There is a plethora of both experimental and epidemiological evidence establishing a causal relationship between EMF and cancer and other adverse health effects including adverse effects on fetal development and the endocrine system. Increases in biochemical alterations such as DNA damage, increased production of free radicals and other signals found to be predictive of cancer and other degenerative diseases have been clearly demonstrated. While the evidence is not consistent, the reasons for that inconsistency merit independent review and assessment. A number of industry-affiliated scientists have offered criticisms that are subject to bias, as we have outlined here. If progress is to be made in improving the public understanding of this complicated issue, it is imperative to insist on a complete picture of the evidence that relies on independent science.
While we may disagree strongly with the conclusions some critics have provided, we concur wholeheartedly that there is a need for a serious concerted program of research. No such program exists with support from National governments in the United States and Canada. The job of the government is to ensure the protection of Public Health. We earnestly hope that as the situation evolves, those in positions to create the training and funding for major interdisciplinary research programs in engineering, medicine, toxicology, and bioelectromagnetics will do so. In the meantime, we add our voices to those of more than four hundred experts in the field calling for discussion of a moratorium on 5G. Without such a program we are effectively conducting an uncontrolled experiment on ourselves, our families, and our children.
Indeed, the subject of RFR and carcinogenicity remains truly complex. Studies have to simulate intricate exposures that are taking place every day to billions of people around the world. Given the ubiquity of the technology, as we move ahead it will not be possible to find an unexposed control group in the modern world. The inarguable intricacy of the technology can easily become a way of confusing rather than clarifying the matter. The subject of the impact of RFR on human health is one of the most important topics of our age. It is one in which the general public seeks clear answers to a collective, but poorly defined angst. It is the job of experts to present the state of knowledge in clear and concise language that the layman can understand. The numerous omissions and distortions in recent articles originating from the industry perspective do not meet this criteria. The medical and public health communities deserve the whole story, no matter how complicated or unpalatable it may be. There is an abundance of evidence pointed towards deleterious effects of RFR exposure on human health. Further, the growing applications of low levels of RF in medicine through electroceuticals constitutes evidence per se of biological impacts (Mishra, 2017). Any agent that can be beneficial, whether aspirin or oncology drugs, can also have negative impacts. Consequently, it is imperative to insist on a complete picture of the evidence and not the whitewashed or distorted version currently promoted. The need to take into account the complete weight of the evidence in devising regulatory policies is widely ignored to our detriment. It is time that the Precautionary Principle be applied to RFR.
Kaplan S, Davis DL, Steinbusch HWM. Special issue editorial: In vivo experimental studies of prenatal and neonatal exposures to EMF provide grounds for epidemiological surveillance and precaution. J Chem Neuroanat. 2023 Feb 1;129:102238. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2023.102238
The widespread use of wireless communication tools such as mobile phones and their effects on human health requires serious investigation. Since cell phones are employed in close proximity to the brain and body, the impact of exposure to different frequencies of EMF on the central nervous system also requires careful evaluation. This special issue provides an in-depth look at the effects of different frequencies of EMF emitted from mobile phones on the brain. The findings can be regarded as preliminary indications of a wide range of potential neurological problems that may be expected to increase in the near future, extending from behavioral issues to autism and other more serious neuronal disturbances.
We hope that this special issue, which covers the effects of EMF exposure on the nervous system and neurodevelopmental processes, will encourage researchers to conduct epidemiological studies on human subjects. In the meantime, we concur with those researchers that conclude that current experimental evidence provides grounds for reducing human exposures to wireless radiation, especially for the young, pregnant woman and men who wish to father healthy children.
Nilsson M, Hardell L. Development of the Microwave Syndrome in Two Men Shortly after Installation of 5G on the Roof above their Office. Ann Clin Case Rep. 2023; 8: 2378.
The 5th generation, 5G, for wireless communication is rolled out without previous studies on potential effects on human health and the environment. In this case study we describe two men, case 1 and case 2, working in three office rooms close to base stations. After the deployment of 5G, both men developed symptoms typical for the microwave syndrome, e.g., headache, tinnitus, dizziness, balance disorder, concentration and attention deficiency, and fatigue. Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) after the 5G deployment was measured in the three offices. In office one maximum (peak) RFR during one minute varied from 463 to 1,180,000 μW/m2, in office two from 6,230 to 501,000 and in office three from 13,700 to 613,000 μW/m2. The symptoms disappeared in both men within a couple of weeks (case 1) or immediately (case 2) after leaving the office for other offices with much lower maximum peak RFR emissions, maximum for case 1 =16 and for case 2 =2,920 μW/m2. This case report may be regarded as a provocation study on health from 5G RFR. The clinical picture in both men was clearly related to the exposure, although the exposures were well below the guidelines recommended by ICNIRP that are claimed to protect against all health effects. We conclude that the guidelines for RFR exposure based only on tissue heating by ICNIRP are inadequate to protect human health and that 5G appears to provoke symptoms of microwave syndrome in previously healthy people.
Fellan A, Schotten HD. Overview of the Evaluation Methods for the Maximum EMF Exposure in 5G Networks. 2022 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking (CSCN), Thessaloniki, Greece, 2022, pp. 53-57, doi: 10.1109/CSCN57023.2022.
Sharma D, Chauhan A, Thakur S. Effect of Mobile Phone use on Hearing in Young Adults: An Observational Study. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2022 Dec;74(Suppl 3):3754-3757. doi: 10.1007/s12070-021-02523-x.
Gangwar V, Gupta S, Verma M, Singh AK, John N, Jasrotia RB, Singh A. Association of Autonomic Balance With Phone Call Duration in Healthy Individuals. Cureus. 2023 Jan 9;15(1):e33566. doi: 10.7759/cureus.33566.
Chen L, Elzanaty A, Kishk MA, Chiaraviglio L, Alouini M -S. Joint Uplink and Downlink EMF Exposure: Performance Analysis and Design Insights. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. 2023. doi: 10.1109/TWC.2023.3244155.
This paper integrated the EMF restrictions on the coverage performance and exposure analysis and formulated optimization problems on how to design the EMF-aware cellular networks. Particularly, the distribution of BSs was generated by a 13 PHP, accounting for the distance between BSs and restricted areas where the presence of BSs is prohibited. Using tools of stochastic geometry, we analyzed the radiation and coverage probability in terms of downlink and uplink. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of system parameters on the joint downlink&uplink radiation from both BSs and UE through EI. With the aid of numerical results, we showed that even the conservative evaluation of the 95-th percentile of EMF exposure level can still comply with the international guidelines, and the exposure in more typical settings is far below the maximum permissible level. It can also be seen that increasing the baseline density of BSs or decreasing the permitted distance around restricted areas can reduce the exposure from mobile equipment in uplink while exacerbating the exposure from BSs in downlink. Such opposite trend demonstrated the reasonability of taking joint downlink&uplink exposure into account when designing the system parameters for the EMF- aware cellular network. We found that there exists optimal values of the distance between restricted areas and BSs and the baseline density of BSs that minimizes the total exposure under a certain network configuration.
The article’s subject is the investigation of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of the microwave frequency band in a typical human living environment, especially in shielded areas. The point of view of electromagnetic field presence in the environment with the rapid increase in the level of the electromagnetic background is currently an essential point concerning population protection against the potential adverse effects of such EMFs. The authors focus on actual measurements, especially in shielded spaces frequently used in everyday life, such as elevator cabins and cars. The goal is a quantitative evaluation of the distribution of specific vector quantities of the EM field and a comparison with the currently valid hygiene standards. Measured values in shielded spaces show elevated levels in contrast to the open space. However, the values do not exceed limits set by considering the thermal effect on living tissues.
This article dealt with the measurements of the EM field in the microwave frequency band in shielded areas. A dipole antenna was used to perform the experiments, while a discone antenna was also used to verify the measurement results and calibrate the instruments. The assessment of the degree of possible EMF influence in the microwave band was carried out given the current legislation in force in the EU. Hygienic limits set maximum permissible EMF values, converted to given tissue parameters, but they do not include situations where EMF sources are in a shielded environment (for example, underground parking garages, garages, cellars, personal elevators, etc.). This study showed that the values are significantly elevated in the premises in question. At the same time, under certain circumstances (for example, several people talking on the phone in an elevator simultaneously, etc.) it can potentially affect the proper function of various implantable electronic devices (pacemaker, insulin pump, etc.) [13,18,21].
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1424-
Tyrakis C, Theodorou K, Kiouvrekis Y, Alexias A, Kappas C. Radiofrequency Exposure Levels in Greece. Bioelectromagnetics. 2023 Feb 14. doi: 10.1002/bem.22434.
The study addresses the effects of generalization descriptions on risk perceptions. In a 1-factorial online experiment, 629 participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Group G1 received an excerpt of an original press release from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) regarding mobile phones and cancer, classifying RF EMF as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Group G2 received an additional explanatory text module, and Group G3 received a rewritten text, with both G2 and G3 highlighting that the possible cancer risk only refers to mobile phones. Risk perceptions regarding cell phones and related personal devices, base stations, and high voltage power lines were used as dependent variables measured before and after text reading. Further, the degree to which participants generalized from cell phone-related to other RF EMF exposures was assessed to determine whether this was predictive of their post-text risk perceptions. Regarding risk perceptions, no differences between the three groups were observed after reading the presented texts. Instead, all three experimental groups indicated increased risk perceptions for all electromagnetic field sources. However, we found significant differences according to the prevailing risk generalization belief. Respondents expressing a strong risk generalization belief showed significantly higher risk perceptions for all tested EMF sources (except mobile phones) than subjects with a weak risk generalization belief.
- • The study investigated how different description formats regarding potential health effects influence risk perception.
- • Further the role of respondents' risk generalization beliefs was investigated.
- • The example of risk communication on electromagnetic fields (EMF) was used in an experimental setup.
- • The study results indicate that all description formats elevated respondents' risk perception.
- • It is also shown that a strong risk generalization belief leads to higher risk perceptions for all tested EMF sources.
Our findings point to the usefulness of Reyna's fuzzy trace theory for risk communication research (Reyna, 2021a, 2021b). This is because information does not equal knowledge. Studies analyzing effects of different information provision, such as in our study, cannot assume that the same information leads to the same knowledge and that different information leads to different knowledge. Therefore, it makes sense to consider manipulation checks that are common in psychological experiments from a theoretically perspective. Risk communication research would benefit from considering how information is interpreted and which mental representations are formed is essential when it comes to relevant risk communication.
The mental representation of given risk information, particularly the risk generalization belief, is critical for risk perception. These beliefs determine the risk perception of a group of associated exposure sources, in our case, mobile communication devices. Therefore, the risk generalization belief is a significant component of intuitive risk appraisal that should have a place in risk perception studies. Furthermore, we would like to underline that risk assessors should pay attention to indicate the scope of their risk evaluations, i.e., under which conditions and for which exposure sources they are valid. In addition, risk communicators should be aware of people's tendency towards risk generalization, and further research should explore how to correct generalization biases.
Kaur P, Rai U, Singh R. Genotoxic Risks to Male Reproductive Health from Radiofrequency Radiation. Cells. 2023; 12(4):594.
During modern era, mobile phones, televisions, microwaves, radio, and wireless devices, etc., have become an integral part of our daily lifestyle. All these technologies employ radiofrequency (RF) waves and everyone is exposed to them, since they are widespread in the environment. The increasing risk of male infertility is a growing concern to the human population. Excessive and long-term exposure to non-ionizing radiation may cause genetic health effects on the male reproductive system which could be a primitive factor to induce cancer risk. With respect to the concerned aspect, many possible RFR induced genotoxic studies have been reported; however, reports are very contradictory and showed the possible effect on humans and animals. Thus, the present review is focusing on the genomic impact of the radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) underlying the male infertility issue. In this review, both in vitro and in vivo studies have been incorporated explaining the role of RFR on the male reproductive system. It includes RFR induced-DNA damage, micronuclei formation, chromosomal aberrations, SCE generation, etc. In addition, attention has also been paid to the ROS generation after radiofrequency radiation exposure showing a rise in oxidative stress, base adduct formation, sperm head DNA damage, or cross-linking problems between DNA & protein.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-
Objective: To determine if exposure to RF-EMFs emitted by cellphones affect the risk of AD.
Material and methods: In this review, all relevant published articles reporting an association of cell phone use with AD were studied. We systematically searched international datasets to identify relevant studies. Finally, 33 studies were included in the review. Our review discusses the effects of RF-EMFs on the amyloid β (Aβ), oxidative stress, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), neuronal death, and astrocyte responses. Moreover, the role of exposure parameters, including the type of exposure, its duration, and specific absorption rate (SAR), are discussed.
Results: Progressive factors of AD such as Aβ, myelin basic protein (MBP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, and neurofilament light polypeptide (NFL) were decreased. While tau protein showed no change, factors affecting brain activity such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain temperature, and neuronal activity were increased.
Open access paper: https://jbpe.sums.ac.ir/
Geronikolou SA, Vasdekis V, Mantzou A, Davos C, Cokkinos DV, Chrousos GP. Neuroendocrine System Adaptation during Consecutive Extrinsic Stimuli: A Pilot Dynamic Study. Children (Basel). 2023 Jan 30;10(2):248. doi: 10.3390/children10020248.
Jerbic K, Svejda JT, Sievert B, Rennings A, Fröhlich J, Erni D. The Importance of Subcellular Structures to the Modeling of Biological Cells in the Context of Computational Bioelectromagnetics Simulations. Bioelectromagnetics. 2023;10.1002/bem.22436. doi:10.1002/bem.22436
Numerical investigation of the interaction of electromagnetic fields with eukaryotic cells requires specifically adapted computer models. Virtual microdosimetry, used to investigate exposure, requires volumetric cell models, which are numerically challenging. For this reason, a method is presented here to determine the current and volumetric loss densities occurring in single cells and their distinct compartments in a spatially accurate manner as a first step toward multicellular models within the microstructure of tissue layers. To achieve this, 3D models of the electromagnetic exposure of generic eukaryotic cells of different shape (i.e. spherical and ellipsoidal) and internal complexity (i.e. different organelles) are performed in a virtual, finite element method-based capacitor experiment in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 GHz. In this context, the spectral response of the current and loss distribution within the cell compartments is investigated and any effects that occur are attributed either to the dispersive material properties of these compartments or to the geometric characteristics of the cell model investigated in each case. In these investigations, the cell is represented as an anisotropic body with an internal distributed membrane system of low conductivity that mimics the endoplasmic reticulum in a simplified manner. This will be used to determine which details of the cell interior need to be modeled, how the electric field and the current density will be distributed in this region, and where the electromagnetic energy is absorbed in the microstructure regarding electromagnetic microdosimetry. Results show that for 5 G frequencies, membranes make a significant contribution to the absorption losses.
Wang H, Liu Y, Sun Y, Dong J, Xu X, Wang H, Zhao X, Zhang J, Yao B, Zhao L, Liu S, Peng R. Changes in cognitive function, synaptic structure and protein expression after long-term exposure to 2.856 and 9.375 GHz microwaves. Cell Commun Signal. 2023 Feb 13;21(1):34. doi: 10.1186/s12964-022-01011-1.
Health hazards from long-term exposure to microwaves, especially
the potential for changes in cognitive function, are attracting
increasing attention. The purpose of this study was to explore changes
in spatial learning and memory and synaptic structure and to identify
differentially expressed proteins in hippocampal and serum exosomes
after long-term exposure to 2.856 and 9.375 GHz microwaves. The spatial
reference learning and memory abilities and the structure of the DG area
were impaired after long-term exposure to 2.856 and 9.375 GHz
microwaves. We also found a decrease in SNARE-associated protein Snapin
and an increase in charged multivesicular body protein 3 in the
hippocampus, indicating that synaptic vesicle recycling was inhibited
and consistent with the large increase in presynaptic vesicles.
Moreover, we investigated changes in serum exosomes after 2.856 and
9.375 GHz microwave exposure. The results showed that long-term 2.856
GHz microwave exposure could induce a decrease in calcineurin subunit B
type 1 and cytochrome b-245 heavy chain in serum exosomes. While the
9.375 GHz long-term microwave exposure induced a decrease in proteins
(synaptophysin-like 1, ankyrin repeat and rabankyrin-5, protein
phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha and sodium-dependent phosphate
transporter 1) in serum exosomes. In summary, long-term microwave
exposure could lead to different degrees of spatial learning and memory
impairment, EEG disturbance, structural damage to the hippocampus, and
differential expression of hippocampal tissue and serum exosomes.
... There were no significant increases in rectal temperature (p = 0.1000, p = 0.128, p = 0.104) between the time points before and immediately after microwave exposure in any group, indicating that the effects of microwave radiation on the mice in this experiment were mainly nonthermal effects (Fig. 1C)....
The radiation duration in this study was based on the ICNIRP guidelines
for Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (2020 version), which
established a standard time interval of 6 min for head health threats.
Therefore, 6 min was used as a daily exposure time to explore the
effects. Moreover, to determine whether the thermal effect played a role
in the exposure period, a core temperature detection method was used in
our study according to the previous literature . The experimental results indicated that nonthermal effects were mainly involved in our study....
In summary, long-term microwave exposure (2.856 and 9.375 GHz, 6 min/d, 5 d/w, 6 w) led to different degrees of spatial learning and memory impairment, EEG disturbance, damage to hippocampal structure and differential expression of hippocampal tissue and serum exosomes. The SNARE-associated protein Snapin and charged multivesicular body protein 3 in the hippocampus could be used as sensitive markers of microwave exposure, and synaptic vesicle recycling was inhibited by long-term microwave exposure. Different proteins in serum exosomes were found after exposure to different frequency microwaves.
Open access paper: https://biosignaling.
Hao Y, Liu W, Liu Y, Liu Y, Xu Z, Ye Y, Zhou H, Deng H, Zuo H, Yang H, Li Y. Effects of Nonthermal Radiofrequency Stimulation on Neuronal Activity and Neural Circuit in Mice. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2023 Feb 8:e2205988. doi: 10.1002/advs.202205988.
Bektas H, Nalbant A, Akdag MB, Demir C, Kavak S, Dasdag S. Adverse effects of 900, 1800 and 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from mobile phones on bone and skeletal muscle. Electromagn Biol Med. 2023 Feb 16:1-9. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2023.2179065
The goal of this study was to biomechanically and morphologically research both the impact of mobile phone like radiofrequency radiations (RFR) on the tibia and the effects on skeletal muscle through oxidative stress parameters. Fifty-six rats (200-250 g) were put into groups: healthy sham (n = 7), healthy RFR (900, 1800, 2100 MHz) (n = 21), diabetic sham (n = 7) and diabetic RFR (900, 1800, 2100 MHz) (n = 21). Over a month, each group spent two hours/day in a Plexiglas carousel. The rats in the experimental group were exposed to RFR, but the sham groups were not. At the end of the experiment, the right tibia bones and skeletal muscle tissue were removed. The three-point bending test and radiological evaluations were performed on the bones, and CAT, GSH, MDA, and IMA in muscles were measured. There were differences in biomechanics properties and radiological evaluations between the groups (p < .05). In the measurements in the muscle tissues, significant differences were statistically found (p < .05). The average whole-body SAR values for GSM 900, 1800 and 2100 MHz were 0.026, 0.164, and 0.173 W/kg. RFRs emitted from mobile phone may cause adverse effects on tibia and skeletal muscle health, though further studies are needed.
The results of this study show that mobile phone-derived RFRs (900, 1800 and 2100 MHz) may cause adverse effects on tibia bone and skeletal muscle health, according to bone biomechanics and morphological analysis evaluations and determined skeletal muscle oxidative stress parameters. It was observed that some of these adverse effects intensify with the increase in the frequency of the exposed RFR. In addition, these results suggest that the effects of mobile phone-derived RFRs on bone and muscle tissue should be investigated further through both molecular and histological analyses.
Objectives: Hepatic damage caused by oxidative stress is one of the problems associated with the emission of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). In this study, the effects of swimming exercise (SE) on oxidative stress and liver cell damage caused by EMR emission in rats were investigated.
Methods: Thirty-two rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups, including control (C), EMR, SE, and EMR + SE. During four weeks, the animals engaged in SE (30 min/session, 5session/week) and were also exposed to EMR (4 h/day, seven days/week) emission from a Wi-Fi 2.45GHZ router. The liver and blood samples were collected at 48 h after completing four weeks of SE to assess histopathological damage, oxidative stress, and liver enzymes.
Key findings: Tissue sections showed severe liver damage in the EMR group compared to the C group, while the SE attenuated the liver damage. In the EMR group, compared to the C, SE and EMR + SE groups, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) decreased significantly, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) increased significantly (P < 0.05). Swimming exercise in the SE and EMR + SE groups compared to EMR led to a significant increase in the activity of SOD and CAT and a significant decrease in the concentration of MDA and liver enzymes (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The study findings showed that the SE is beneficial in attenuating the harmful effects of RF-EMR emitted from the Wi-Fi on the liver.
Exercise ameliorates hippocampal damage induced by Wi-Fi radiation; a biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical study
Mohamed AO, Hafez SMNA, Ibrahim RA, Rifaai RA. Exercise ameliorates hippocampal damage induced by Wi-Fi radiation; a biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical study. J Chem Neuroanat. 2023 Feb 14:102252. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2023.
• The use of electromagnetic devices has now increased. Additionally, using the wireless devices has an impact on human health.
• Physical activity is a good non-pharmacological strategy that protect against the adverse effects of electromagnetic waves
• This study investigates the protective effect of exercise on the hippocampal damage induced by waves of the Wi-Fi devices
• It preserves hippocampal structure, enhances neurogenesis and reduces oxidative stress induced by waves of the Wi-Fi devices.
• This provides an insight on the importance of exercise in prevention of many health problems including mental health.
Introduction: Nowadays, using electromagnetic devices (EMD) has been increased. However, the control of EMD hazards was poorly evaluated, especially those affected the hippocampus. Regular physical exercises are safe, easily, inexpensive and acceptable for long-term use. It is reported that exercise protects against many health problems.
Aim: is to investigate the hypothesis of the possible prophylactic effect of exercise on the hippocampal damage induced by electromagnetic waves of Wi-Fi.
Material and methods: Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: group I (control), group II (exercise), group III (Wi-Fi), and group IV (exercise -Wi-Fi). Hippocampi were subjected to biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical techniques.
Results: In group III, a significant increase in the oxidative enzymes as well as decrease in antioxidant enzymes were detected in rat hippocampus. Additionally, the hippocampus showed degenerated pyramidal and granular neurons. An evident decrease in both PCNA and ZO-1 immunoreactivity was also noticed. In group IV, physical exercise alleviates the effect of Wi-Fi on previously mentioned parameters.
Conclusion: Regular physical exercise performance significantly minimizes the hippocampal damage and protects against the hazarders of chronic Wi-Fi radiation exposure.
Wi-Fi device (802–16e 2005- WiMAX- Indoor CPE -antenna, model number: WIXFMM-130, China) with a frequency of 2.45 -GHz. Duration of radiation was 2 h per day in a 30-cm distance from antenna to the cages (Mahmoudi et al., 2018).
Animals of the exposed groups were exposed to Wi-Fi radiation from the 2nd week of the experiment for 2 h per day per week for 6 weeks, while the control and exercised groups were isolated in a separate room away from any source of radiation....
Regular exercise has three potential pathways that can help to reduce the risk associated with Wi-Fi radiation exposure. It could lower ROS levels and increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It also could enhance neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus which could compensate the degenerated cells resulting from EMR exposure. More-over it plays an important role in neuronal communication and survival.
Taken together, it could be concluded that physical exercise attenuates the effect of EMF exposure on the hippocampus through different mechanisms. It reduces oxidative stress, preserves neuronal structure, maintains BBB and synaptic integrity and enhances neurogenesis.
Further investigations on the prophylactic effect of exercise against EMR on different organs and at different time point using different spectrum is recommended. Also, further research about using antioxidant agents with exercise to augment the protective effect against hazards of Wi-Fi radiation is also recommended.--
Materials and Methods: Twenty-one weaned (21 days old) male Wistar Albino rats were divided into two groups as experimental group (n=12) and control group (n=9). Animals in the experimental group were exposed to a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field for one hour a day for more than 28 days. At the end of this period, rats were subjected to training and learning test using Morris Water Maze. After obtaining EEG records, hippocampi were removed. 2A and 2B subunits of NMDA receptors were studied in hippocampal homogenates using the Western Blot method.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in measures of latency to target quadrant, time spent in the target quadrant, and average swim speed as compared in Morris water maze. However, the time to arrive at the visible platform was significantly longer in experimental animals. There were no statistically significant differences in expression of 2A and 2B subunits of NMDA receptors between the two groups. Evaluation of EEG records revealed that spike frequency was significantly higher and time to first spike was significantly shorter in the experimental group.
Conclusion: These results indicated that a 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field might negatively affect EEG, motivation, and attention, particularly in the young age group.
Objective: In this study, the effect of radiofrequency radiation emitted from common mobile jammers have been studied on the learning and memory of rats.
Material and methods: In this prospective study, 90 Sprague-Dawley rats, were divided into 9 groups (N=10): Control, Sham1st (exposed to a switched-off mobile jammer device at a distance of 50 or 100 cm/1 day, 2 hours), Sham2nd (similar to Sham1st, but for 14 days, 2 h/day), Experimental1st -50 cm/1 day &100 cm/1 day (exposed to a switched-on device at a distance of 50 or 100 cm for 2 hours), Experimental2nd (similar to experimental1st, but for 14 days, 2 h/day). The animals were tested for learning and memory the next day, by the shuttle box. The time that a rat took to enter the dark part was considered as memory.
Results: Mean short-term memory was shorter in the experimental- 50 cm/1 day than control and sham- 50 cm/1 day (P=0.034), long-term memory was similar. Mean short- and long-term memory were similar in the experimental- 100 cm/1 day, control and sham- 100 cm/1 day (P>0.05). Mean short-term memory was similar in experimental- 50 cm/14 days, control, and sham- 50 cm/14 days (P=0.087), but long-term learning memory was shorter in the radiated group (P=0.038). Mean short- and long-term were similar among experimental-100 cm/14 days, control or sham 100 cm/14 days (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Rats exposed to jammer device showed dysfunction in short- and long-term memory, which shown the unfavorable effect of jammer on memory and learning. Our results indicated that the distance from radiation source was more important than the duration.
Background: Investigations showed different effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on the immune system. During humoral immune responses, genes of activation-induced deaminase (AID) and B-cell lymphoma-6 (Bcl-6) are expressed and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-21 are produced. These factors play significant roles in class switching, affinity maturation of antibodies and activations of B cells germinal centers (GCs). Therefore, this study investigated the effect of 50-Hz MFs exposure with different densities on these factors.
Materials and Methods: Eighty rats were divided into four exposures and a control groups. The treatment groups were exposed to magnetic flux densities of 1, 100, 500, and 2000 µT (50 Hz, 2h/day for 60 days). To activation of the immune system, all the animals were immunized with human serum albumin on days 31, 44, and 58 of exposure. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to assay the expression levels of AID and Bcl-6 genes in the spleen. The serum levels of IL-6 and IL-21 were also detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the pre- and post-immunization phases.
Results: AID expression was significantly declined at 1µT magnetic flux density, while no change was observed in the expression of Bcl-6. Serum IL-6 was increased only in 500 µT group at the post-immunization phase.
Conclusion: It seems exposure to 50-Hz MFs at 1µT density, suppresses AID and may cause decline in class switching and affinity maturation of Abs. On the other hand, exposure to 500µT, may activate them. These findings demonstrate the various potential effects of MFs on the humoral immune system.
It appears two months exposure to 50-Hz MFs causes to change some aspect of humoral immunity, both in low and high flux densities. Reduction in AID expression at lower density may hypothesize a suppression role in humoral immunity, especially class switching and affinity maturation of Abs. In contrast, higher density could increase serum IL-6 and activate the differentiation of B cells to plasma cells and may enhances humoral responses. This finding indicated the complexities of these reactions which highlight the need for further studies.
Schneeweiss P, Hirtl R, Schmid G. Assessing non-sinusoidal in situ electric field strength inside a detailed anatomical hand model caused by a magnetic deactivator device for EAS labels. J Radiol Prot. 2023 Feb 6. doi: 10.1088/1361-6498/acb955.
To evaluate the localized magnetic field (MF) exposure of the
cashier's hand due to a particular de-magnetization device (deactivator)
for single-use labels of an acousto-magnetic (AM) electronic article
surveillance (EAS) system, comprehensive measurements of MF near the
surface of the deactivator and numerical computations of the induced
electric field strength Ei were performed in high-resolution
anatomical hand models of different postures and positions with respect
to the deactivator. The measurement results for magnetic induction B
were assessed with respect to the action levels (AL) for limb exposure,
and the computational results for Ei were evaluated with
respect to the exposure limit values (ELV) for health effects according
to EU directive 2013/35/EU. For the ELV-based assessment, the maximum of
the 2 x 2 x 2 mm3averaged Ei (maxEi,avg) and the respective 99.9th, 99.5th, and 99.0th percentiles
were used. As the MF impulse emitted by the deactivator for
de-magnetization of the AM-EAS labels was highly non-sinusoidal,
measurement results were assessed based on the weighted peak method in
time domain (WPM-TD). A newly developed scaling technique was proposed
to apply the WPM-TD also for the assessment of the (non-sinusoidal) Ei regarding
the ELV. It was used to calculate the resulting WPM-TD based exposure
index (EI) from frequency domain computations. The assessment regarding
the AL for limbs yielded peak values of magnetic induction of up to 97
mT (measured with a 3 cm2MF probe on top of the deactivator
surface) corresponding to an EI of 443 %. However, this was considered
an overestimation of the actual exposure in terms of Eias the AL were defined conservatively by intention. A WPM-TD based assessment of Eifinally led to worst case EI up to 135 %, 93 %, 78 %, and 72 % when using the maxEi,avg, 99.9th, 99.5th, and 99.0thpercentiles, respectively.
... it can be hypothesized that the ICNIRP 2010 reference levels may not be conservative in the sense that even when meeting the reference levels, compliance with the basic restrictions is not guaranteed, although an additional reduction factor of 3 was introduced when deriving the reference levels from the basic restrictions, with the intention to account for numerical uncertainties. In particular, this has significant implications for workplace safety, as according to the definition in 2013/35/EU, a workplace can be assumed compliant if the AL are met without any further investigation with respect to the ELV. All in all, the investigated device must be considered at least borderline to non-compliance and precautionary measures are recommended, e.g., ensuring a distance of 50 mm to the deactivator surface to ensure compliance. All in all, the investigated device must be considered at least borderline to non-compliance and precautionary measures are recommended, e.g., ensuring a distance of 50 mm to the deactivator surface to ensure compliance.
Kavet R, Tell RA. Aligning Exposure Limits for Contact Currents with Exposure Limits for Electric Fields. Health Phys. 2023 Feb 3. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001659.
The Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) have established limits for exposures to electromagnetic fields across the 0-300 GHz (non-ionizing) spectrum, including limits on contact currents (CC) specified by IEEE for 0-110 MHz (ICNIRP issued a CC "guidance level"). Both sets of limits seek to protect against potentially adverse effects, including aversive electrostimulation at frequencies <100 kHz and excessive heating of tissue at frequencies >100 kHz. For the most part, CC is linked to electric field (E-field) exposures for an ungrounded person contacting a grounded object, with the short-circuit current (ISC) through the contact point (usually the hand) equivalent to the current through the grounded feet of a free-standing person exposed to a vertically polarized E-field. The physical linkage between these two quantities dictates that their respective exposure limits align with one another, which is presently not the case, especially with respect to frequencies from100 kHz to 110 MHz. Here we focus specifically on recommendations for revisions to the IEEE standard, IEEE Std C95.1™-2019 ("IEEE C95.1"), in which the E-field exposure limit (E-field exposure reference levels, ERLs) >100 kHz induces substantially greater currents than the CC ERLs currently prescribed. The most important scenario deserving of attention concerns finger contact through a 1-cm2 cross-sectional interface between the skin and a grounded conductor in which the rate of temperature rise in the presence of an E-field ERL can be rapid enough to cause a burn injury. This rate is highly dependent on the moistness/dryness of the skin at the contact point (i.e., its impedance)-a highly variable value-with temperature increasing more rapidly with increasing dryness (greater contact impedance). The two main remedies to alleviate the possibility of injury in this "touch" scenario are to (a) limit the time of finger contact to 1 s in all cases and (b) revise the E-field ERL between 100 kHz and 30 MHz from a "hockey-stick-shaped" curve vs. frequency to a "ramp" across this frequency range. These measures factored in with the real-world prevalence of potentially hazardous scenarios should afford greater protection against adverse outcomes than is presently the case. IEEE C95.1 also specifies limits for grasp contact (15 cm2 in the palm) and associated wrist heating, plus heating in the ankles from free-standing induction. However, these scenarios are more manageable compared to finger touch due mainly to the comparatively lower rates of tissue heating attributable to the wrist's and ankle's relatively greater cross-sectional area. Recommendations for grasp can thus be dealt with separately. Two identified but unaddressed issues in IEEE C95.1 deserving of further attention are first, the circumstance in which a grounded person contacts an ungrounded object situated in an electric field for which there are countless numbers of scenarios that are not amenable to a single ERL. Second, arcing between an extended limb and E-field-exposed object is perhaps the most hazardous of all scenarios. Both of these scenarios cannot be stereotyped and must be dealt with on a case-by-case basis. Future revisions of IEEE Std C95.1-2019 (and the ICNIRP guidelines) will benefit from improved insight into strategies of affording protection from potentially adverse effects in these circumstances.
Bradlaugh AA, Fedele G, Munro AL, Hansen CN, Hares JM, Patel S, Kyriacou CP, Jones AR, Rosato E, Baines RA. Essential elements of radical pair magnetosensitivity in Drosophila. Nature. 2023 Feb 22. doi: 10.1038/s41586-023-05735-z.
Li J, Lu M. Comparison of electromagnetic exposure for passengers at different positions on the subway platform. EMIE 2022; The 2nd International Conference on Electronic Materials and Information Engineering, Hangzhou, China, 2022, pp. 1-6.