Nyberg NR, McCredden JE, Weller SG, Hardell L. The European Union prioritises economics over health in the rollout of radiofrequency technologies. Reviews on Environmental Health. 2022. doi:10.1515/reveh-2022-0106.
Alternative guidelines to protect citizens have been created by four groups of industry-independent scientists, based on best available scientific evidence; i.e., setting exposure levels lower than where biological effects with health implications have been found. As described in  these four groups recommend the following limits for human exposures to RF-EMR:
- Building biologists  suggest a very low radiation level of no more than 0.1 µW/m2 (in sleeping areas);
- EuropaEM-EMF Environmental Medicine researchers  suggest 1 µW/m2 during the night and 10 µW/m2 during the day time;
- The BioInitiative-group conclusions (2012 update) , made by 29 prominent researchers, and based on 2,200+ scientific reports, suggest 3–6 µW/m2 as the upper limit for exposures;
- The Council of Europe (CoE) Resolution 1815  Section 8.2.1 says
set preventative thresholds for levels of long-term exposure to
microwaves in all indoor areas, in accordance with the precautionary
principle, not exceeding 0.6 V per metre [1,000 µW/m2], and in the
medium term to reduce it to 0.2 V per metre [100 µW/m2].
The central problems to be solved include:
1. Determining the exposure amplitude, polarization and duration of electromagnetic fields at specific positions of interest in the body as a function of the exposing fields as a function of time.
2. Determining causal relationships between long duration exposure to low-level EM fields and the various biological responses reported in current research.
3. Quantifying the interactions between EM fields and biology with measurements that are not only accurate but repeatable. Some of the low energy EM effects on micro-biological systems are well documented in laboratory experiments but are difficult to translate to macro-biological system responses.
4. Sorting out which aspects of biological systems are directly driven by RF fields vs. the myriad of other independent variables at work.
5. Understanding how the repair mechanisms in biological systems alter biological processes in the presence of low-level EM fields.
Several issues confront regulators:
1. Should regulations be set that “protect” all the population all the time, including those with other health conditions that make them more susceptible to EM exposure, or should regulations only protect most of the population most of the time. The degree of control has huge implications on cost and efficacy.
2. Simplifying the explanations of the physical mechanisms involved such that there is general acceptance of the need for regulation is a non-trivial part of the regulatory process. Scientists, producers, operators, and users have differing imperatives that need to be considered. Such situations invite a lot of political hubris and conflict.
3. How regulators quantify and then rationalize the tradeoffs between the economic and social benefits of cellular technology vs. potentially damaging health effects of long-term exposure to low levels of EM energy is important in determining the regulations that are proposed.
Four strategies for reducing RF exposure might include:
1. Designing the transmitter in user devices to reduce the instantaneous RF power levels emitted is the most direct way to reduce RF exposure but this has serious system performance implications and high implementation costs. Manufacturers already try to minimize the instantaneous RF power output of cell phones to maximize battery life. Further reductions in RF power output will significantly impact signal to noise ratio and reduce the maximum range of any given phone within a cell phone tower matrix. This will have a significant impact on system infrastructure (number of cell phone towers needed to provide coverage) and operating cost. Another technique for reducing instantaneous power output absorbed by users is to use narrow beam directional antennas in user devices that focuses the output power on the closest cell tower receiver. This approach is being incorporated into 5G systems. Size and weight considerations are a major constraint in mobile devices.
2. Reducing the density of RF power (Watts/M2) being absorbed by the body of a user can also be accomplished by increasing the distance between the transmitting antenna and the user's body and head. Power density falls off very rapidly with increasing distance from the transmitting antenna typically as 1/Rn reduction where n is a number usually >1. It is to be noted that increasing use of data and moving a smart phone away from the body reduces the power levels incident on the head.
3. Research data indicates biological effects of RF signals are frequency dependent. Redesigning transmitters to eliminate frequencies that are proven to produce biological effects could be employed, but this could have a significant impact on system capacity since each frequency band carries a lot of data in today's system.
4. The last, and least expensive approach is to limit cumulative user exposure to RF energy in a given period of time by shutting the phone “Off”. Establishing limits for the maximum accumulated duration of an individual's exposure would require extensive clinical testing on large populations of users. Once those numbers were set, there would be very little cost impact on the operators or the users to implement. Major issues would be lack of access in emergency situations and gaining user acceptance on such limitations and the self-discipline to avoid over exposure. To help with that applications software could be installed on the phone that calculates the accumulated exposure and then reports the data on the phone's visual readout.
The data above and many more papers not cited indicate that biological systems can sense and respond to very weak electric and magnetic field by changing biological parameters such as reactive oxygen species concentrations at the cellular level which affect health and wellbeing of living organisms. High concentrations of reactive oxygen species for extended periods of time are known to be associated with adverse health effects (19). There are also many cases where no damaging effects have been observed. It is presumed that the body's feedback and repair systems keep the concentrations of these molecules within the normal operating ranges and the cumulative effects of RF energy are negligible. We hypothesize that EM effects vary from person to person and are a function of exposure conditions in conjunction with other stresses that affect concentrations of these molecules. Note this degree of variability explains why many papers do not show EM effects while some of the experiments on hypersensitive people show effects. We have chosen not to go into discussion of hypersensitive people as it would take more space than we wish to devote to it in this paper.
It is clear that more research needs to be done to enable definition of standards for RF exposure that are reasonable and allow a simple, low-cost communications system to function safely. Although both industry and government have funded significant amounts of expensive research, relatively few studies have used radical pair theory and other quantum mechanical models to guide their experiments or track the chemical changes induced by exposures to weak electromagnetic fields. Additionally, they have not delt with long term effects of exposure to low-level exposure that take into account biological feedback and repair systems, that may not be able to handle the effects of compounding stresses and the fact that humans have different responses at different time.
Forcing a solution that eliminates all wireless communications is not a reasonable approach. Allowing the telecommunications industry and users to ignore the potential harm indicated by some of the experiments showing the effects of weak field exposures is equally unsatisfactory given the data that are currently available. Imposing operating standards without understanding the root causes in science, and social impacts and costs is tempting, but also potentially dangerous and can potentially lead to health problems for a large fraction of the population.
In the US, most industries can be held liable for not pursuing research on the safety of their products. With such a large number of users, it is incumbent on system designers, operators, managers, and regulators to invest the time and energy to understand the risks of long-term exposure to low-level EM fields to determine potential health hazards. In the short term, implementing ways to reduce exposure voluntarily is likely to be the cheapest solution, but human behavior is often unpredictable and unreliable. Ultimately more research will better define the conditions where EM exposures can lead to changes in the biological system that are not compensated by biological control systems and repair mechanisms.
• Semen samples were repeatedly collected from 1454 healthy men.
Cell phone use and radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMF) are rapidly increasing and may be associated with lower semen quality, yet results from epidemiological studies are inconclusive. Information on electronic devices use was collected through standard questionnaires from 1454 men aged 22-45 years old. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, total motility, progressive motility, and normal morphology in repeated specimens were determined by trained clinical technicians. Percent changes [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] were estimated as (10β-1) × 100 for electronic devices use associated with repeated sperm quality parameters in the linear mixed-effect models. After adjusting for multiple confounders, we found significant inverse associations of total duration of electronic devices use with sperm progressive motility and total motility, duration of cell phone and computer use with sperm concentration, progressive motility, and total motility (all P < 0.05). No significant association was found between cell phone/computer use alone and sperm quality parameters. Moreover, per hour increase of time spent on cell phone talking was associated with decreased sperm concentration and total count by an average of -8.0% (95% CI: -15.2%, -0.2%) and -12.7% (95% CI: -21.3%, -3.1%), respectively. Besides, daily calling time was associated with lower sperm progressive motility and total motility among those who used headsets during a call (P for interaction <0.05). In conclusion, our study suggested that more time spent on electronic devices use had a modest reduction effect on semen quality. Daily calling time was significantly associated with lower sperm concentration and total count, and using headsets during a call appeared to aggravate the negative association between daily calling time and sperm motility. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.
electronic devices use on semen quality more precisely, and to evaluate the clinical importance of the risk to both sub-fertile men and the general population.
As future work, we plan to extend our assessment to entire municipalities/cities, including zones covered by 5G small cells. In addition, as propagation has a strong effect over the exposure received by children and teenagers, massive campaigns of EMF measurements from 5G towers should be performed, especially inside the buildings. Finally, the investigation of joint uplink and downlink 5G exposure is another avenue of research.
The opportunities for exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) among children are increasing. Children's exposure to RF-EMF in Japan was recorded using a personal exposure meter (ExpoM-RF), and factors associated with the exposure examined. A total of 101 children, aged 10-15 years old, participated in the prospective birth cohort "Hokkaido study". RF-EMF data were recorded in the 700 MHz-5.8 GHz frequency range for 3 days. The recorded data were summarized into six groups of frequency bands: downlink from mobile phone base stations (DL), uplink from mobile phones to a base station (UL), Wireless Local Area Network (LAN), terrestrial digital TV broadcasting (digital TV), 2.5 GHz and 3.5 GHz Time Division Duplex (TDD), 1.9 GHz TDD, and total (the summation of power density in all measured frequency bands). A questionnaire was used to document the internet environment (at home) and mobile phone usage. Personal RF-EMF exposure in Japanese children was lower than that reported in studies in Europe. The DL signals from mobile phone base stations were the most significant contributors to total exposure, while Wireless LAN and digital TV were only higher at home. The urban residence was consistently associated with increases in the four groups of frequency bands (DL, UL, digital TV, and TDD). TDD level has several associations with mobile phone usage (calls using mobile phones, video viewing, text message service, and online game). The association between inattention/hyperactivity subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and higher Wireless LAN exposure at nighttime was also noted. Further studies with additional data will shed light on factors involved in RF-EMF exposure among Japanese children.
Regarding microenvironments, RF exposure from outdoor environmental sources was higher when outdoors than indoors, similar to findings of other studies (Birks et al., 2018; Gallastegi et al., 2018; Joseph et al., 2010; Verloock et al., 2014). The exposure levels for DL, digital TV from outdoor environmental sources (e.g. base station) were higher outside, and that in Wireless LAN was higher in the home. Regarding the contribution of each band to the total exposure level, the exposure to the DL contributed the most to the total exposure in all microenvironments....
... Interestingly, Wireless LAN levels at nighttime were significantly higher among those with high hyperactivity/inattention scores of SDQ, one of the common symptoms of ADHD, than those with low scores. Although the association between ADHD symptoms and internet addiction has been reported (Ho et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2017; Yen et al., 2009), there was no relationship between internet addiction and RF-EMF exposure in the present study. Tateno et al. (2016) suggested that ADHD traits, such as impulsivity, could be related to difficulty in controlling internet use and online gaming. Therefore, the exposure to Wireless LAN recorded by the exposure meter might increase for those who could not limit the use of wireless electrical devices (mobile phones, gaming devices, among others) at nighttime because of impulsivity, rather than internet addiction....
We recorded children’s personal RF-EMF exposures using the exposure meter and examined related factors for their exposure. The personal RF-EMF exposure in Japanese children was lower than that reported in previous European studies. Downlink from mobile phone base stations was the most significant contributor to the total exposure, while Wireless LAN and digital TV were higher at home than in other microenvironments. There were several significant associations between internet environment and mobile phone usage and exposure level in the daytime analysis. Among them, the urban residence and related characteristics were consistently associated with higher levels of DL, UL, digital TV, and TDD band. At nighttime, the association between the inattention/hyperactivity subscale of SDQ and Wireless LAN exposure was found in addition to associations between the internet environment or mobile phone usage and the RF-EMF exposure. Further studies with additional data and robust study designs are required to explore the most possible factors involved in RF-EMF exposure among Japanese children.
Methods: In this observational study, the patients were divided into two groups high mobile phone use group (HMPUG) and the low mobile phone user group (LMPUG) using the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale. We assessed, for each group, patients' level of disability, pain intensity, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life through the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, Visual Analogue Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and 24-h Migraine Quality of Life Questionnaire, respectively.
Results: Our study showed that the respondents' average age was 27.59 (9.79) years. The average number of family members was 5.98 (2.3251). A total of 65.8% (n = 263) of the 400 participants were female, while 34.3 % (n = 137) were male. Greater pain intensity, poor sleep quality, and reduced medication effectivity were found in HMPUG compared to LMPUG (p < .05). However, increased duration of migraine and medication intake was reported in the LMPUG (p < .05).
Conclusion: We observed that smartphone overuse could worsen pain, sleep, and reduce treatment efficacy in individuals with migraine. Therefore, controlled smartphone use is recommended to avoid worsening symptoms.
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the global incidence, mortality, associated risk factors, and temporal trends of central nervous system (CNS) cancer by sex, age, and country.
Methods: We extracted incidence and mortality of CNS cancer from the GLOBOCAN (2020), Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series I-X, WHO mortality database, the Nordic Cancer Registries, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. We searched the Global Health data exchanges for the prevalence of its associated risk factors. We tested the trends by Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC) from Joinpoint regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals in different age groups.
Results: The age-standardized rates (ASRs) of CNS cancer incidence and mortality were 3.5 and 2.8 per 100,000 globally. Southern Europe (ASR=6.0) and Western Asia (ASR=4.2) had the highest incidence and mortality, respectively. The incidence was associated with Human Development Index, Gross Domestics Products per capita, prevalence of traumatic brain injuries, occupational carcinogens exposure, and mobile phone use at the country level. There was an overall stable and mixed trend in the CNS cancer burden. However, increasing incidence was observed in younger male population from five countries, with Slovakia (AAPC=5.40; 95% CI=1.88, 9.04; p=0.007) reporting the largest increase.
Conclusions: While the overall global trends of cancer have been largely stable, significant increasing trends were found in the younger male population. The presence of some higher-HDI countries with increasing mortality suggested an ample scope for further research and exploration of the reasons behind these epidemiological trends.
Brain cancer burden was higher in more developed countries and male population.
Brain cancer was related to HDI, GDP, brain injuries, carcinogens, and phone use.
There was an increasing trend of brain cancer in the younger male population.
This study addressed an important but not yet thoroughly investigated topic regarding human exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) generated by vehicular connectivity. In particular, the study assessed, by means of computational dosimetry, the RF-EMF exposure in road users near a car equipped with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication antennas. The exposure scenario consisted of a 3D numerical model of a car with two V2V antennas, each fed with 1 W, operating at 5.9 GHz and an adult human model to simulate the road user near the car. The RF-EMF dose absorbed by the human model was calculated as the specific absorption rate (SAR), that is, the RF-EMF power absorbed per unit of mass. The highest SAR was observed in the skin of the head (34.7 mW/kg) and in the eyes (15 mW/kg); the SAR at the torso (including the genitals) and limbs was negligible or much lower than in the head and eyes. The SAR over the whole body was 0.19 mW/kg. The SAR was always well below the limits of human exposure in the 100 kHz-6 GHz band established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The proposed approach can be generalized to assess RF-EMF exposure in different conditions by varying the montage/number of V2V antennas and considering human models of different ages.
First, for linear polarization microwave radiation with the constant microwave intensity and frequency, the increment of total collision number decreases with the increase of temperature. Similarly, the increment of collision probability at specific spatial angle also decreases, and the fraction of high-energy collisions also decreases. This confirms that the molecular thermal motion becomes more intense as the temperature rises, which weakens the polarization effect of microwaves. Second, with the increase of microwave intensity, the influence of spatial orientation and kinetic energy becomes more and more significant. However, the effect of circular polarization on the spatial direction and kinetic energy of collision is weaker than that of linear polarization. This shows that, compared with linear polarization microwaves, the direction of the electric field in circular polarization changes faster, and the orientation effect of dipole molecules is obviously weaker than that of linear polarization. Third, under the constant intensity of linear polarization microwave radiation, with the increase of microwave frequency, the influence of spatial direction and kinetic energy becomes weaker and weaker. This proves that the orientation effect of molecules following the direction of electric field decreases with increasing microwave frequency. Finally, we determine the effect of the microwave radiation on the spatial orientation and kinetic energy of collision. The higher intensity is the more obvious the effect will be. However, the higher temperature, the higher frequency, and circular polarization will weaken the effect.
On the basis of the collision theory, we further verify the total effect of weak microwave irradiation on spatial orientation and kinetic energy of active site collision by analyzing the effective molecular collision number and introduce electromagnetic action factor. The conclusion is consistent with that described above. At last, the effect of the weak microwaves on the spatial orientation and kinetic energy of active site collision is called the microwave postpolarization effect (MWPPE). The MWPPE provides a new way to understand the molecular mechanism of the microwave nonthermal effect. In addition, it can also provide useful reference for designing experiments to verify the nonthermal effect of weak microwave irradiation.
El-Shahat A, Danjuma J, Abdelaziz AY, Abdel Aleem SHE. Human Exposure
Influence Analysis for Wireless Electric Vehicle Battery Charging. Clean Technologies. 2022; 4(3):785-805.
Wireless charging schemes aim to counter some drawbacks of electric
vehicles’ wired charging, such as the fact that it does not encourage
mobility, leads to safety issues regarding high voltage cables, power
adapters high cost, and has more battery waste by companies. In this
paper, a comparative study of wireless power transfer multiple coil
geometries is performed to analyze the efficiency, coupling coefficient,
mutual inductance, and magnetic flux density production for each
geometry. Results show that coil geometry, current excitation, and
shielding techniques within the Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging
(WEVC) system substantially influence magnetic flux leakage. In
addition, the paper proposes an analytical framework for a WEVC scheme
via electromagnetic resonance coupling. Safety considerations of the
WEVC system, including the effects on humans, are investigated in
several scenarios based on the relative location of the human while EV
charging is conducted as the leading paper’s goal. The exposure
measurements are performed across various radial distances from the
coils using 3-D FEA ANSYS Maxwell Software (American technology company,
Pennsylvania, United States). The analysis shows that WEVC systems can
achieve high power transfer, resulting in increased magnetic flux
leakage around the coils. The safe distance for humans and animals
during the charging sequence is attained from research results. For
instance, in the 120 mm spiral coil, 120 mm square coil, and 600 mm
spiral coil operating at 1 A, excitation, the SAR levels are under the
threshold of 700 mm away from the coils. For the 600 mm spiral coil
excited at 8 A, the SAR levels fall under the threshold at 900 mm away
from the coils. When shielding is utilized, the safe distance is
improved by up to 350 mm. Considering the regulations of the
Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) standards, 600 mm is a safe
distance away from the coils, and, vertically, anywhere past 300 mm is
safe for humans.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2571-
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of non-ionizing radiofrequency radiation, emitted by Wi-Fi routers, on bacterial strains and the modification of their susceptibility to modern antibiotics.
Material and methods: In this case-control paired study, four bacteria were selected, and one colony from each bacterial strain was exposed to Wi-Fi radiation forming the exposure group. Another set of colonies was not exposed to Wi-Fi radiation, forming the control group. Eight different antibiotic disks were set on the bacterial plates, and the inhibition zone was measured every 3 h for each colony.
Results: Electromagnetic radiation affects bacterial colonies and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences, correlated with the bacterial strain, the antibiotic agent, and the time of the exposure, in the inhibition zones, mostly after 6 and 24 h (p-value < 0.05).
Conclusion: A correlation was observed between antibiotic susceptibility and non-ionizing radiofrequency exposure. Studying the effects of radiofrequency radiation on prokaryotic organisms could clarify more complicated cell structures and organisms, such as eukaryotic. Further experiments, in vitro and in vivo, could provide more information about these outcomes and cause experts to discuss the current guidelines of exposure limits.
Background: During the last decade, people have been
dramatically exposed to radiation emitted from widely-used
radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) generating devices.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exposure to RF-EMF emitted from smart phones and Wi-Fi routers on the growth rate and antibiotic sensitivity of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as a pathogen in the root canals of teeth.
Material and methods: In this experimental study, E. faecalis ATCC 19115 was used, characterized and confirmed by morphological and biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was measured for several common antibiotics. To perform antibiotic susceptibility tests, disk diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method on Mueller-Hinton agar plates was used before and after exposure to RF-EMFs emitted from a commercial Wi-Fi router or a mobile phone simulator. Moreover, we measured the optical density at 625 nm after different exposure times using a calibrated UV-visible spectrophotometer to evaluate the effect of RF-EMF exposure on the bacterial growth rate.
Results: Exposure to RF-EMF significantly altered the antimicrobial sensitivity of the E. faecalis. While the susceptibility of the bacteria decreased significantly after 6 h of exposure, longer exposure time (e.g. exposure for 24 h) increased the susceptibility of the bacteria to all antibiotics. Furthermore, it was found that the bacteria tended to regress to their early state. Moreover, the non-exposed E. faecalis showed a slower growth rate than the bacteria exposed to RF-EMFs.
Conclusion: Exposure to RF-EMF emitted by Wi-Fi routers or mobile phone simulator can significantly change the antibiotic susceptibility and growth rate of E. faecalis.
- The analysis revealed no significant association between instrumentally measured and perceived ELF-MF exposure, which implies that individuals cannot detect actual ELF-MF exposure accurately;
- The analysis revealed that feelings of weakness, headache, frustration and worries were associated with both measured and perceived ELF-MF exposure, while perceived ELF-MF exposure was also found to be associated with eye pain and irritation, sleepiness, as well as dizziness and ear pain.
- As we conclude, working near a high voltage power line appears to produce not only psychological but also physiological effects, and should thus become a public health concern.
Introduction: Magnetic interaction of portable electronic devices (PEDs), such as state-of-the art mobile phones, with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) has been reported. The aim of the study was to quantify the magnetic fields of latest generation smartwatches and other PEDs and to evaluate and predict their risk of CIED interactions.
Methods: High resolution magnetic field characterization of five smartwatches (Apple Watch 6/7, Fitbit Sense, Samsung Galaxy 3, Withings Scanwatch) was performed using a novel magnetic field camera. Ex vivo measurements of the minimal safety distance (MSD) at which no mode switch can be observed were performed between 11 PEDs and six representative CIEDs.
Results: Maximal 1 mT distances ranged between 10 mm (Withings) and 19 mm (Fitbit and AppleWatch), and 1 mT volumes between 6 cm3 (Withings) and 19 cm3 (Fitbit). All these measures were observed only for the back side of the smartwatches. While most smartwatches with measured 1 mT distance < 15 mm posed low ex vivo interaction within a distance of < 10 mm, PEDs such as electronic pens and in-ear-headphones with measured 1 mT distance > 15 mm showed device interaction up to > 15 mm. Linear regression analysis showed a linear relationship of the MSD with 1 mT distance (B coefficient: 0.46; 95 %-CI: 0.25-0.67, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Smartwatches are safer compared to other PEDs such as electronic pens or in-ear headphones with regards to CIED interaction. With a standardized magnetic field camera, the risk assessment of CIED interaction of novel PEDs is feasible.
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) changes in cardiac injury caused by microwave radiation, aimed at providing novel insights into the mechanism of this damage. A digital thermometer was used to measure the rectal temperature of the rats' pre- and post-radiation. On the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 28th days post-radiation, the changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) were analyzed by a multi-channel physiological recorder. The myocardial enzyme activities and ion concentrations were detected by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Additionally, the levels of myocardial injury markers were established by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and those of hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay. The structure and ultrastructure of the myocardial tissue were observed using an optical microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expression of Hsp72 was measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Post-exposure, the rectal temperature in the R-group increased significantly, ECG was disordered, and the concentrations of ions were decreased. Furthermore, the activities of myocardial enzymes were changed, and the contents of myocardial injury markers and hormones were increased. We observed damage to the structure and ultrastructure and significantly increased expression of Hsp72. As a whole, the results indicated that S-wave microwave radiation at 30 mW/cm2 for 35 min resulted in damage to the cardiac functionality organigram, caused by a combination of the thermal and nonthermal effects.
Materials and methods: Genomic DNA, prepared from S. cerevisiae cultures, was exposed to pulsed MF (1.5 mT peak, 25 Hz) and MMS (0-1%) (15-60 minutes), and to MF and bleomycin (0-0.6 IU/ml) (24-72 hours). The damage induced to DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis and image analysis.
Results: Pulsed MF induced an increment in the level of DNA damage produced by MMS and bleomycin in all groups at the exposure conditions assayed.
Conclusions: Pulsed MF could modulate the cytotoxic action of MMS and bleomycin. The observed effect could be the result of a multifactorial process influenced by the type of agent that damages DNA, the dose, and the duration of the exposure to the pulsed MF.
The results showed that the test had a significant effect on the body weight of female mice. Weight is not only a comprehensive index to measure growth and development, but also an overall response to the operation of various physiological functions of the body. In the past, it has been reported that radiation can cause loss of appetite, affect human endocrine system and slow growth and development. Although the mechanism of this effect is not particularly clear and lack of relevant evidence, it is a problem worthy of attention. However, with the increase of exposure time, the change trend
needs to be further verified.
In addition, the environmental noise, temperature and humidity of the exposure group and the control group are slightly different in the design of this test, which may have a certain impact on the test results more or less. Therefore, in order to eliminate the interference of environmental factors, laboratory animal experiments will be carried out later to further verify whether the cumulative effect of vehicle electromagnetic radiation will affect the normal immune function of animals.
On 4 February 2022, 38 Starlink satellites were destroyed by the geomagnetic storm, which brought significant financial, aerospace and public influences. In this letter, we reveal the space weather process during 3–4 February 2022 geomagnetic disturbances, from the Sun all the way to the satellite orbiting atmosphere. Initiated by an M1.0 class flare and the following coronal mass ejection (CME), a moderate geomagnetic storm was stimulated on 3rd February by the CME arrival at Earth. Subsequently, another moderate storm was triggered on 4th February by the passage of another CME. Model simulations driven by solar wind show that the first geomagnetic storm induced around 20% atmospheric density perturbations at 210 km altitude on 3rd February. The unexpected subsequent storm on 4th February led to a density enhancement of around 20%–30% at around 210 km. The resulting atmospheric drag can be even larger, since the regional density enhancement was over 60% and the satellite orbits were continuously decaying. This event brings forth the urgent requirements of better understanding and accurate prediction of the space weather as well as collaborations between industry and space weather community.