Friday, January 13, 2023

"Electromagnetic Fields of Wireless Communications: Biological and Health Effects"


Panagopoulos DJ (Ed.). (2022). Electromagnetic Fields of Wireless Communications: Biological and Health Effects (1st ed.). CRC Press. doi: 10.1201/9781003201052

https://www.routledge.com/Electromagnetic-Fields-of-Wireless-Communications-Biological-and-Health/Panagopoulos/p/book/9781032061757


This 544-page book reflects contributions from experts in biological and health effects of Radio Frequency (RF)/Microwave and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) used in wireless communications (WC) and other technological applications. Diverse topics related to physics, biology, pathology, epidemiology, and plausible biophysical and biochemical mechanisms of WC EMFs emitted by antennas and devices are included. 

Discussions on the possible consequences of fifth generation (5G) mobile telephony (MT) EMFs based on available data and correlation between anthropogenic EMF exposures and various pathological conditions such as infertility, cancer, electro-hypersensitivity, organic and viral diseases, and effects on animals, plants, trees, and environment are included. It further illustrates individual and public health protection and the setting of biologically- and epidemiologically-based exposure limits.

Features:

  • Covers biological and health effects, including oxidative stress, DNA damage, reproductive effects of mobile phones/antennas (2G, 3G, 4G), cordless phones, Wi-Fi, etc.
  • Describes effects induced by real-life exposures by commercially available devices/antennas.
  • Illustrates biophysical and biochemical mechanisms that fill the gap between recorded experimental and epidemiological findings and their explanations.
  • Explores experimental and epidemiological facts and mechanisms of action. Provides explanations and protection tips.
  • Transcends across physical, biological, chemical, health, epidemiological, and environmental aspects of the topic.

Table of Contents and Chapter Abstracts

A. Physical properties of Wireless Communication Electromagnetic Fields

Chapter 1: Defining Wireless Communication (WC) Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs):

A. Polarization is a principal property of all man-made EMFs.
B. Modulation, Pulsation, and Variability are inherent parameters of WC EMFs.
C. Most man-made EMF-exposures are Non-Thermal.
D. Measuring incident EMFs is more relevant than SAR.
E. All man-made EMFs emit continuous waves, not photons.
F. Differences from natural EMFs. Interaction with matter

Panagopoulos DJ, Karabarbounis A, and Lioliousis C

ABSTRACT
All types of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and corresponding non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) produced by electric/electronic circuits and antennas – in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR – are totally polarized and coherent. Polarized/coherent EMFs/waves can produce constructive interference and amplify their intensities at certain locations. Moreover, they induce parallel/coherent forced oscillations of charged/polar molecules – especially mobile ions – in living cells/tissues, which can trigger biological effects. The most bioactive man-made EMFs are those employed in wireless communications (WC). They are usually referred to simply as Radio Frequency (RF) or Microwave (MW) EMFs/EMR because they emit carrier signals in the RF/MW band. Yet, WC EMFs contain emissions in the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF), Ultra Low Frequency (ULF), and Very Low Frequency (VLF) bands as well in the form of modulation, pulsing, and variability. This complexity and variability of WC EMFs, combined with polarization, is what makes them even more bioactive. Man-made EMFs (including WC) at environmentally existing intensities do not induce significant heating in living tissues. The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) was introduced by health agencies as the principal metric for the bioactivity of RF/microwave EMFs. Estimation of SAR from tissue conductivity is inaccurate, and estimation from tissue specific heat is possible only for thermal effects. Thus, SAR is of little relevance, and EMF exposures should better be defined by their incident radiation/field intensity at the included frequency bands, exposure duration, and other field parameters. The present chapter also explains that man-made EMFs/EMR, in contrast to light and ionizing electromagnetic emissions, do not consist of photons but of continuous “classical” waves and, thus, do not obey Planck’s formula connecting photon energy (ϵ) with frequency (ν), ϵ = h ν. Apart from polarization, man-made EMFs differ from natural EMFs in frequency bands and emission sources. Basic concepts of interaction with living tissue are discussed.

B. Biological and Health effects of Wireless Communication Electromagnetic Fields

Chapter 2: Public Health implications of exposure to Wireless Communication Electromagnetic Fields
Miller AB

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and corresponding electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to Radio Frequency (RF) radiation, and to modulated RF wireless communication (WC) EMFs/EMR has grown substantially over time. In 2011, a working group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized WC EMR, termed as RF radiation, as a “possible” (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with WC EMFs/EMR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, two large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of WC EMR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of WC EMR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a mobile phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull’s bone marrow absorbs a roughly tenfold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep mobile phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and signifcantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage as well as an increased risk of colon cancer. Pending an updated IARC working group review, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to WC EMFs/EMR to as low as reasonably achievable.

Chapter 3: Oxidative Stress induced by Wireless Communication Electromagnetic Fields
Yakymenko I and Tsybulin O

ABSTRACT
This chapter describes experimental data on oxidative effects induced by man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and corresponding electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in living cells. Analysis of the currently available peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals important molecular effects induced by non-thermal exposures to man-made EMFs, especially wireless communication (WC) EMFs, in living cells. They include significant activation of key cellular pathways generating oxidative stress (OS) by reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of peroxidation, oxidative damage of DNA, and changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes. Critically important features of man-made EMFs, compared to natural EMFs, are their totally polarized and coherent character and, in the case of WC EMFs, combined frequency bands and sophisticated modulation. These features provide these types of EMFs/EMR with the unique and unexpected capacity of inducing biological effects such as pronounced oxidative effects in exposed living cells. It is indicative that among 131 analyzed peer-reviewed studies dealing with oxidative effects of non-thermal Radio Frequency (RF) EMFs, mostly pulsed/modulated by Extremely Low Frequencies (ELF), 124 (95%) confirmed statistically significant oxidative effects on various types of biological systems. And among 39 analyzed studies on oxidative effects of purely ELF EMFs, 36 of them (92%) also revealed significant oxidative effects of the exposure. The wide pathogenic potential of induced ROS and their involvement in cell signaling explains a range of biological/health effects of non-thermal man-made EMF exposures, which includes both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic pathologies. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that a) man-made EMFs, and especially those employed in WC combining both RF and ELF components, is a pronounced oxidative agent for living cells with high pathogenic potential; and b) the OS induced by man-made EMF exposures should be recognized as one of the primary mechanisms of biological activity of this new environmental agent.

Chapter 4: Genotoxic Effects of Wireless Communication Electromagnetic Fields
Jagetia GC

ABSTRACT
The tremendous development of wireless communications (WC) technology during the past 30 years has transformed telecommunications and popularized mobile phones so much that, today, their number exceeds the global population. In addition to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and corresponding electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from natural sources like sun, cosmos, atmospheric discharges, etc., humans are exposed to man-made EMFs/EMR, especially at the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and the Radio Frequency (RF)/microwave bands. EMFs/EMR emitted by WC devices, such as mobile phones and corresponding antennas, contain RF carrier signals which are pulsed and modulated by ELF signals. We call these complex emissions WC EMFs. WC EMFs have generated great concern in the scientific community and the public, as they have been reported to cause headache, fatigue, tinnitus (microwave hearing), concentration problems, depression, memory loss, sleep, and hormonal disorders as short-term effects and even infertility and cancer as the long-term effects. This chapter has been written after collecting information from various search engines, including Google Scholar, PubMed, SciFinder, Science Direct, and other websites on the internet. The chapter focuses on the genotoxic cellular effects of WC EMFs on cultured cells, humans, and animals. Since WC EMFs combine both RF and ELF, in this chapter, both RF/WC and purely ELF man-made EMF studies are reviewed. Most studies conducted on the genotoxic effects of ELF or RF/WC EMFs have resulted in positive findings. Many human and animal studies have demonstrated that ELF or RF/ WC man-made EMFs increased the frequency of micronuclei and induced chromosome aberrations or DNA damage, including single- and double-strand breaks. It has also been demonstrated that these EMFs trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and changes in gene expression, particularly in genes involved in signal transduction, cytoskeleton formation, and cellular metabolism

Chapter 5: DNA and Chromosome Damage in human and animal cells, induced by Mobile Telephony EMFs and other stressors
Panagopoulos DJ

ABSTRACT
Induction of DNA fragmentation in fruit fy ovarian cells after in vivo exposure and chromatid type aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) after in vitro exposure to mobile telephony (MT) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from mobile phones are presented. In both cases, the biological samples were exposed in close distance to a commercially available second or third/ fourth generation (2G or 3G/4G) mobile phone handset during an active phone call in “talk” mode. The DNA fragmentation in fruit fy ovarian cells induced by 2G MT EMFs was compared with that induced by 50 Hz magnetic fields (MFs) similar to or much stronger than those of high-voltage power lines or a pulsed electric field (PEF) of similar characteristics with EMFs of atmospheric discharges (lightning) under identical conditions and experimental procedures. Respectively, the degree of chromosomal damage induced by in vitro exposure of HPBLs to 3G/4G MT EMF was compared to that induced by a high caffeine dose (~ 290 times above the permissible single dose for an adult human) administered to blood samples of the same subjects under identical conditions and experimental procedures. In the first case, it was shown that MT EMFs are much more damaging than high-voltage power line MFs or the PEF and more damaging than previous other stressors tested on the same biological system, such as certain cytotoxic chemicals, starvation, and dehydration. In the second case, it was shown that MT EMFs are similar and even more damaging than the above extreme caffeine dose. The combination of this caffeine dose and the 3G/4G MT EMF exposure increased dramatically the number of aberrations in the blood samples of all subjects, suggesting that MT EMF exposure may be significantly more dangerous when combined with other stressors. The above findings allow useful conclusions regarding EMF bioactivity, cell sensitivity, and relevant EMF exposure limits.

Chapter 6: The impacts of Wireless Communication Electromagnetic Fields on human reproductive biology
Miller K, Harrison K, Martin JH, Nixon B, and De Iuliis GN

ABSTRACT
The domain of reproductive biology underpins our understanding of human fertility and forms an important part of the debate on the safety of wireless communication (WC) electromagnetic fields (EMFs). While studies on the effects of anthropogenic EMFs on reproduction are of clear importance, recent evidence suggests that such studies are well placed to provide much-anticipated mechanistic insights on the health impacts of EMFs. Resolution of the biophysical mechanism(s) of action is one of the most important keys required to unlock scientific progression and enable accurate assessment of health risk. Growing recourse to assisted reproductive technologies (ART) across developed nations has justifiably given rise to concern about our decreasing collective fertility as a species. While this issue is certainly multi-factorial, the rise of anthropogenic EMF exposures and especially those of WC technology has aligned with a simultaneous global decline in male semen quality parameters. This well recognized link to reproductive health clearly underlines the unique sensitivity of our reproductive systems to environmental change and has prompted investigation of the impact of novel environmental insults such as WC EMFs. The current picture of how WC EMFs impact reproduction is not yet completely clear, but the field offers strong evidence of negative impacts on the cells, tissues, and processes that influence fertility. Accordingly, here we summarize the highest quality evidence outlining effects of WC EMFs on reproductive tissues and germ cells, and based on this, we propose a plausible mechanism for the molecular nature of the interaction of WC EMF with our biology. We also highlight some of the controversies in this field, including those pertaining to policy. Against this background, we contend that, in parallel with our advancing research, revising the safety limits of anthropogenic EMF exposures to our population is warranted.

Chapter 7: Effects of Wireless Communication Electromagnetic Fields on human and animal brain activity
Mohammed HS

ABSTRACT
The wide and increasing use of telecommunication equipment has necessitated the study of its effects on biological systems and, in particular, on brain activity. Due to the electrical nature of communication between neuronal cells in the brain, the effects of anthropogenic electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and corresponding electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the human and animal brain have become the focus of many studies. Electroencephalography (EEG) as a direct and sensitive tool for monitoring brain functional changes can be implemented to decipher these effects. Pulsation and modulation of the wireless communication (WC) electromagnetic signals at low frequencies produce complex radiation patterns with components in the Radio Frequency (RF)/microwave and the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) bands. This mixed type of EMFs/EMR we call wireless communication EMFs/EMR (WC EMFs/EMR). Increasing experimental and theoretical evidence emphasizes the crucial role of the ELF signal pulsation/modulation in the effects of WC EMFs/EMR on human and animal EEG, even at intensities well below the officially accepted limits for human exposure. The duration of exposure is an additional important parameter for the induced effects. The vast majority of recorded effects of WC EMFs/EMR on the human/animal brain are not accompanied by any significant heating, and thus, they are categorized as non-thermal effects. This chapter highlights the concepts related to the human and animal EEG and its alterations induced by anthropogenic EMFs and especially WC EMFs/EMR. Effects on wake and sleep human and animal EEG are described. The importance of animal studies is discussed, and the need for methodological standardization in experimental studies is emphasized. Proposed mechanisms for the action of anthropogenic EMFs on brain activity are reviewed. More studies investigating the non-thermal effects of WC EMFs/EMR on the human and animal brain are needed in order to further explore the effects, the interaction mechanisms, and the consequences of anthropogenic EMFs on health and wellbeing.

Chapter 8: Electrohypersensitivity as a worldwide man-made electromagnetic pathology: a review of the medical evidence
Belpomme D and Irigaray P

ABSTRACT
Much of the controversy over the causes of electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) lies in the absence of both recognized clinical criteria and objective biomarkers for widely accepted diagnosis. However, there are, presently, sufficient clinical, biological, and radiological data for EHS to be acknowledged as a distinctly well-defined, objectively identified, and characterized neurologic pathological disorder. Therefore, patients who self-report suffering from EHS should be diagnosed and treated on the basis of currently available biological tests and the use of suitable cerebral imaging. Because we have shown that EHS is frequently associated with MCS in EHS patients and that both those individualized clinical entities share a common pathophysiological mechanism for symptom occurrence, it appears that EHS and MCS can be identified as a unique neurologic pathological syndrome, whatever their precise causal origin is. In this review, we distinguish the etiology of EHS itself from the environmental causes that trigger symptoms and subsequent pathophysiological changes after EHS occurrence. Contrary to present scientifically unfounded claims, we indubitably refute the hypothesis of a nocebo effect to account for the genesis of EHS and its presentation in EHS self-reported patients. We also refute the erroneous concept that EHS could be reduced to a vague “functional impairment”. The hypersensitivity that characterizes EHS appears to be a persistent and most often irreversible pathological state, as is also the case for sensitivity to chemicals in MCS-bearing patients. Taking into consideration the WHO-proposed causality criteria, we argue that EHS may, in fact, be causally related to increased exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and, in a limited number of cases, to marketed environmental chemicals. We, therefore, appeal to all governments and international health institutions and, more particularly, the WHO to urgently consider this growing EHS-associated pandemic plague and to acknowledge EHS as a new real disorder.

Chapter 9: Carcinogenic effects of non-thermal exposure to Wireless Communication Electromagnetic Fields
Yakymenko I and Tsybulin O

ABSTRACT
In this chapter, we discuss alarming epidemiological and experimental data on carcinogenic effects of long-term non-thermal exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and corresponding electromagnetic radiation (EMR), mainly from wireless communication (WC) systems, termed as WC EMFs and WC EMR, respectively. Moreover, since all WC EMFs/EMR include Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) components in the form of pulsations and modulation, the chapter also examines corresponding data from purely ELF man-made EMFs. During the past two decades, a number of scientific reports have revealed that, under certain conditions, non-thermal exposure to WC EMFs/ EMR or modulated microwaves (MMWs) can substantially induce cancer progression in humans and animals. The carcinogenic effect of WC EMFs is typically manifested after long-term (usually ≥ 10 years) exposure, e.g., in mobile phone users. Nevertheless, even a year of operation of a powerful base station for mobile telephony (MT) reportedly resulted in a dramatic increase of cancer incidence among the population living nearby. In addition, studies in rodents unveiled a significant increase in carcinogenesis after 17–24 months of MMW exposure both in tumor-prone and intact animals. Data on widely accepted molecular markers of carcinogenesis confirm that exposure to non-thermal levels of MMWs or ELF man-made EMFs can induce tumorigenesis. It is becoming increasingly evident that assessment of biological effects of man-made EMFs/EMR based solely on thermal approach used in recommendations by certain international regulatory agencies, including the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), requires urgent and significant re-evaluation. We conclude that available scientific data strongly point to the need for re-elaboration of the current safety limits for man-made EMF exposures. We also emphasize that the everyday exposure of the population to WC EMFs/EMR should be regulated based on the Precautionary Principle, which implies maximum restriction of the risk factor till new, more unambiguous conclusions can be drawn regarding its safety.

C. Effects on Wildlife and Environment

Chapter 10: Effects of man-made and especially Wireless Communication Electromagnetic Fields on Wild Life
Balmori A

ABSTRACT
During the past few decades, millions of mobile telephony (MT) base antennas and antennas of other types of wireless communications (WC) have been installed around the world, in cities and in nature, including protected natural areas, in addition to pre-existing antennas (e.g., for television, radio broadcasting, radars, etc.) and high-voltage power lines. Only the aesthetic aspects or urban regulations have been generally considered in this deployment by the responsible authorities, while the biological and environmental impacts of the associated electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and corresponding non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emissions have not been assessed so far. Therefore, the effects on animals (including humans) and plants living around the anthropogenic EMF sources have not been considered. This deficit is particularly concerning because these EMFs/EMR are very different from natural EMFs/EMR, such as light, geomagnetic and geoelectric fields, atmospheric (Schumann) oscillations, or cosmic microwaves, which not only are not dangerous at normal intensities, but, on the contrary, they are vital to the environment and to all forms of life. This chapter reviews the available research on the effects of anthropogenic and especially WC EMFs on wildlife and the natural environment, published mainly during the past 30 years. It includes studies conducted both in the nature and in the laboratory, with vertebrates (mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, and reptiles), invertebrates (mostly insects), plants, and trees. Most of these studies have shown significant detrimental effects of the anthropogenic EMFs on wildlife, at intensities comparable to the current ambient exposure levels, suggesting that we are facing a new environmental pollutant which threatens the health and existence of these species. It is worrying that, despite the accumulating evidence, the people, governments, and even nature conservation organizations are uninformed and unaware of the risks that anthropogenic, and especially WC EMFs pose to the welfare of biodiversity and ultimately to humans.

D. Biophysical and Biochemical Mechanisms of action

Chapter 11: Mechanism of Ion Forced-Oscillation and Voltage-Gated Ion Channel Dysfunction by Polarized and Coherent Electromagnetic Fields
Panagopoulos DJ

ABSTRACT
Exposure of living organisms to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs) causes a variety of adverse biological and health effects including oxidative stress (OS), genetic damage, cell death, and cancer, as is today documented by a great number of indisputable scientific studies. How does this happen? Key signaling molecules in all cells are the mobile ions, the concentrations of which control all cellular functions. The mobile ions move in and out of the cells through ion channels. A most important class of ion channels are the voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) which open or close by polarized forces on the electric charges of their voltage-sensors generated by changes ≥ 30 mV in the membrane voltage. Polarization, coherence, and existence of Extremely Low Frequencies (ELFs) are common features of all man-made EMFs. Polarized and coherent oscillating EMFs force mobile ions to oscillate in parallel and in phase with them. This coordinated oscillation generates electrical forces on neighboring charges. The forces increase with increasing EMF intensity and decreasing EMF frequency. The oscillating ions close to the voltage-sensors of VGICs generate similar forces on them as those generated by 30 mV changes in the membrane voltage, causing irregular opening and closing of the VGICs. Continuance of such a dysfunction disrupts intracellular ionic concentrations, which determine the cell’s electrochemical balance and homeostasis. Impairment of this balance triggers overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells which create OS and can damage DNA and other critical biomolecules. Since no convincing corresponding non-thermal mechanism exists for Radio Frequency (RF) EMFs, and because all RF EMFs employed in wireless communications (WC) and other applications are necessarily combined with ELF pulsation, modulation, and random variability, it seems that all non-thermal biological effects of man-made EMFs attributed, until now, to RF EMFs are actually due to their ELF components and can be explained by this mechanism.

Chapter 12: Electromagnetic Field-induced dysfunction of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels, Oxidative Stress, DNA damage and related pathologies
Panagopoulos DJ, Yakymenko I, and Chrousos GP

ABSTRACT
A plethora of studies show that exposure of living organisms to man-made polarized and coherent electromagnetic felds (EMFs), especially in the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and the microwave/Radio Frequency (RF) bands, may lead to oxidative stress (OS) and DNA damage. DNA damage is associated with mutations, cell senescence, cell death, infertility, and other pathologies, including cancer. ELF EMF exposures from high-voltage power lines and complex “RF” EMF exposures from wireless communication (WC) antennas/devices have been associated with increased cancer risk. Almost all man-made microwave/RF EMFs, and especially those employed in WC, are combined with ELF components in the form of modulation, pulsation, and random variability. Thus, in addition to polarization/coherence, the existence of ELFs is a common feature of almost all man-made EMFs. Polarized/coherent ELF EMFs are predicted to induce dysfunction of voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) in cell membranes through the ion forced oscillation mechanism, and this has been verified by many experimental studies. Dysfunction of VGICs disrupts intracellular concentrations of critical ions, such as calcium, sodium, potassium, etc. This condition initiates biochemical processes leading to OS by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Such processes include a) increased calcium signaling, leading to nitric oxide (NO•) overproduction by the nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in various locations in the cell, and superoxide anion (O2•−) overproduction in the mitochondria; b) activation of NADPH/NADH oxidase in the plasma membrane, leading to increased production of O2•−; and c) dysfunction of the Na+/K+ pump (ATPase) in the plasma and internal cell membranes, triggering mitochondrial ROS production. At least these processes may result in excessive OS, leading to DNA damage and related diseases, including infertility and cancer. Thus, it seems that there is a plausible explanation for the genetic damage and related effects found to be induced by man-made EMF exposures as reported by many experimental and epidemiological studies.


Excerpts from the book re: 5G

"Today the massive deployment of the New Radio (NR) 5G (fifth generation) MT/WC system around the world by the telecommunications industry, which is expected to further increase considerably the existing ambient EMF levels, has already started and is rolling out, despite serious concerns expressed by scientists (Miller et al. 2018; 2019; Hardell and Nyberg 2020; Kostoff et al. 2020; Levitt et al. 2021)." 

"Recently, because of the highest microwave carrier frequencies (“mm-waves”) of the 5G, certain Russian studies reporting “non-thermal effects of microwave/mm-wave EMFs” came to light. These studies were written in Russian and became known mostly from reviews in English by other Russian scientists. Three such reviews are by Pakhomov et al. (1998), Betskii and Lebedeva (2004), and Belyaev (2005)." 

"At the same time, the massive deployment of the 5G MT/WC system in order to achieve ever increasing data transmission rates and the so-called Internet of Things (IoT) is well underway despite serious concerns expressed by many expert scientists who have asked for a moratorium in 5G deployment (Hardell and Nyberg 2020), as implied by the Precautionary Principle (Harremoes 2013; Read and O'Riordan 2017; Frank 2021). Indeed, the deployment of 5G will require a huge increase in the number of base antennas, combined with potential increases in transmission power/ intensity, and thousands of satellites in the atmosphere to complement the base antennas. Moreover, the increased amount of variable data transmitted by this new WC EMR type make it even more variable in intensity, waveform, frequency, etc., with inclusion of ever more variable ELF pulsations than previous types of MT/WC EMFs (Rappaport et al. 2013; Dahlman et al. 2018). Thus, 5G is expected to significantly increase public exposure and consequent health problems (Panagopoulos 2019; Hardell and Nyberg 2020; Kostoff et al. 2020; Levitt et al. 2021). 

"Strangely, in 2020, the ICNIRP increased the general public exposure limit for WC EMFs (2–6 GHz) averaged over 6 minutes (min) from 1000 to 4000 μW/cm2 (from 1 to 4 mW/cm2) instead of decreasing it (ICNIRP 1998; 2020). Also strange were the technical reports and papers referring to the characteristics of 5G that do not provide any information on the ULF/ELF/VLF components of this new WC EMF type, as if their authors are not aware of their existence (EPRS 2020; 2021; Karipidis et al. 2021). As already mentioned, carrying out studies involving WC EMF exposures without searching the low-frequency components and attributing any observed effects to the RF/ MW carrier can be very misleading. Similarly, reviewing and evaluating other studies by looking only at the RF/MW part of their EMF exposures and ignoring the low-frequency part or not examining whether the exposures are from real-life WC devices/antennas or simulated signals with fxed parameters and, thus, significantly less bioactive, as in EPRS (2020; 2021) (EPRS: European Parliamentary Research Service) and Karipidis et al. (2021), is a flawed methodology. Thus, not only are WC EMFs dangerous to life, but the evaluation of their risks by certain reviews and organizations is flawed as well. In view of the fact that the ULF/ELF/VLF EMFs are actually the most bioactive, the low frequency (ULF/ELF/VLF) pulsations of the most recent generations of WC signals such as the 4G and 5G should be in the forefront of bioelectromagnetic research in order to allow the correct evaluation of their risks." 

"The International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) is a private, non-governmental organization (NGO) that sets EMF exposure standards and claims that the only biological effects induced by EMFs are those due to tissue heating (thermal effects) in the case of RF EMFs, and denies any non-thermal effects (ICNIRP 1998; 2020; Hardell and Carlberg 2021). Facts show that only RF exposures with frequencies at the GHz range or higher and intensities greater than 0.1 mW/cm2 may induce tissue heating, usually of the order of 0.1–0.3°C, and, thus, the vast majority of EMF exposures at environmentally existing intensities, mainly due to ELF EMFs alone or combined with RF, are non-thermal (Panagopoulos et al. 2013b). Yet, the thermal effects are expected to become more significant with the higher frequencies of 5G (up to 100 GHz) (Neufeld and Kuster 2018). Even though ICNIRP accepts (only) the thermal effects of RF EMFs, it has recently increased the average 6-minute (min) exposure limit for 2–6 GHz from 1 mW/cm2 to 4 mW/cm2 (ICNIRP 2020). Thus, not even thermal effects are prevented by the ICNIRP limits anymore."

"In the 5G or New Radio (NR) system which is being deployed, the carrier frequencies are extending up to 80–100 GHz with two basic frequency ranges: 1) existing MT bands ≤6 GHz, and 2) 24.25–52.6 GHz with a tendency to increase. Moreover, 5G uses new technologies such as Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) for multi-stream transmission and high data rates, and adaptive beam-forming by use of antenna arrays (which can be used to amplify beam intensity – see Section 1.2.4 equations 1.23, 1.24). The 100 Hz and 1000 Hz pulsations (frame, subframe) are retained, and there are synchronization and reference pulsations at ~ 6–200 Hz called Synchronization Signal Blocks (SSB) (Rappaport et al. 2013; Dahlman et al. 2018)."

"5G MT employs higher MW carrier frequencies (called mm-waves) in order to accomplish higher quality of simulations (data transfer). But with higher frequencies, the heating of exposed living tissues increases (Eq. 1.31), while penetration through different materials (e.g., air, buildings, etc.) decreases (Eq. 1.2). In order to overcome the low penetration, the number of antennas must be significantly increased, and the intensity of the emissions as well. Under such conditions, thermal effects in exposed humans cannot be excluded in addition to the already existing non-thermal effects. Studies have theoretically predicted the induction of significant thermal effects (Neufeld and Kuster 2018; Thielens et al. 2018; 2020). These facts further justify the concerns expressed by the scientific community against the installation of 5G (Hardell and Nyberg 2020; Kostoff et al. 2020; Panagopoulos 2020)."

"In a recent review of studies of the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS 2021)(authored by Thielens and reviewed by Vacha and Vian) regarding environmental impacts of 5G, there is no mention of pulsations or any other ELF components, and the only examined frequency band of the radiation is the carrier (MW) frequency. Moreover, the importance of the inherent variability of the real WC exposures in inducing biological/health effects is not even mentioned, and studies are criticized for having used real-life emissions from mobile phones for the exposures, which, as explained, is the only realistic exposure method (Panagopoulos et al. 2015b; 2016; Panagopoulos 2017; 2019a; Leach et al. 2018; Kostoff et al. 2020). Thus, the most important parameters of WC EMFs (low frequency components, variability) were completely ignored...."

"Another recent review of 107 experimental and 31 epidemiological studies with “RF” EMFs above 6 GHz (in order to assess bioactivity of 5G) by members of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency again makes no mention of pulsations or any other ELF components in the 5G or in the examined studies, and no mention whether there is any similarity of the signals produced by generators in the studies with those of the 5G apart from the carrier frequency. Although most of the reviewed studies had reported genotoxic and various other effects, the authors of the review found “no confirmed evidence” of adverse effects on human health and criticized the studies for not being “independently replicated” and for employing “low quality methods of exposure assessment and control” (Karipidis et al. 2021). The same authors also made a “meta-analysis” of the same 107 experimental studies and found that the studies “do not confirm an association between low-level mm-waves and biological effects” (Wood et al. 2021). They also estimated the “effect size” (an arbitrary measure of bioactivity) among studies that reported “continuous wave” and “modulated” “RF” EMFs and found “non-significant difference”. But the “effect size” of the studies reporting modulation was found to be almost double (4.3 ± 1.6) than that of the studies reporting “continuous wave” (2.2 ± 0.6), and it is strange how this difference was reported as “nonsignificant”. Moreover, as explained in the present chapter and in Panagopoulos (2021), it is unlikely that any MW generator does not contain on/off pulsations, even only for energy-saving reasons, as in radars. Even the onset and removal of an EMF exposure alone may produce the greatest effects (Goodman et al. 1995)."

"Novel 5G technology is being rolled out in several densely populated cities, although potential chronic health or environmental impacts have not been evaluated and are not being followed. Higher carrier frequencies (shorter wavelength) associated with 5G do not penetrate the body as deeply as frequencies from older technologies, but the low frequency pulsations do. Moreover, the effects may be systemic (at whole organism level) (Beltzalel et al. 2018; Russell 2018). The range and magnitude of potential impacts of 5G technologies are under-researched, although important biological outcomes have been reported with millimeter wavelength exposure. These include oxidative stress and altered gene expression, effects on skin, and systemic effects such as on immune function (Szmigielski 2013; Yakymenko et al. 2016; Russell, 2018). In vivo studies reporting resonance with human sweat ducts (Beltzalel et al. 2018), acceleration of bacterial and viral replication, and other endpoints indicate the potential for novel as well as more commonly recognized biological impacts of this range of frequencies and highlight the need for research before population-wide continuous exposures. While information on the carrier frequencies of 5G technology are available in the related technical literature, there is no information regarding the lower frequency components (pulsations, modulations) of this new type of WC EMFs/EMR."

"Even if the risk of WC EMR per individual is low, WC EMR is now widely distributed and could become a major public health problem, especially if the planned introduction of 5G proceeds. If 5G is rolled out, we can expect to see an increase in all of the conditions associated with exposure to WC EMR. A moratorium on the roll-out of 5G is essential."

"The 5G system involves even higher carrier frequencies (up to 100 GHz) in order to be able to transmit higher amounts of data per second, and a much denser network of base antennas of potentially increased power and directional beams in order to compensate for the energy scattering loss due to the higher carrier frequency (Sauter 2011; Sesia et al. 2011; Neufeld and Kuster 2018; Agiwal and Jin 2018; Dahlman et al. 2018). A part of the scientific community, including most of those who are experts in the biological and health effects of WC EMFs, has expressed strong objections to 5G installation with concerns of highly increased health risk (McClelland and Jaboin 2018; Miller et al. 2018; 2019; Panagopoulos 2019a; 2019b; Hardell and Nyberg 2020; Hardell and Carlberg 2020; Kostoff et al. 2020)."

"Given the unique exteriorization from the human body, the temperature of the testis is 2°C–3°C lower than rectal temperature, with 35°C considered optimal for spermatogenesis (Saikhun et al. 1998). A review of 5G WC-related EMF studies and expected health effects has highlighted that there is an essential need for more research into local heat impacts on body surfaces, such as the skin and eyes, with improvement to study design necessary for safety assessment (Simkó and Mattsson 2019). The attention to exposed surface area (and not volume) requires further consideration because of the very shallow penetration depth of 5G and millimeter wave* (mmW) carrier frequencies. Although such frequencies have a very shallow penetration depth, contrastingly, associated ELFs (due to pulsation and modulation of the WC EMFs) have considerable tissue penetration depth, calling attention to the accountability of both surface area and volume. Investigation into whether there are any plausible health-related effects associated with the skin is under way (Karipidis et al. 2021) and, while requiring careful corroboration in the scientific community, pronounces the further significance for the potentially vulnerable exteriorized human testes (Miller and Torday 2019). Discussion concerning non-thermal modes of action in human reproductive systems, which constitute the vast majority of recorded effects, is the feature in this chapter and is addressed below; however, possible micro-thermal impacts are clearly not to be neglected, as they form a key part of the debate and must be explicitly considered in any research design in this field."

Tuesday, January 3, 2023

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on radio frequency and other non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) monthly since 2016. The collection contains more than 1,700 abstracts and links to more than 1,800 papers. Several hundred EMF scientists around the world receive these updates.

To download Volume 2 which contains abstracts of papers published since 2021 (including new papers listed below) click on the following link (577 page pdf):

To download Volume 1 which contains abstracts of papers published from 2016 to 2020
click on the following link (875 page pdf):


Abstracts for recently published papers appear below.

Scientific evidence invalidates health assumptions underlying the FCC and ICNIRP exposure limit determinations for radiofrequency radiation: implications for 5G

International Commission on the Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. Scientific evidence invalidates health assumptions underlying the FCC and ICNIRP exposure limit determinations for radiofrequency radiation: implications for 5G. Environmental Health. (2022) 21:92. doi.org:10.1186/s12940-022-00900-9.

Abstract

In the late-1990s, the FCC and ICNIRP adopted radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure limits to protect the public and workers from adverse effects of RFR. These limits were based on results from behavioral studies conducted in the 1980s involving 40–60-minute exposures in 5 monkeys and 8 rats, and then applying arbitrary safety factors to an apparent threshold specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg. The limits were also based on two major assumptions: any biological effects were due to excessive tissue heating and no effects would occur below the putative threshold SAR, as well as twelve assumptions that were not specified by either the FCC or ICNIRP. In this paper, we show how the past 25 years of extensive research on RFR demonstrates that the assumptions underlying the FCC’s and ICNIRP’s exposure limits are invalid and continue to present a public health harm. Adverse effects observed at exposures below the assumed threshold SAR include non-thermal induction of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, cardiomyopathy, carcinogenicity, sperm damage, and neurological effects, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Also, multiple human studies have found statistically significant associations between RFR exposure and increased brain and thyroid cancer risk. Yet, in 2020, and in light of the body of evidence reviewed in this article, the FCC and ICNIRP reaffirmed the same limits that were established in the 1990s. Consequently, these exposure limits, which are based on false suppositions, do not adequately protect workers, children, hypersensitive individuals, and the general population from short-term or long-term RFR exposures. Thus, urgently needed are health protective exposure limits for humans and the environment. These limits must be based on scientific evidence rather than on erroneous assumptions, especially given the increasing worldwide exposures of people and the environment to RFR, including novel forms of radiation from 5G telecommunications for which there are no adequate health effects studies.

Key points
  • ICBE-EMF scientists report that exposure limits for radiofrequency (or wireless) radiation set by ICNIRP and the FCC are based on invalid assumptions and outdated science, and are not protective of human health and wildlife.
  • ICBE-EMF calls for an independent assessment of the effects and risks of radiofrequency radiation based on scientific evidence from peer-reviewed studies conducted over the past 25 years. The aim of such assessment would be to establish health protective exposure standards for workers, the public, and the environment.
  • The public should be informed of the health risks of wireless radiation and encouraged to take precautions to minimize exposures, especially for children, pregnant women and people who are electromagnetically hypersensitive.
  • ICBE-EMF calls for an immediate moratorium on further rollout of 5G wireless technologies until safety is demonstrated and not simply assumed.

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Limiting exposure to radiofrequency radiation: the principles and possible criteria for health protection

Hinrikus H, Koppel T, Lass J, Roosipuu P, Bachmann M. Limiting exposure to radiofrequency radiation: the principles and possible criteria for health protection. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 2022. doi:10.1080/09553002.2023.2159567.

Abstract

Purpose. The current paper is aimed to discuss the principles and criteria for health protection to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) considering both thermal and non-thermal mechanisms to evaluate the reasonable level for the limits relevant to control the level of RF EMF for the general public in the living environment. The study combines the conclusions of analyses published in recent reviews on RF EMF effects and the data from RF EMF measurements in different countries to select the possible criteria and to derive proposals for the health protection limits on the level of RF EMF following the ALARA principle - as low as reasonably achievable.

Conclusions. Consideration of not only energetic but also coherent qualities of RF EMF leads to two different models for determining the impact of non-ionizing radiation on human health. The thermal model, based on absorption of electromagnetic energy, has a threshold limiting the heating of tissues. The non-thermal model, based on the ability of coherent electric fields to introduce biological effects at constant temperature, has no threshold. Therefore, the impact of RF EMF on human health cannot be excluded but can be minimized by limiting the level of the radiation. The limits can be selected based on indirect criteria. The minimal level of RF EMF that has caused a biological effect is about 2 V/m. The level of long-term broadcast radiation is 6 V/m and the people can be assumed to be adapted to that level without observable health problems. The level of RF EMF measured during last years does not exceed 5 V/m and the level is decreasing with newer generations of telecommunication technology. Limiting the level of RF EMF to the peak value of 6 V/m hopefully reduces the health risk to a minimal level people are adapted to and does not restrict the further development of telecommunication technology.

Conclusions

The consideration of not only energetic but also coherent qualities of RF EMF leads to two different models in investigation of RF EMF biological effects and determining the impact of the non-ionizing radiation on human health. The thermal model based on absorption of electromagnetic energy has a threshold limiting the heating of tissues. The non-thermal model based on the ability of coherent electric fields to introduce biological effects at the constant temperature has no threshold. The impact of RF EMF on human health cannot be excluded but can be reduced, limiting the level of the radiation.

The limit, due to the missing threshold, can be selected based on indirect criteria. The minimal levels of RF EMF that have caused a biological effect are 1.4 - 2.45 V/m. The level of long-term broadcast radiation is 6 V/m; people can be assumed to be adapted to that level. The results of measurements over the last decade indicated the level of RF EMF lower than 5 V/m. The majority of measurements have indicated much lower levels. All these values are of the same order of magnitude.

Limiting the level of EF EMF to the peak value of 6 V/m hopefully reduces the health risk to a minimal level determined by long existing broadcast radiation people are adapted to without restricting the further development of telecommunication technology. The technology of telecommunication systems is in permanent progress. The newer generations of technology employ lower levels of radiation, shorter time intervals and less energy to provide high quality and speed for transmission of information. Switching off older generations (2G, 3G), accompanying the development of technology today, significantly reduces the level of RF EMF and therefore also reduces the possible health risk.

The current level of knowledge allows us to formulate the suggestions only for the threshold and frequency dependence in the models for RF EMF impact. The dynamic relationships between the intensity of the effect and the level of RF EMF or time spent in the radiation are still unknown. The temporal dynamics is most complicated to be assessed because people and animals are living permanently in RF EMF. Further investigations are highly needed for long-term RF EMF effects and in the frequency range higher than 6000 MHz.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09553002.2023.2159567

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Wireless technology is an environmental stressor requiring new understanding and approaches in health care

McCredden JE, Cook N, Weller S, Leach V. Wireless technology is an environmental stressor requiring new understanding and approaches in health care Front. Public Health, 20 December 2022. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.986315.

Abstract

Electromagnetic signals from everyday wireless technologies are an ever-present environmental stressor, affecting biological systems. In this article, we substantiate this statement based on the weight of evidence from papers collated within the ORSAA database (ODEB), focusing on the biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation. More specifically, the experiments investigating exposures from real-world devices and the epidemiology studies examining the effects of living near mobile phone base stations were extracted from ODEB and the number of papers showing effects was compared with the number showing no effects. The results showed that two-thirds of the experimental and epidemiological papers found significant biological effects. The breadth of biological and health categories where effects have been found was subsequently explored, revealing hundreds of papers showing fundamental biological processes that are impacted, such as protein damage, biochemical changes and oxidative stress. This understanding is targeted toward health professionals and policy makers who have not been exposed to this issue during training. To inform this readership, some of the major biological effect categories and plausible mechanisms of action from the reviewed literature are described. Also presented are a set of best practice guidelines for treating patients affected by electromagnetic exposures and for using technology safely in health care settings. In conclusion, there is an extensive evidence base revealing that significant stress to human biological systems is being imposed by exposure to everyday wireless communication devices and supporting infrastructure. This evidence is compelling enough to warrant an update in medical education and practice.

Excerpt

Indeed, the data from ODEB (see Table 1) corroborates the above research findings, by showing that the type of signal used: real or simulated, can affect study outcomes. Within the 1,106 relevant experimental papers selected from ODEB using the quality of reporting criteria above, there were proportionally more “Effect” outcomes when the experiments used real-world signals and proportionally more “No Effect” outcomes when simulated signals were used. This relationship between signal type and biological effect outcome was statistically significant (p < 0.05), indicating that signal type needs to be clearly articulated in reporting because it can potentially bias outcomes. This result also supports our decision to investigate further only the experimental papers that used real-world signals. For these papers, shown in the final column of Table 1, there was a significantly higher proportion of papers showing effects (79.1%) than those reporting no effects (15.3%).

Conclusion

Man-made radiofrequency signals from everyday devices and communications technology infrastructure constitute an environmental stressor, well-documented as creating various adverse biological effects. Plausible mechanisms in which harm can occur initially on a cellular level have been proposed, and these mechanisms are known to have subsequent downstream health effects. The application of the ICRP radiation protection philosophy and framework for the protection of members of the public is over 90 years in the making and is absent in setting exposure limits for this form of (wireless) radiation. The extensive evidence base is compelling enough to call for an update in medical education and practice. Out of care for their patients, healthcare workers may develop their understanding using the practical methods introduced in this discussion paper. Furthermore, modern institutional practices need to be reviewed to ensure that any harm from electromagnetic fields is reduced as much as reasonably possible while still providing optimal health care.


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Controversy in Electromagnetic Safety

Chou CK. Controversy in Electromagnetic Safety. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Dec 16;19(24):16942. doi: 10.3390/ijerph192416942.

Abstract

The dramatic increase in electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the environment has led to public health concerns around the world. Based on over 70 years of research in this field, the World Health Organization (WHO) has concluded that scientific knowledge in this area is now more extensive than for most chemicals and that current evidence does not confirm the existence of any health consequences from exposure to low-level electromagnetic fields. However, controversy on electromagnetic safety continues. Two international groups, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, have been addressing this issue for decades. While the goal of both groups is to provide human exposure limits that protect against established or substantiated adverse health effects, there are groups that advocate more stringent exposure limits, based on possible biological effects. Both biological and engineering complexities make the validity of many EMF studies questionable. Controversies in research, publication, standards, regulations and risk communication concerning electromagnetic safety will be addressed in this article. The WHO is conducting systematic reviews on the RF biological effects literature. If scientists would discuss the safety issues of EMFs based on validated scientific facts and not on unreproducible possible effects and opinions, the controversy would be minimized or resolved.

Conducting evaluations of evidence that are transparent, timely and can lead to health-protective actions

Chartres N, Sass JB, Gee D, Bălan SA, Birnbaum L, Cogliano VJ, Cooper C, Fedinick KP, Harrison RM, Kolossa-Gehring M, Mandrioli D, Mitchell MA, Norris SL, Portier CJ, Straif K, Vermeire T. Conducting evaluations of evidence that are transparent, timely and can lead to health-protective actions. Environ Health. 2022 Dec 5;21(1):123. doi: 10.1186/s12940-022-00926-z.

Abstract

Background: In February 2021, over one hundred scientists and policy experts participated in a web-based Workshop to discuss the ways that divergent evaluations of evidence and scientific uncertainties are used to delay timely protection of human health and the environment from exposures to hazardous agents. The Workshop arose from a previous workshop organized by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in 2008 and which also drew on case studies from the EEA reports on 'Late Lessons from Early Warnings' (2001, 2013). These reports documented dozens of hazardous agents including many chemicals, for which risk reduction measures were delayed for decades after scientists and others had issued early and later warnings about the harm likely to be caused by those agents.

Results: Workshop participants used recent case studies including Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), Extremely Low Frequency - Electrical Magnetic Fields (ELF-EMF fields), glyphosate, and Bisphenol A (BPA) to explore myriad reasons for divergent outcomes of evaluations, which has led to delayed and inadequate protection of the public's health. Strategies to overcome these barriers must, therefore, at a minimum include approaches that 1) Make better use of existing data and information, 2) Ensure timeliness, 3) Increase transparency, consistency and minimize bias in evidence evaluations, and 4) Minimize the influence of financial conflicts of interest.

Conclusion: The recommendations should enhance the production of "actionable evidence," that is, reliable evaluations of the scientific evidence to support timely actions to protect health and environments from exposures to hazardous agents. The recommendations are applicable to policy and regulatory settings at the local, state, federal and international levels.


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Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields above 100 MHz on Fauna and Flora: Workshop Report

Pophof B, Henschenmacher B, Kattnig DR, Kuhne J, Vian A, Ziegelberger G. Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields above 100 MHz on Fauna and Flora: Workshop Report. Health Phys. 2023 Jan 1;124(1):31-38. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001625.

Abstract

This report summarizes the effects of anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields with frequencies above 100 MHz on flora and fauna presented at an international workshop held on 5-7 November 2019 in Munich, Germany. Anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at these frequencies are commonplace; e.g., originating from transmitters used for terrestrial radio and TV broadcasting, mobile communication, wireless internet networks, and radar technologies. The effects of these radiofrequency fields on flora, fauna, and ecosystems are not well studied. For high frequencies exceeding 100 MHz, the only scientifically established action mechanism in organisms is the conversion of electromagnetic into thermal energy. In accordance with that, no proven scientific evidence of adverse effects in animals or plants under realistic environmental conditions has yet been identified from exposure to low-level anthropogenic radiofrequency fields in this frequency range. Because appropriate field studies are scarce, further studies on plants and animals are recommended.


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Biological Effects of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields from 0 to 100 MHz on Fauna and Flora: Workshop Report

Pophof B, Henschenmacher B, Kattnig DR, Kuhne J, Vian A, Ziegelberger G. Biological Effects of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields from 0 to 100 MHz on Fauna and Flora: Workshop Report. Health Phys. 2023 Jan 1;124(1):39-52. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001624.

Abstract

This report summarizes effects of anthropogenic electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 0 to 100 MHz on flora and fauna, as presented at an international workshop held on 5-7 November in 2019 in Munich, Germany. Such fields may originate from overhead powerlines, earth or sea cables, and from wireless charging systems. Animals and plants react differentially to anthropogenic fields; the mechanisms underlying these responses are still researched actively. Radical pairs and magnetite are discussed mechanisms of magnetoreception in insects, birds, and mammals. Moreover, several insects as well as marine species possess specialized electroreceptors, and behavioral reactions to anthropogenic fields have been reported. Plants react to experimental modifications of their magnetic environment by growth changes. Strong adverse effects of anthropogenic fields have not been described, but knowledge gaps were identified; further studies, aiming at the identification of the interaction mechanisms and the ecological consequences, are recommended.


Excerpt

Taken together, the effects of electromagnetic fields on individual organisms have now been widely investigated for a multitude of plant and animal species. However, this does not yet address the ecological consequences of this perception in the context of increased anthropogenic EMF emissions. This will require studies of natural populations in their natural habitat and entire ecosystems, including the evaluation of the relevant physical variables over Earth’s surface, along the seabed, in space and time, and detailed biological information on the relevant states of populations. Besides deciphering the action mechanism, this is a field of great demand for assessing the actual environmental effects of steadily increasing EMF emissions. Finally, and importantly, many results from isolated but often paradigm-forming studies have to be independently reproduced.

In particular, due to the ongoing technological development, the following topics are of special importance:

• Wireless charging and safety of small animals;
• Ecological consequences of the known behavioral effects of electric and magnetic fields from widespread marine cables;
• Ecological consequences of electromagnetic noise, known to disrupt animal (e.g., migratory bird) orientation in the laboratory, on animal orientation in the natural environment; • Ecological consequences of observed behavioral effects of ELF-EMFs from powerlines, e.g., on insects and mammals; and
• Pinpointing sensory structures and action mechanism, whereby it is expected that progress for one species can fertilize progress in others

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Effect of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted by Modern Cellphones on Sperm Motility and Viability: An In Vitro Study

Chu KY, Khodamoradi K, Blachman-Braun R, et al. Effect of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted by Modern Cellphones on Sperm Motility and Viability: An In Vitro Study. Eur Urol Focus. 2022;S2405-4569(22)00247-4. doi:10.1016/j.euf.2022.11.004.

Abstract

Background: Cellphones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) for transmission of data for social media communication, web browsing, and music/podcast streaming. Use of Bluetooth ear buds has probably prolonged the time during which cellphones reside in the trouser pockets of men. It has been postulated that RF-EMR increases oxidative stress and induces free radical formation.

Objective: To investigate the effect of wireless-spectrum (4G, 5G, and WiFi) RF-EMR emitted by modern smartphones on sperm motility and viability and explore whether these effects can be mitigated using a physical barrier or distance.

Design, setting, and participants: Semen samples were obtained from fertile normozoospermic men aged 25-35 yr. A current-generation smartphone in talk mode was used as the RF-EMR source. A WhatsApp voice call was made using either 4G, 5G, or WiFi wireless connectivity. We determined if exposure effects were mitigated by either a cellphone case or greater distance from the semen sample.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The semen samples were analyzed according to 2010 World Health Organization laboratory guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.28.

Results and limitations: We observed decreases in sperm motility and viability with WiFi exposure but not with exposure to 4G or 5G RF-EMR. With large variability among smartphones, continued research on exposure effects is needed.

Conclusions: Our exploratory study revealed that sperm motility and viability are negatively impacted by smartphones that use the WiFi spectrum for data transmission.

Patient summary: We looked at the effect of cellphone use on sperm motility and viability. We found that cellphones using WiFi connectivity for data usage have harmful effects on semen quality in men.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36379868/

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A Meta-Integrative Qualitative Study on the Hidden Threats of Smart Buildings/Cities and Their Associated Impacts on Humans and the Environment

Raveendran R, Tabet Aoul KA. A Meta-Integrative Qualitative Study on the Hidden Threats of Smart Buildings/Cities and Their Associated Impacts on Humans and the Environment. Buildings. 2021; 11(6):251. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings11060251

Abstract

Smart buildings deploying 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT) are viewed as the next sustainable solution that can be seamlessly integrated in all sectors of the built environment. The benefits are well advertised and range from inducing wellness and monitoring health, amplifying productivity, to energy savings. Comparatively, potential negative risks are less known and mostly relate to cyber-security threats and radiation effects. This meta-integrative qualitative synthesis research sought to determine the possible underlying demerits from developing smart buildings, and whether they outweigh the possible benefits. The study identified five master themes as threats of smart buildings: a surfeit of data centers, the proliferation of undersea cables, the consternation of cyber-security threats, electromagnetic pollution, and E-waste accumulation. Further, the paper discusses the rebound impacts on humans and the environment as smart buildings’ actualization becomes a reality. The study reveals that, although some aspects of smart buildings do have their tangible benefits, the potential repercussions from these not-so-discussed threats could undermine the former when all perspectives and interactions are analyzed collectively rather than in isolation.

Excerpt

4.4. Master Theme 4: Electromagnetic Pollution

This is generally an identified problem with the deployment of smart buildings using 5G and IoT devices. Many countries have called to ban 5G in general until impartial research data can be made available, and several researchers around the globe have submitted a “5G appeal” [105]. The radiation effects could range from causing headaches, insomnia, to DNA alteration, along with the possibility of creating other biological damages such as hormonal imbalances, reproductive issues, tumors, nerve damage, and eye damage [65,106]. Belpomme (2015) concluded from a comprehensive study that the EMF effect could worsen health conditions related to oxidative stress, a deficit in melatonin metabolism, and is more reflected among electro-sensitive people [107]. Several studies by bio-chemical and medical researchers found that high frequencies can significantly change the heart rate, chromatin (DNA complex and proteins), and melatonin, as well as other hormonal changes [59,71,108]. Kojima et al., (2018) revealed that though most of the effects were thermally related as millimeter frequencies are quickly absorbed by water, it can induce damaging effects without the heating of the tissues, i.e., nonthermal effects that are more dangerous [109].

As a guideline, the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) adopted the SAR (specific absorption rate) limit value of 1.6 W/Kg for 1 g of tissue approved by ANSI and IEEE [110]. However, current FCC regulations check only the SAR value, which is only a measure of the thermal effects; on the contrary, several studies have concluded that evaluations other than SAR are necessary to fully understand the impact of biological effects other than the thermal effect [111,112]. Scientific evidence suggests that even radiation limits well below the regulatory standards cause severe damage to health even from 2G and 3G [67,105]. Hardell (2017) pointed out that the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have only classified the risk from wireless cellphones as carcinogenic 2B (for instance, potentially cancerous).

Buildings are generally subjected to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) pollution from two sources: extremely-low-frequency (ELF) and high-frequency wireless devices. Leukemia in children, immunization loss, genes and DNA alteration, cancers, and tumors have been associated with increased exposure from these indoor sources since the 1960s [112]. A smart building that is operated wirelessly with very high frequencies (up to 300 GHz) can put the occupants at risk, particularly the most vulnerable. Moreover, humans have natural bio-electromagnetism [113] in them, and cells, tissues, and skin regeneration, including the sleep process, rely on natural frequencies from 0 to 30 Hz [114,115,116]. It has been reported that, regardless of the frequency level, being exposed to artificial frequencies is detrimental to human health [112].

Furthermore, 5G cellular networks deploy many small cells placed at shorter distances on poles and buildings [117], which can easily aggravate, to a greater extent, the biological effects [68,72]. Hence, many scientists, health professionals, and environmentalists have enquired about the potential problems of continually being in a smart building with numerous IoT devices emitting radiation at high frequencies, including bio-wearable devices [73,94].

Electropollution radiation can also be a hazard to the living organisms of the ecosystem [61,66,69,70]. This problem is specifically crucial for organisms (living on land and in water) that depend strongly on Earth’s natural electromagnetic field for their nutrition and survival [63,112]. The most significant example of such phenomena is the collapse of bee colonies as their navigation is affected by wireless radiation, making them unable to return to their hives or even find food [62,118]. A study spanning almost a decade by Selsam et al., (2016) found out that trees are significantly damaged by radiation, particularly those situated near cellular base stations, and the damage intensifies with aging [119].


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Multi-objective optimisation of human exposure for various 5G network topologies in Switzerland

Castellanos G, De Gheselle S, Martens L, Kuster N, Joseph W, Deruyck M, Kuehn S. Multi-objective optimisation of human exposure for various 5G network topologies in Switzerland. Computer Networks.216, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.comnet.2022.109255.

Abstract

The constant increase in the required user capacity and the evolution of wireless network technologies impact the exposure that users experience from wireless networks. This paper evaluates various 5G network topologies regarding human exposure, mobile communication quality, and sustainability. We assess human exposure, based on a novel Exposure Ratio (ER) metric, in 5G networks that include Massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MaMIMO) and compare them with existing 4G deployments in three environments in Switzerland. The quality and sustainability of mobile communication are evaluated by extrapolating data rates from mobile operators to the year 2030. A multi-objective optimisation algorithm is implemented to design the 5G network topologies, maximising the user coverage while minimising the downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) exposure. An extensive set of simulations investigated three municipalities, three operators plus one unified network, three use cases (UL/DL data rates), three scenarios (indoor and outdoor coverage), and two optimisation methods. The study results confirm that the human exposure in a 5G network is dominated by the UL being ten times larger than the DL exposure. Furthermore, comparing a 5G deployment with 10 times the traffic capacity of a real 4G network, DL exposure increases by 36% on average, and UL exposure decreases by up to 75% depending on the scenario. Regarding indoor coverage versus outdoor only, our results show that DL exposure can be reduced by a factor of 10 if only outdoor coverage is targeted. Finally, the study concludes that from the human exposure perspective, the ideal network should use 5G MaMIMO and be optimised for both UL and DL exposure.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389128622003231

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EMF Exposure Level for Uplink and Downlink of 5G Network Using Ray Tracing Approach

Salem, M.A., Lim, H.S., Chua, M.Y., Chien, S.F., Zarakovitis, C.C., Ng , C.Y., Rahman, N.Z.A., 2022. Investigation of EMF Exposure Level for Uplink and Downlink of 5G Network Using Ray Tracing Approach. International Journal of Technology. Volume 13(6), pp. 1298-1307.

Abstract

To provide enhanced mobile services, the 5G system is expected to further densify its network infrastructure and scale up the deployment of massive antenna arrays that emit high-energy beams using the millimeter wave spectrum. These radically new features will significantly impact the EMF exposure level in the 5G networks. In this paper, EMF exposure for 5G mobile networks in a dense urban environment is investigated using a raytracing approach for the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL).  A massive multi-input multi-output antenna with multiuser beamforming capability is considered for the 5G base station. For DL, the maximum rate transmission (MRT) technique is used to direct the beams toward all the active users, and total power density (PD) is used to evaluate the EMF exposure level. On the other hand, EMF exposure due to UL is investigated using electric field strength and specific absorption rate (SAR). The proposed ray-tracing based EMF evaluation framework exploits detailed information of the scenarios, including 3D building geometry, EM characteristics, multipath propagation, user locations and beamforming radiation pattern, to effectively evaluate the EMF’s spatial variation levels. Following this evaluation procedure, the impact of different user densities and distributions is analyzed in terms of PD and SAR. Results show that for DL, the peak PD increases from 6.65 to 24.92 dBm/m2 when the number of active users in the area increases from a single user to 100%. Considering the worst-case scenario, the PD exposure reaches 62% of the ICNIRP’s limit. Saturation of the spatial EMF distribution occurs when the number of active DL beams is above 25%. For UL, within 5m radius of the user’s location, the average E-field may increase from 2.40 to 3.98 V/m. (increment of 66%) if the number of active users in the area increases from 25% to 100%. Moreover, when 100% of the users are actively transmitting, there is only a 10% probability that the SAR may exceed 0.06 W/kg (or 3% of the ICNIRP’s limit).

Open access paper: https://ijtech.eng.ui.ac.id/article/view/5928

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RF-EMF Exposure for sub-6GHz 5G NR Massive MIMO Base Station

Sali A, Wali AQ, Osman AF. Evaluation of RF-EMF Exposure for sub-6GHz 5G NR Massive MIMO Base Station. 2022 IEEE 6th International Symposium on Telecommunication Technologies (ISTT), 2022, pp. 16-21, doi: 10.1109/ISTT56288.2022.9966552.

Abstract

The 5G network is intended to accommodate a significant quantity of mobile data traffic and a great number of wireless connections. It improves cost and power consumption; it offers ultra-low latency and ultra-high dependability to enable new services in various sectors. However, the general public is concerned about the possible health dangers linked with 5G equipment's Radio Frequency (RF) radiation, and numerous localities are actively lobbying to prevent 5G implementation. This research measures the maximum exposure emitted by a 5G base station operating on 3.5 GHz. Considering the transmitted power changes over time with data traffic, the analysis is based on a code selective method. Measurements were conducted at two different distances and three different times to investigate the impacts of distance and time on the level of RF-EMF radiation. The maximum radiation from the base station is 11.69 V/m, far less than the accepted limit by the ICNIRP standard.


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Realistic Human Exposure at 3.5 GHz and 28 GHz for Distributed and Collocated MaMIMO in Indoor Environments

R. Wydaeghe et al. Realistic Human Exposure at 3.5 GHz and 28 GHz for Distributed and Collocated MaMIMO in Indoor Environments using Hybrid Ray-Tracing and FDTD. IEEE Access, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3227107.

Abstract

Realistic human downlink exposure at 3.5 and 28 GHz to electromagnetic fields is evaluated for distributed and collocated base stations using a hybrid ray-tracing/finite-difference time-domain method. For the first time, the absorbed power density is computed for distributed massive multiple-input multiple-output (DMaMIMO) 6G base stations (BS) at 28 GHz. The results are compared with 3.5 GHz 5G base stations. Computational costs are drastically increased at 28 GHz. A large analysis is realized by speed improvements and using two configurations. In the first, exposure distributions of DMaMIMO BS show clusters of low and high exposure. These clusters disappear when results are normalized with respect to the incoming power at the user. In the second, the influence of BS to user distance in line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenarios shows expected results. This includes a power law relationship in LOS and shadowing in NLOS. The vast majority of exposure quantities are less than 4% of the limits of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation. Basic restrictions are respected when reference quantities are set to their limits. With equal power, distributed base stations contribute 2 to 3 times less to exposure than collocated base stations. Expressed as a ratio to their limits set by ICNIRP, the basic quantities are 5 to 10 dB lower than the reference quantities.


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Towards Outdoor Electromagnetic Field Exposure Mapping Generation Using Conditional GANs

Mallik M, Tesfay AA, Allaert B, Kassi R, Egea-Lopez E, Molina-Garcia-Pardo JM, Wiart J, Gaillot DP, Clavier L. Towards Outdoor Electromagnetic Field Exposure Mapping Generation Using Conditional GANs. Sensors (Basel). 2022 Dec 9;22(24):9643. doi: 10.3390/s22249643.

Abstract

With the ongoing fifth-generation cellular network (5G) deployment, electromagnetic field exposure has become a critical concern. However, measurements are scarce, and accurate electromagnetic field reconstruction in a geographic region remains challenging. This work proposes a conditional generative adversarial network to address this issue. The main objective is to reconstruct the electromagnetic field exposure map accurately according to the environment's topology from a few sensors located in an outdoor urban environment. The model is trained to learn and estimate the propagation characteristics of the electromagnetic field according to the topology of a given environment. In addition, the conditional generative adversarial network-based electromagnetic field mapping is compared with simple kriging. Results show that the proposed method produces accurate estimates and is a promising solution for exposure map reconstruction.


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Occupational health and safety: measurement and analysis of the electromagnetic radiation produced by radiofrequency devices for rejuvenation

Wei S, Zhou C, Huang L. Occupational health and safety: measurement and analysis of the electromagnetic radiation produced by radiofrequency devices for rejuvenation. Lasers Med Sci. 2022 Dec 27;38(1):25. doi: 10.1007/s10103-022-03669-y.

Abstract

With the ongoing development of cosmetic technology, many different types of radiofrequency (RF) devices are widely used for face and body rejuvenation. These, like many other high-power devices, may emit excessive electromagnetic radiation into the surrounding environment. Long-term exposure to this environment can lead to poor health outcomes; therefore, it is important to measure and analyze the electromagnetic radiation levels for the health and safety of therapists. A handheld electronic electromagnetic radiation measuring instrument was used to measure the electric and magnetic field strengths. All results were analyzed using the R software (R Core Team, 2021-02-15). We found that the monopolar and unipolar RF devices that we measured from, in this study, could produce large amounts of electromagnetic radiofrequency emissions during operation, whereas the microneedle RF (bipolar RF) device emitted relatively lower amounts (P < 0.01). The strength of electromagnetic radiation is related to power and distance; it increases with power and decreases with distance. This study proved that certain RF devices for rejuvenation could cause severe electromagnetic radiofrequency pollution. The occupational health and safety of therapists require more attention, and effective protective measures need to be taken immediately.


The dose-dependent effect of 1.5-GHz microwave exposure on spatial memory and the NMDAR pathway in Wistar rats

Wang H, Song L, Zhao L, Wang H, Xu X, Dong J, Zhang J, Yao B, Zhao X, Peng R. The dose-dependent effect of 1.5-GHz microwave exposure on spatial memory and the NMDAR pathway in Wistar rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Dec 27:1–13. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-24850-4.

Abstract

A certain power of microwave radiation could cause changes in the nervous, cardiovascular, and other systems of the body, and the brain was a sensitive target organ of microwave radiation injury. Studies have shown that microwaves can impair cognitive functions in humans and animals, such as learning and memory, attention, and orientation. The dose-dependent effect of microwave radiation is still unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of 1.5-GHz microwaves with different average power densities on locative learning and memory abilities, hippocampal structure, and related N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling pathway proteins in rats. A total number of 140 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: S group (sham exposure), L5 group (1.5-GHz microwaves with average power density = 5 mW/cm2), L30 group (1.5-GHz microwaves with average power density = 30 mW/cm2), and L50 group (1.5-GHz microwaves with average power density = 50 mW/cm2). Changes in spatial learning and memory, EEG activity, hippocampal structure, and NMDAR signaling pathway molecules were detected from 6 h to 28 d after microwave exposure. After exposure to 1.5-GHz microwaves, rats in the L30 and L50 groups showed impaired spatial memory, inhibited EEG activity, pyknosis and hyperchromatism of neuron nucleus, and changes in NMDAR subunits and downstream signaling molecules. In conclusion, 1.5-GHz microwaves with an average power density of 5, 30, and 50 mW/cm2 could induce spatial memory dysfunction, hippocampal structure changes, and changes in protein levels in rats, and there was a defined dose-dependent effect.


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WiFi Related Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Promote Transposable Element Dysregulation and Genomic Instability in Drosophila melanogaster

Cappucci U, Casale AM, Proietti M, Marinelli F, Giuliani L, Piacentini L. WiFi Related Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Promote Transposable Element Dysregulation and Genomic Instability in Drosophila melanogaster. Cells. 2022 Dec 13;11(24):4036. doi: 10.3390/cells11244036.

Abstract

Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) has greatly increased in recent years, thus promoting a growing scientific and social interest in deepening the biological impact of EMFs on living organisms. The current legislation governing the exposure to RF-EMFs is based exclusively on their thermal effects, without considering the possible non-thermal adverse health effects from long term exposure to EMFs. In this study we investigated the biological non-thermal effects of low-level indoor exposure to RF-EMFs produced by WiFi wireless technologies, using Drosophila melanogaster as the model system. Flies were exposed to 2.4 GHz radiofrequency in a Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM) cell device to ensure homogenous controlled fields. Signals were continuously monitored during the experiments and regulated at non thermal levels. The results of this study demonstrate that WiFi electromagnetic radiation causes extensive heterochromatin decondensation and thus a general loss of transposable elements epigenetic silencing in both germinal and neural tissues. Moreover, our findings provide evidence that WiFi related radiofrequency electromagnetic fields can induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, genomic instability, and behavioural abnormalities. Finally, we demonstrate that WiFi radiation can synergize with RasV12 to drive tumor progression and invasion. All together, these data indicate that radiofrequency radiation emitted from WiFi devices could exert genotoxic effects in Drosophila and set the stage to further explore the biological effects of WiFi electromagnetic radiation on living organisms.


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A Novel Reverberation Chamber for In Vitro Bioelectromagnetic Experiments at 3.5 GHz

R. Orlacchio et al.. A Novel Reverberation Chamber for In Vitro Bioelectromagnetic Experiments at 3.5 GHz. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, doi: 10.1109/TEMC.2022.3216045.

Abstract

In this article, a mode-stirred reverberation chamber (RC) was designed and proposed for the first time as a cell culture incubator for in vitro electromagnetic waves exposure of adherent cells in tissue culture plates (TCPs). Typical cell incubators require specific conditions, such as temperature of 37 °C and humidity rate of 95%, which are challenging conditions for an RC. The chamber was characterized as an RC through an innovative experimental methodology based on the measurements of the S11 parameter of the emitting antenna. The proposed RC is adapted for in vitro bioelectromagnetic experiments for simultaneous exposure of up to 10 TCPs under highly homogeneous exposure conditions at 3.5 GHz, i.e., the mid-frequency band of the 5G telecommunication networks. Experimental results showed that the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the exposed samples extracted from temperature measurements was similar (an acceptable maximum variation lower than 30% was observed) in reason of the homogeneity and the uniformity of the field within the chamber. Specifically, measured SAR values were around 1.5 and 1 W/kg per 1 W incident, in 6-well or 96-well plates used for biological exposure, respectively. To validate our system, numerical simulations were performed. Overall, we showed that experimental and numerical SARs are in good agreement with differences <30% considering the standard deviation.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9975146

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Thermal Effect Estimation of Smartphone Virtual Reality Headsets on Human Eye by Finite Element Method

Uluaydin N, Şeker S. (2022). Thermal Effect Estimation of Smartphone Virtual Reality Headsets on Human Eye by Finite Element Method. Sakarya University Journal of Science, 26(3):590-599. doi:10.16984/saufenbilder.972989.

Abstract

Smartphones (SP) terminals are becoming the most popular media for virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) effects with their central processing unit (CPU) and video capabilities. Simple VR headsets with reasonable costs can host smartphones, and they can together be used for many different applications. But with the outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic, their usage has become essential for many people working from their homes. VR and AR capabilities provide a much richer experience for entertainment, gaming, and video conferencing. The increasing popularity of 3D virtual worlds add up to this usage. On the technology side, multi-radio connectivity is supported both on terminal and network side. A certain risk may arise when using SP VR headsets for such applications requiring a broadband Internet connectivity. SPs with multi-radio connectivity feature may elevate specific absorption rate (SAR) values in those cases. The smartphone used for VR and AR applications is positioned in front of the eyes; and there is very limited ventilation in VR/AR headsets. Authors’ model aims simulate these exposure scenarios in 4G and 5G mobile telecommunication frequencies by finite element method (FEM); and, possible thermal and non-thermal risks of related electromagnetic (EM) radiation on human eye according to the outputs of the model are discussed.


Machine Learning Models for Predicting Breast Cancer Risk in Women Exposed to Blue Light from Digital Screens

Mortazavi, S. A., Tahmasebi, S., Parsaei, H., Taleie, A., Faraz, M., Rezaianzadeh, A., Zamani, A., Zamani, A., Mortazavi, S. M. J. (2022). Machine Learning Models for Predicting Breast Cancer Risk in Women Exposed to Blue Light from Digital Screens. Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering, 12(6), 637-644. doi: 10.31661/jbpe.v0i0.2105-1341.

Abstract

Background: Nowadays, there is a growing global concern over rapidly increasing screen time (smartphones, tablets, and computers). An accumulating body of evidence indicates that prolonged exposure to short-wavelength visible light (blue component) emitted from digital screens may cause cancer. The application of machine learning (ML) methods has significantly improved the accuracy of predictions in fields such as cancer susceptibility, recurrence, and survival.

Objective: To develop an ML model for predicting the risk of breast cancer in women via several parameters related to exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.

Material and Methods: In this analytical study, three ML models Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) were used to analyze data collected from 603 cases, including 309 breast cancer cases and 294 gender and age-matched controls. Standard face-to-face interviews were performed using a standard questionnaire for data collection.

Results: The examined models RF, SVM, and MLPNN performed well for correctly classifying cases with breast cancer and the healthy ones (mean sensitivity> 97.2%, mean specificity >96.4%, and average accuracy >97.1%).  

Conclusion: Machine learning models can be used to effectively predict the risk of breast cancer via the history of exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (including blue light and screen time issues) parameters. The performance of the developed methods is encouraging; nevertheless, further investigation is required to confirm that machine learning techniques can diagnose breast cancer with relatively high accuracies automatically. 


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Evaluation of electromagnetic fields in human body exposed to inverter of pure electric vehicle

Dong X, Sun W, Lu M. Evaluation of electromagnetic fields in human body exposed to inverter of pure electric vehicle. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2022 Dec 22:ncac269. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncac269.

Abstract

On the basis of the basic principle of electromagnetic dosimetry, the paper studies the electromagnetic exposure of a passenger's body to a compound electromagnetic field caused by the combined action of DC and AC bus currents of a pure electric vehicle inverter. By building an electromagnetic model of a pure electric vehicle body, adult human body and inverter, the finite element method is used to calculate the magnetic induction intensity(|B|), induced electric field intensity(|E|) and induced current density(|J|) of the compound electromagnetic field to the human trunk and central nervous system in the driver and front seat passenger. The numerical results are compared with the exposure limits defined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The fields are well below the safe exposure limits defined by ICNIRP.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36562627/

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In vivo genotoxicity of high-intensity intermediate frequency magnetic fields in somatic cells and germ cells

Ohtani S, Ushiyama A, Wada K, Suzuki Y, Hattori K. In vivo genotoxicity of high-intensity intermediate frequency magnetic fields in somatic cells and germ cells. J Radiat Res. 2022 Dec 29:rrac081. doi: 10.1093/jrr/rrac081.

Abstract

Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (IF-MFs) at ~85 kHz are one of the components of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems. However, the available data needed for the assessment of the safety of organisms from IF-MF exposure are scarce. Thus, there is an imminent need to accumulate evidence-based assessment data. In particular, if humans are exposed to IF-MF due to an accident or trouble, they are at increased risk of being exposed to high-intensity IF-MF within a short period. The already existing exposure system was improved to a system that could intermittently expose animals at 3 s intervals. This system allows the exposure of a mouse to high-intensity IF-MF (frequency: 82.3 kHz; induced electric field: 87 V/m, which was 3.8 times the basic restriction level for occupational exposure in the ICNIRP guideline), while regulating the heat generated by the coil. In vivo genotoxicity after IF-MF exposure was assessed using micronucleus (MN) test, Pig-a assay, and gpt assay. The results of MN test and Pig-a assay in hematopoietic cells revealed that neither the reticulocytes nor the mature erythrocytes exhibited significant increases in the IF-MF-exposed group compared with that in the sham-exposed group. In germ cells, MN test and gpt assay outcomes showed that IF-MF exposure did not cause any genetic or chromosomal abnormality. Based on these data, there was no genotoxic effect of our set IF-MF exposure on somatic and germ cells. These findings can contribute to the widespread use of WPT systems as effective data of IF-MF safety assessment.


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Biological effects of rotating magnetic field: A review from 1969 to 2021

Wei Y, Wang X. Biological effects of rotating magnetic field: A review from 1969 to 2021. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2022 Dec 24:S0079-6107(22)00134-1. doi: 10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2022.12.006.

Abstract

As one of the common variable magnetic fields, rotating magnetic field (RMF) plays a crucial role in modern human society. The biological effects of RMF have been studied for over half a century, and various results have been discovered. Several reports have shown that RMF can inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and improve clinical symptoms of patients with advanced cancer. It can also affect endogenous opioid systems and rhythm in central nerve systems, promote nerve regeneration and regulate neural electrophysiological activity in the human brain. In addition, RMF can influence the growth and metabolic activity of some microorganisms, alter the properties of fermentation products, inhibit the growth of some harmful bacteria and increase the susceptibility of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to common antibiotics. Besides, there are other biological effects of RMF on blood, bone, prenatal exposure, enzyme activity, immune function, aging, parasite, endocrine, wound healing, and plants. These discoveries demonstrate that RMF have great application potential in health care, medical treatment, fermentation engineering, and even agriculture. However, in some cases like pregnancy, RMF exposure may need to be avoided. Finally, the specific mechanisms of RMF's biological effects remain unrevealed, despite various hypotheses and theories. It does not prevent us from using it for our good.