jan Svoboda, Michael Scott Painter, Luděk Bartoš, Petra Nováková, Lucie Vynikalová, Vlastimil Hart, John Phillips, Hynek Burda. Magnetic Alignment Enhances Homing Efficiency of Hunting Dogs. Elife. 2020 Jun 16;9:e55080. doi: 10.7554/eLife.55080.

Abstract

Despite anecdotal reports of the astonishing homing abilities in dogs, their homing strategies are not fully understood. We equipped 27 hunting dogs with GPS collars and action cams, let them freely roam in forested areas, and analyzed components of homing in over 600 trials. When returning to the owner (homewards), dogs either followed their outbound track ('tracking') or used a novel route ('scouting'). The inbound track during scouting started mostly with a short (about 20 m) run along the north-south geomagnetic axis, irrespective of the actual direction homewards. Performing such a 'compass run' significantly increased homing efficiency. We propose that this run is instrumental for bringing the mental map into register with the magnetic compass and to establish the heading of the animal.