Among mobile phone users, there was a significantly positive dose-response relationship of length of mobile phone use (≤1, 2-4, 5-8, and >8 years) with incident overall cancer in both men (P for trend <0.001) and women (P for trend =0.025), incident NMSC in both men (P for trend <0.001) and women (P for trend =0.004), and prostate cancer (P for trend <0.001) in men (Table 2), but not with urinary tract cancer in men and vulva cancer in women (Table 2). There was only a slight difference in follow-up time among different groups of length of mobile phone use (all differences < 0.5 year; Supplemental Table 9), so the groups classified by length of mobile phone use based on baseline assessments should not have changed substantially during follow-up. In addition, treating length of mobile phone use as a time-dependent variable did not significantly change the results (Supplemental Table 10)....
Objectives To investigate the association between mobile phone exposure and semen parameters.
Design A nationwide cross-sectional study.
Setting Andrology laboratories in close proximity to 6 army recruitment centers.
Patients In total, 2886 men from the general Swiss population, 18–22 years old, were recruited between 2005 and 2018 during military conscription.
Intervention Participants delivered a semen sample and completed a questionnaire on health and lifestyle, including the number of hours they spent using their mobile phones and where they placed them when not in use.
Main Outcome Measures Using logistic and multiple linear regression models, adjusted odds ratios and β coefficients were determined, respectively. The association between mobile phone exposure and semen parameters such as volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count (TSC), motility, and morphology was then evaluated.
Results A total of 2759 men answered the question concerning their mobile phone use, and 2764 gave details on the position of their mobile phone when not in use. In the adjusted linear model, a higher frequency of mobile phone use (>20 times per day) was associated with a lower sperm concentration (adjusted β: −0.152; 95% confidence interval: −0.316; 0.011) and a lower TSC (adjusted β: −0.271; 95% confidence interval: −0.515; −0.027). In the adjusted logistic regression model, this translates to a 30% and 21% increased risk for sperm concentration and TSC to be below the World Health Organization reference values for fertile men, respectively. This inverse association was found to be more pronounced in the first study period (2005–2007) and gradually decreased with time (2008–2011 and 2012–2018). No consistent associations were observed between mobile phone use and sperm motility or sperm morphology. Keeping a mobile phone in the pants pocket was not found to be associated with lower semen parameters.
Conclusion This large population-based study suggests that higher mobile phone use is associated with lower sperm concentration and TSC. The observed time trend of decreasing association is in line with the transition to new technologies and the corresponding decrease in mobile phone output power. Prospective studies with improved exposure assessment are needed to confirm whether the observed associations are causal.
The lack of clear evidence for a negative association between mobile phone use and male fertility, as well as the dramatic increase in cell phone use over the past decade, underscores the need for further research in this area. From this perspective, it is important to conduct prospective observational studies with men from the general population and to accurately measure the RF-EMF exposure to the testicles and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This would allow us to examine the association between cell phone use, RF-EMF exposure, and semen quality and to better understand the mode of action of RF-EMF on the male reproductive system.
Jamal L, Yahia-Cherif L, Hugueville L, Mazet P, Lévêque P, Selmaoui B. Assessment of Electrical Brain Activity of Healthy Volunteers Exposed to 3.5 GHz of 5G Signals within Environmental Levels: A Controlled–Randomised Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023; 20(18):6793. doi: 10.3390/ijerph20186793.
Background: The risks to human health have grown over the past 10 years due to the excessive use of mobile phones.
Objectives: The study was designed to determine the harmful effects of 4G mobile phone radiation on the expression of immunogenic and vascular genes and gross, microscopic and biochemical alterations in the development of chicken embryos.
Methods: Sixty individuals in the exposure group were subjected to mobile phones with a specific absorption rate of 1.4 W/kg and a frequency of 2100 MHz positioned at a distance of 12 cm in the incubator for 60 min/night for 14 days. The histopathological examination involved hematoxylin and eosin staining, whereas cresyl violet staining was used to evaluate the condition and number of neurons in the brain. The biochemical parameters of amniotic fluid were analysed using the photometry method, and the expression of VEGF-A and immunity genes (AvBD9, IL6) was measured using the real-time PCR (qPCR) technique.
Results: Compared to the control, the exposure group's body weight and length significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Subcutaneous bleeding was seen in the exposure group. Urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were all significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). The exposed group showed pathological lesions in the liver and degenerated neurons with lightly stained nuclei in the cerebral cortex. Hyperchromatic neurons were significantly higher in the exposure group (58.8 ± 2.28) compared to the control (6.6 ± 0.44) (p < 0.05). 4G exposure reduced lymphocyte count in the caecal tonsil (86.8 ± 5.38) compared to the control (147.2 ± 9.06) (p < 0.05). Vascular gene mRNA expression was higher, but immune gene expression was lower in the exposed group.
Conclusion: Exposure to mobile phone radiation may result in gross, microscopic and biochemical changes, as well as alterations in gene expression that could hinder embryonic development.
Background: Due to children and adolescents' widespread use of electronic devices, researchers have focused on pre-and early postnatal electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. However, little is known about the effects of EMF exposure on the optic nerve. The aim of study was to investigate the changes occurring in the optic nerve and the protective effects of melatonin (mel) and omega 3 (ω-3) in rats.
Methods: Thirty-five pregnant rats were divided into seven groups, Cont, Sham, EMF, EMF + melatonin (EMF + Mel), EMF + ω3, Mel, and ω3. The EMF groups were exposed to 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF daily for two hours during pregnancy. After the experiment, the right optic nerve of each offspring rat was removed and fixed in glutaraldehyde. Thin and semi-thin sections were taken for electron microscopic and stereological analyses. Myelinated axon numbers, myelin sheath thicknesses, and axonal areas were estimated using stereological methods.
Results: The groups had no significant differences regarding mean numbers of axons, mean axonal areas, or mean myelin sheath thicknesses (p > 0.05). Histological observations revealed impaired lamellae in the myelin sheath of most axons, and vacuolization was frequently observed between the myelin sheath and axon in the EMF-exposed group. The Mel and ω-3-treated EMF groups exhibited well-preserved myelinated nerve fibers and intact astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
Conclusions: At the ultrastructural level, Mel and ω3 exhibit a neuroprotective effect on the optic nerve exposed to prenatal EMF. The protective effects of these antioxidants on oligodendrocytes, which play an essential role in myelin formation in the central nervous system, now require detailed investigation.
Over the past few decades, daily exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields has been increasing due to the rapid development of wireless and medical imaging technologies. Under extreme circumstances, exposure to very strong RF energy can lead to heating of body tissue, even resulting in tissue injury. The presence of implanted devices, moreover, can amplify RF effects on surrounding tissue. Therefore, it is important to understand the interactions of RF fields with tissue in the presence of implants, in order to establish appropriate wireless safety protocols, and also to extend the benefits of medical imaging to increasing numbers of people with implanted medical devices. This study explored the neurological effects of RF exposure in rodents implanted with neuronal recording electrodes. We exposed freely moving and anesthetized rats and mice to 950 MHz RF energy while monitoring their brain activity, temperature, and behavior. We found that RF exposure could induce fast onset firing of single neurons without heat injury. In addition, brain implants enhanced the effect of RF stimulation resulting in reversible behavioral changes. Using an optical temperature measurement system, we found greater than tenfold increase in brain temperature in the vicinity of the implant. On the one hand, our results underline the importance of careful safety assessment for brain-implanted devices, but on the other hand, we also show that metal implants may be used for neurostimulation if brain temperature can be kept within safe limits.
• RFR can damage testicular tissue.
• RFR-induced testis damage may be associated with subfertility and/or infertility.
• Paricalcitol decreased lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant enzyme levels in tissue with RFR exposure.
• Paricalcitol has a protective role in testicular tissue against the damaging effect of RFR.
In the present study, the possible protective effects of
paricalcitol (P) were investigated in testicular damage because of 1800
MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure. Male Sprague Dawley rats
8-10 weeks old (n = 28) were randomly divided into four groups as
control (C) (n = 7), RFR (n = 7, 1800 MHz RFR 1 h/day for 30 days), P (n
= 7, 0.2 μg/kg paricalcitol, 3 times a week for 30 days), and RFR + P
(n = 7, 1800 MHz RFR 1 h/day for 30 days +0.2 μg/kg paricalcitol, 3
times a week for 30 days). Testicular tissue was evaluated with
histological and biochemical methods. No statistically significant
differences were detected between the groups in seminiferous tubule
diameters and germinal epithelial thicknesses. While ultrastructural
changes were observed in the seminiferous tubule and Leydig cells in the
RFR group, these changes were decreased in the RFR + P group. It was
found that the Johnsen Score, Ki67, and p63 immunoreactivity scores
(IRS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities in the
RFR + P group were statistically increased as compared to the RFR group
and the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased statistically and
significantly. These results show that paricalcitol administration may
have an ameliorative effect on testicular damage occurring because of
1800 MHz RFR exposure.
- Ru360, a specific inhibitor of MCU, enhanced the DNA damage effect of short-time (15 min) exposure to1800 MHz RF-EMF
- ATP synthesis play a role in cellular resistance to 1800 MHz RF-EMF short-time exposure on DNA damage.
- DNA damage induced by 1800 MHz RF-EMF in Ru360 treated cells were quickly repaired within 1 h after exposure.
Oyewopo AO, Badejogbin OC, Ajadi IO et al. Panax ginseng supplementation protects against testicular damage induced by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone. Nutrire 48, 47 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1186/
Purpose It is well-documented that radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from the cell phone contributes to testicular dysfunction and subsequently predisposes individuals, especially male to infertility. Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) exerts antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects in biological systems. However, its protective role against reproductive dysfunction, including testiculopathy is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the protective effects of P. ginseng extract on testicular damage induced by RF-EMR from cell phones in male Wistar rats.
Methods Twenty adult male Wistar rats (120–150 g) were randomly divided into four groups of n = 5; Control group received vehicle (normal saline, po), P. ginseng group received 200 mg/kg of P. ginseng extract (po), RF-EMR group was exposed to 900MHz of radiation and RF-EMR + P. ginseng group was exposed to 900MHz of radiation and was concomitantly treated with 200 mg/kg of P. ginseng (po). The treatment was done daily for 56 days. The animals were sacrificed, and the biochemical/endocrine parameters and the histology of testes were evaluated.
Results There was a significant decrease in spermatogonia, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology with decrease in progressivity in RF-EMR group compared with control. Likewise, a significant decrease was observed in serum-luteinizing hormone, testosterone and glutathione peroxidase with degeneration of germ cells and Leydig cells, and a distorted interstitium in RF-EMR group compared with control. However, the administration of P. ginseng attenuated these alterations.
Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that supplementation with P. ginseng extract ameliorates testicular dysfunction associated with RF-EMR from cell phone by enhancement of antioxidant capacity.
Kalantaryan V, Martirosyan R, Babayan Y, Petrosyan V. Violation of molecular structure of intracellular water as a possible cause of carcinogenesis and its suppression by microwave radiation(hypothesis). Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal. 21:3437-3442. 2023. doi: 10.1016/j.csbj.2023.06.013.
The manuscript discusses a possible hypothesis about the transformation of healthy cells into cancer cells as a result of modification of the molecular structure of intracellular water from normal hexagonal to abnormal cubic phase (which may be caused by radiation, chemical, viral, mechanical and microbiological factors) and the possibility of returning to its original state under the influence of microwave radiation. The authors are not aware of any relevant experimental and theoretical support for this hypothesis in other literature.Our hypothesis is based on a completely unexpected experimental fact that we have received. It turned out that the radio spectra of cancer-affected tissues and the cubic phase of water are identical which confirms that these tissues really contain a cubic phase of water. It should be expected that the use of radiation of “therapeutic” frequencies may lead to regression of tumor growth. This assumption is based on another experimental fact confirming the possibility of the transition of the molecular structure of water from the cubic phase to the hexagonal phase (which is contained in healthy tissues) when irradiated with therapeutic frequencies.The conducted experiments demonstrate the real possibilities of structural-phase and spectral mutual transformations of the water medium under the influence of extremely low intensity flows of microwaves at “therapeutic” frequencies of 1000 MHz and 985 MHz or “pathologic” frequencies of 990 MHz and 51 GHz. The aim of this study was to experimentally verify a possible causal relationship between the violation of the molecular structure of intracellular water in healthy tissues and carcinogenesis.
Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/
Comprehensive analysis of genotoxic effects & antioxidative defence mechanisms in plant test system exposed to 1800 MHz EMR: a root chromosomal aberration & FTIR spectroscopy approach
Methods Twenty seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. were placed in Petri plates lined with autoclaved Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The seeds were evenly distributed and maintained at temperature 25 ± 2 °C and relative humidity 55–60%. The seeds were placed in Petri plates along with the exposure apparatus (antenna) and then enclosed within a chamber consisting of two layers of aluminium sheets. The treatment was administered every day for seven days on various parameters.
Results The investigation showed that increasing the duration of EMR exposure significantly decreased protein content and increased MDA content in seedlings. However, exposure to EMRs for 4 and 8 h per day led to increased activities of different antioxidant enzymes, including guaiacol peroxidase (POD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The study also calculated the specific absorption rate using the biological heat transfer equation, which revealed harmful effects of the radiations on the test system by interfering with biochemical processes, leading to genotoxic and oxidative stress.
Conclusion The findings suggest that electromagnetic radiations induced oxidative stress in T. foenum-graecum L. and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes as a protective mechanism against cellular damage. The study highlights the potential risks associated with EMF radiations on plant systems and underscores the importance of further research in this field.
This study presents a parametric analysis of the steady-state temperature elevation in rat skin models due to millimeter wave exposure at frequencies from 6-100 GHz. The statistical data of the thickness of skin layers, namely epidermis, dermis, dermal white adipose tissue, and panniculus carnosus, were measured for the first time using the excised tissues of real male Sprague-Dawley rats. Based on the precise structure obtained from the histological analysis of rat skin, we solve the bioheat transfer equation to investigate the effects of changes in parameters, such as body parts and thermal constants, on the absorbed power density and temperature elevation of biological tissues. Owing to the notably thin dermal white adipose tissue layer, the surface temperature elevation in the rat head and dorsal skin at 6-100 GHz is 52.6-32.3% and 83.3-58.8% of the average values of different human skin models, respectively. Our results also reveal that the surface temperature elevation of rat skin may correlate with the tissue thickness and deep blood perfusion rates.
Electromagnetic (EM) signals are widely used in electronic instruments and biomedical systems and might have affected the human bodies surrounded by them. However, the interaction mechanism of EM signals with biological structures is poorly understood. We propose a micro-fabricated low-frequency EM stimulation lab-on-chip with three-dimensional interdigital electrodes for observation of cell lines with microscope. The field strength between the electrodes at various frequencies is estimated through simulation. An electric field strength of 4.45Vrms/m is reached in the culture medium with a 10Vpp, 10 kHz input signal. According to the simulation results, the high end of the applicable frequency range of the testbench is 3 MHz. A prototype is fabricated using full-wafer microfabrication techniques. The impedance of the prototype between 20 Hz and 30 MHz is characterized. Moreover, human cell line HEK293T is cultured in the testbench for 24 h and observed using microscope to check the biocompatibility of the electrodes. The prototype is thus applicable to long-term microscopic observation of cell lines for study of EM effect on biological structures. The 24-h cell culturing experiment with and without EM stimulation with the proposed prototype shows that the cell growth is obviously affected by a 10 kHz EM signal.
• We previously showed that ELF-EMF at 10 µT induces mitochondrial hormesis.
• In AML12 and HEK293 cells, ELF-EMF markedly increased acetylation of HSP70/90 at 3 h.
• In both cells, ELF-EMF markedly increased binding of HSP70/90 to HOP/STIP1 at 3 h.
• In both cells, ELF-EMF reduced protein aggregates and enhanced cell viability at 3 h.
• In both cells, ELF-EMF reduced mitochondria mass and elevated maximal oxygen consumption at 3 h.
- ICNIRP guidelines are an inadequate basis for EU policy
- Evidence of harm from wireless EMF provided to EU
- Complex real-world exposures not addressed by ICNIRP
- 5G science consistent with previous wireless EMF science, warning the EU of harm
- Conflicts of interests in ICNIRP and SCENIHR
- SCHEER is misleading EU
- EU is condoning an unethical mass experiment
- Safe, energy efficient alternatives exist
- Smart utility meters need to be wired
- EU Green Deal compromised by wireless deployment
- Fundamental rights, new policy needed
- Towards a health protective and energy saving EU policy
- Concluding remarks
Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field (RF-EMF) exposure on pregnancy and birth outcomes: A systematic review of experimental studies on non-human mammals
Background The World Health Organization is coordinating an international project aimed at systematically reviewing the evidence regarding the association between radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure and adverse health effects. Within the project, 6 topics have been prioritized by an expert group, which include reproductive health outcomes.
Objectives According to the protocol published in 2021, a systematic review and meta-analyses on the adverse effects of RF-EMF exposure during pregnancy in offspring of experimental animals were conducted.
Methods Three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus and EMF Portal) were last searched on September 8 or 17, 2022. Based on predefined selection criteria, the obtained references were screened by two independent reviewers.
Figure 2 shows the flow diagram from the initially retrieved references to the finally included papers, as per the PRISMA 2020 template (Page et al., 2021). After exclusion of duplicate records and of papers deemed not eligible based on title/abstract, a total of 236 papers remained for full-text assessment; we could not retrieve 11 papers and were unable to translate 10 papers. Of the remaining 215 papers, we excluded 127 after reading the full text. Therefore, the systematic review is based on a total of 88 papers.
Implications for policy and researchThis systematic review of animal studies shows that RF-EMF exposure does not affect fecundity and likely has only a small effect on fetal weight decrease. However, some studies retrieved by the literature search that showed a detrimental effect on the incidence of dead/resorbed fetuses or the increase of malformations at high exposure levels, largely exceeding the current human exposure limits, cannot be discounted. These studies confirm what is known about the harmful effect of heating on fetuses, but they leave largely uncertain the possibility of RF-EMF effects at lower exposure levels, closer to relevant human exposure levels. Currently, it remains difficult to determine the exposure levels at which RF-EMF can start to affect fecundity or offspring health at birth. The whole body average SAR values in the included experiments are well above the recommended human exposure limit values for the general public set by international bodies (ICNIRP 2020). Actual SAR values experienced by the public in the general environment are below, and in most cases, well below, the recommended human exposure limit values. The dose effect meta-analyses contributed to support the results of the meta-analysis but were not supposed to define the shape of the dose-effect relationship or find a minimum exposure level at which a clear effect could be discerned.
For two endpoints planned in the protocol, namely ano-genital distance at birth and early-onset cancer no studies were retrieved. Ano-genital distance is a well-known developmental biomarker associated with impairment of the reproductive system and exposure to environmental carcinogens during pregnancy have been linked with development of childhood cancer (Botsivali and Kyrtopoulos, 2019). Hopefully, future research will shed light on the impact of RF-EMF exposure on these outcomes.
As a whole, the possible impact of in utero RF-EMF exposure remains uncertain due to the severe limitations of some of the studies. In particular, during the systematic review, we identified several methodological limitations in the studies that should be overcome in future studies to improve the quality of the research. Blinding during experiment performance and outcome assessment should always be applied to minimize bias. More adherence to OECD Test Guideline 414 “Prenatal Developmental Toxicity study” and 426 “Developmental Neurotoxicity Study” is recommended together with a more standardized approach for reporting results. A large proportion of included studies was rated at either “some” or “high concern” for RoB for exposure characterisation or temperature rise assessment and some others had to be excluded from the systematic review because they did not reach a minimum quality standard for these aspects. We would recommend that future studies bear the reasons for exclusion or RoB concerns in mind in study design and implementation. There are several papers in the research literature with recommendations on how exposure characterisation concerns can be mitigated, for example Kuster and Schönborn (2000). Finally, studies investigating not just a single level but several exposure levels, spanning from low levels comparable to human exposure to higher levels where mild hyperthermic effects could be expected, should be conducted under the same experimental conditions.
In spite of the large number of studies collected, our systematic review could only partly answer the PECO question and did not provide conclusions certain enough to inform decisions at a regulatory level, but it can be considered a solid starting point to direct future research on this topic.
Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/