Tuesday, October 4, 2022

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on radio frequency and other non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since 2016. Several hundred EMF scientists around the world receive these updates. 

The complete collection contains more than 1,600 abstracts and links to more than 1,800 papers. 

You can download the complete collection of abstracts, a 1,381-page document (pdf) by clicking on the following link: 


The abstracts for the most recent papers appear below.

The European Union prioritises economics over health in the rollout of radiofrequency technologies

Nyberg NR, McCredden JE, Weller SG, Hardell L. The European Union prioritises economics over health in the rollout of radiofrequency technologies. Reviews on Environmental Health. 2022. doi:10.1515/reveh-2022-0106.

Abstract

The fifth generation of radiofrequency communication, 5G, is currently being rolled out worldwide. Since September 2017, the EU 5G Appeal has been sent six times to the EU, requesting a moratorium on the rollout of 5G. This article reviews the 5G Appeal and the EU’s subsequent replies, including the extensive cover letter sent to the EU in September 2021, requesting stricter guidelines for exposures to radiofrequency radiation (RFR). The Appeal notes the EU’s internal conflict between its approach to a wireless technology-led future, and the need to protect the health and safety of its citizens. It critiques the reliance of the EU on the current guidelines given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), that consider only heating and no other health relevant biological effects from RFR. To counteract the ICNIRP position, the 2021 cover letter briefly presented recent research from the EU’s own expert groups, from a large collection of European and other international studies, and from previous reviews of the effects of RFR on humans and the environment. The 5G Appeal asserts that the majority of scientific evidence points to biological effects, many with the potential for harm, occurring below the ICNIRP public limits. Evidence to establish this position is drawn from studies showing changes to neurotransmitters and receptors, damage to cells, proteins, DNA, sperm, the immune system, and human health, including cancer. The 2021 Appeal goes on to warn that 5G signals are likely to additionally alter the behaviour of oxygen and water molecules at the quantum level, unfold proteins, damage skin, and cause harm to insects, birds, frogs, plants and animals. Altogether, this evidence establishes a high priority for the European Union towards (i) replacing the current flawed guidelines with protective thresholds, and (ii) placing a moratorium on 5G deployment so as to (iii) allow industry-independent scientists the time needed to propose new health-protective guidelines. This 2021 Appeal’s relevance becomes even more pressing in the context of the EU plans to roll out the sixth generation of wireless technologies, 6G, further adding to the known risks of RFR technology for humans and the environment. This all leads to an important question: Do EU decision makers have the right to ignore EU´s own directives by prioritising economic gain over human and environmental health?

Excerpts

Exposure of captured agencies

The deficits of industry-biased bodies are now beginning to be exposed. In 2021, the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was deemed by a US Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit ruling as having been negligent for two decades in its role as protector of public health, in that when it decided that its 1996 emission guidelines protected public health, it neglected to consider (a) impacts of long term wireless exposure, (b) unique impacts to children, (c) testimony of people injured by wireless radiation, (d) impacts to wildlife and the environment and (e) impacts to the developing brain and reproduction [96]. The book Captured Agency describes the compromised position of the FCC in its role as public protector [97]. The compromised actions of ICNIRP since their inception, including inviting industry representatives to the table, are described by Maisch [98, Chapter 4]. As noted by the Turin Court of Appeal [43], opinions from such conflicted advisory bodies as ICNIRP are not reliable.

Safety-first

Alternative guidelines to protect citizens have been created by four groups of industry-independent scientists, based on best available scientific evidence; i.e., setting exposure levels lower than where biological effects with health implications have been found. As described in [101] these four groups recommend the following limits for human exposures to RF-EMR:
  1. Building biologists [102] suggest a very low radiation level of no more than 0.1 µW/m2 (in sleeping areas);
  2. EuropaEM-EMF Environmental Medicine researchers [103] suggest 1 µW/m2 during the night and 10 µW/m2 during the day time;
  3. The BioInitiative-group conclusions (2012 update) [20], made by 29 prominent researchers, and based on 2,200+ scientific reports, suggest 3–6 µW/m2 as the upper limit for exposures;
  4. The Council of Europe (CoE) Resolution 1815 [104] Section 8.2.1 says set preventative thresholds for levels of long-term exposure to microwaves in all indoor areas, in accordance with the precautionary principle, not exceeding 0.6 V per metre [1,000 µW/m2], and in the medium term to reduce it to 0.2 V per metre [100 µW/m2].
While there is some variation in the above recommendations, they are all far lower than the ICNIRP 2020 guidelines [14] which, for all frequencies from 2–300 GHz, allow a 30 min average whole body exposure of 10,000,000 µW/m2 (10 W/m2; Table 5, p. 495). For the more recent, higher 5G frequencies of 6–300 GHz, the ICNIRP guidelines allow an average 6 min local exposure over a 4-cm2 region of 200,000,000 µW/m2 (200 W/m2; p. 490). Furthermore, An additional specification of 400 W m −2 has been set for spatial averages of square 1-cm2 regions, for frequencies >30 GHz ([14], p. 490). These ICNIRP specifications mean that future 5G cell phones may send narrow directional beams that impact small regions of body tissue with intensities of 200,000,000–400,000,000 µW/m2. However, the maximum intensity should be no higher than 1–10 μW/m2, according to recommendations 1), 2), 3) above that are aimed at protecting human health.

The above comparisons reveal that ICNIRP and most European states allow incident power densities at least a million times higher than the first three independent advisory bodies mentioned above. This is because the ICNIRP guidelines consider only temperature rises in “tissue simulants” in plastic “heads” but no other risks, like biological effects on living glial cells, blood or DNA, which have been well documented in EU’s sponsored research and reviews [1, 3, 4, 6, 7].

Concluding remarks

At the current juncture, millions of EU citizens are relying on the EU to address the issues raised in the EU 5G Appeal. The EU decision makers need to put aside their industry-fuelled fantasies of a digital saviour for mankind and instead, ensure that industry acts according to EU laws, made to prioritise humans and planetary health above industry profit or science fiction futures. Any economic benefits from 5G are likely to be outweighed by the risk of harm to the health of billions of people around the world [33].

If the EU continues to fail to act on these warnings, Europe may end up being faced with a non-reversible burgeoning health impact on humans, especially children and the environment.

To allow the levels and frequencies of exposures to continue unfettered is to put the world population and the environment at great risk, especially young people [28].


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Some thoughts on the possible health effects of electric and magnetic fields and exposure guidelines

Barnes F, Freeman Jr ER. Some thoughts on the possible health effects of electric and magnetic fields and exposure guidelines. Frontiers in Public Health. Vol. 10. 2022. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.994758.
 
Abstract

Concerns about the possible health effects from exposure to weak electric and magnetic (EM) fields have been debated since the early 1960s. It is now well established that biological systems respond to exposure to weak EM fields at energy levels well below the current safety guidelines which result in modification of their functionality without significant changes in temperature. These observations are adding to the debate over what should be done to protect the users of cellular telecommunications systems. Experimental results showing both increases and decreases in cancer cell growth rates and concentration of reactive oxygen species for exposure to nano-Tesla magnetic fields at both radio frequencies (RF) and extra low frequencies (ELF) are cited in this paper. Some theoretical models on how variations in EM exposure can lead to different biological outcomes and how feedback and repair processes often mitigate potential health effects due to long-term exposure to low-level EM energy sources are presented. Of particular interest are the application of the radical pair mechanisms that affect polarization of electrons, and nuclear spins and the importance of time-delayed feedback loops and the timing of perturbations to oscillations in biological systems. These models help account for some of the apparently conflicting experimental results reported and suggest further investigation. These observations are discussed with particular emphasis on setting future safety guidelines for exposure to electromagnetic fields in cellular telecommunications systems. The papers cited are a very small fraction of those in the literature showing both biological effects and no effects from weak electric and magnetic fields.

Excerpts

The central problems to be solved include:

1. Determining the exposure amplitude, polarization and duration of electromagnetic fields at specific positions of interest in the body as a function of the exposing fields as a function of time.

2. Determining causal relationships between long duration exposure to low-level EM fields and the various biological responses reported in current research.

3. Quantifying the interactions between EM fields and biology with measurements that are not only accurate but repeatable. Some of the low energy EM effects on micro-biological systems are well documented in laboratory experiments but are difficult to translate to macro-biological system responses.

4. Sorting out which aspects of biological systems are directly driven by RF fields vs. the myriad of other independent variables at work.

5. Understanding how the repair mechanisms in biological systems alter biological processes in the presence of low-level EM fields.

Several issues confront regulators:

1. Should regulations be set that “protect” all the population all the time, including those with other health conditions that make them more susceptible to EM exposure, or should regulations only protect most of the population most of the time. The degree of control has huge implications on cost and efficacy.


2. Simplifying the explanations of the physical mechanisms involved such that there is general acceptance of the need for regulation is a non-trivial part of the regulatory process. Scientists, producers, operators, and users have differing imperatives that need to be considered. Such situations invite a lot of political hubris and conflict.

3. How regulators quantify and then rationalize the tradeoffs between the economic and social benefits of cellular technology vs. potentially damaging health effects of long-term exposure to low levels of EM energy is important in determining the regulations that are proposed.

Four strategies for reducing RF exposure might include:

1. Designing the transmitter in user devices to reduce the instantaneous RF power levels emitted is the most direct way to reduce RF exposure but this has serious system performance implications and high implementation costs. Manufacturers already try to minimize the instantaneous RF power output of cell phones to maximize battery life. Further reductions in RF power output will significantly impact signal to noise ratio and reduce the maximum range of any given phone within a cell phone tower matrix. This will have a significant impact on system infrastructure (number of cell phone towers needed to provide coverage) and operating cost. Another technique for reducing instantaneous power output absorbed by users is to use narrow beam directional antennas in user devices that focuses the output power on the closest cell tower receiver. This approach is being incorporated into 5G systems. Size and weight considerations are a major constraint in mobile devices.


2. Reducing the density of RF power (Watts/M2) being absorbed by the body of a user can also be accomplished by increasing the distance between the transmitting antenna and the user's body and head. Power density falls off very rapidly with increasing distance from the transmitting antenna typically as 1/Rn reduction where n is a number usually >1. It is to be noted that increasing use of data and moving a smart phone away from the body reduces the power levels incident on the head.


3. Research data indicates biological effects of RF signals are frequency dependent. Redesigning transmitters to eliminate frequencies that are proven to produce biological effects could be employed, but this could have a significant impact on system capacity since each frequency band carries a lot of data in today's system.

4. The last, and least expensive approach is to limit cumulative user exposure to RF energy in a given period of time by shutting the phone “Off”. Establishing limits for the maximum accumulated duration of an individual's exposure would require extensive clinical testing on large populations of users. Once those numbers were set, there would be very little cost impact on the operators or the users to implement. Major issues would be lack of access in emergency situations and gaining user acceptance on such limitations and the self-discipline to avoid over exposure. To help with that applications software could be installed on the phone that calculates the accumulated exposure and then reports the data on the phone's visual readout.

Conclusion

The data above and many more papers not cited indicate that biological systems can sense and respond to very weak electric and magnetic field by changing biological parameters such as reactive oxygen species concentrations at the cellular level which affect health and wellbeing of living organisms. High concentrations of reactive oxygen species for extended periods of time are known to be associated with adverse health effects (19). There are also many cases where no damaging effects have been observed. It is presumed that the body's feedback and repair systems keep the concentrations of these molecules within the normal operating ranges and the cumulative effects of RF energy are negligible. We hypothesize that EM effects vary from person to person and are a function of exposure conditions in conjunction with other stresses that affect concentrations of these molecules. Note this degree of variability explains why many papers do not show EM effects while some of the experiments on hypersensitive people show effects. We have chosen not to go into discussion of hypersensitive people as it would take more space than we wish to devote to it in this paper.

It is clear that more research needs to be done to enable definition of standards for RF exposure that are reasonable and allow a simple, low-cost communications system to function safely. Although both industry and government have funded significant amounts of expensive research, relatively few studies have used radical pair theory and other quantum mechanical models to guide their experiments or track the chemical changes induced by exposures to weak electromagnetic fields. Additionally, they have not delt with long term effects of exposure to low-level exposure that take into account biological feedback and repair systems, that may not be able to handle the effects of compounding stresses and the fact that humans have different responses at different time.

Forcing a solution that eliminates all wireless communications is not a reasonable approach. Allowing the telecommunications industry and users to ignore the potential harm indicated by some of the experiments showing the effects of weak field exposures is equally unsatisfactory given the data that are currently available. Imposing operating standards without understanding the root causes in science, and social impacts and costs is tempting, but also potentially dangerous and can potentially lead to health problems for a large fraction of the population.

In the US, most industries can be held liable for not pursuing research on the safety of their products. With such a large number of users, it is incumbent on system designers, operators, managers, and regulators to invest the time and energy to understand the risks of long-term exposure to low-level EM fields to determine potential health hazards. In the short term, implementing ways to reduce exposure voluntarily is likely to be the cheapest solution, but human behavior is often unpredictable and unreliable. Ultimately more research will better define the conditions where EM exposures can lead to changes in the biological system that are not compensated by biological control systems and repair mechanisms.


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Association between electronic device usage and sperm quality parameters in healthy men screened as potential sperm donors

Chen HG, Wu P, Sun B, Chen JX, Xiong CL, Meng TQ, Huang XY, Su QL, Zhou H, Wang YX, Ye W, Pan A. Association between electronic device usage and sperm quality parameters in healthy men screened as potential sperm donors. Environ Pollut. 2022 Sep 1;312:120089. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120089.

Highlights

• Semen samples were repeatedly collected from 1454 healthy men.
• Electronic device use was evaluated by comprehensive questionnaire.
• Electronic device use was related to lower semen quality in modest effect size.
• Daily calling time was associated with lower sperm concentration and total count.

Abstract

Cell phone use and radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMF) are rapidly increasing and may be associated with lower semen quality, yet results from epidemiological studies are inconclusive. Information on electronic devices use was collected through standard questionnaires from 1454 men aged 22-45 years old. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, total motility, progressive motility, and normal morphology in repeated specimens were determined by trained clinical technicians. Percent changes [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] were estimated as (10β-1) × 100 for electronic devices use associated with repeated sperm quality parameters in the linear mixed-effect models. After adjusting for multiple confounders, we found significant inverse associations of total duration of electronic devices use with sperm progressive motility and total motility, duration of cell phone and computer use with sperm concentration, progressive motility, and total motility (all P < 0.05). No significant association was found between cell phone/computer use alone and sperm quality parameters. Moreover, per hour increase of time spent on cell phone talking was associated with decreased sperm concentration and total count by an average of -8.0% (95% CI: -15.2%, -0.2%) and -12.7% (95% CI: -21.3%, -3.1%), respectively. Besides, daily calling time was associated with lower sperm progressive motility and total motility among those who used headsets during a call (P for interaction <0.05). In conclusion, our study suggested that more time spent on electronic devices use had a modest reduction effect on semen quality. Daily calling time was significantly associated with lower sperm concentration and total count, and using headsets during a call appeared to aggravate the negative association between daily calling time and sperm motility. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36058315/

Conclusions

In conclusion, more time spent on electronic devices use was associated with decreased semen quality in modest effect size. Daily calling time was significantly associated with lower sperm concentration and total count, and it might interact synergistically with headset use during a call to further decrease sperm progressive motility and total motility. Although our research suggests that electronic devices exert no obvious reproductive hazards to healthy men with good fertility, we still advise men with a pregnancy plan to avoid excessive electronic devices use, especially avoid using headsets during a call. Additional well-designed prospective population studies are required to identify the effects of
electronic devices use on semen quality more precisely, and to evaluate the clinical importance of the risk to both sub-fertile men and the general population.

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How Much Exposure from 5G Towers is Radiated over Children, Teenagers, Schools and Hospitals?

L. Chiaraviglio et al., "How Much Exposure from 5G Towers is Radiated over Children, Teenagers, Schools and Hospitals?," in IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, 2022, doi: 10.1109/OJCOMS.2022.3208938.

Abstract

The rolling-out of 5G antennas over the territory is a fundamental step to provide 5G connectivity. However, little efforts have been done so far on the exposure assessment from 5G cellular towers over young people and “sensitive” buildings, like schools and medical centers. To face such issues, we provide a sound methodology for the numerical evaluation of 5G (and pre-5G) downlink exposure over children, teenagers, schools and medical centers. We then apply the proposed methodology over two real scenarios. Results reveal that the exposure from 5G cellular towers will increase in the forthcoming years, in parallel with the growth of the 5G adoption levels. However, the exposure levels are well below the maximum ones defined by international regulations. Moreover, the exposure over children and teenagers is similar to the one of the whole population, while the exposure over schools and medical centers can be lower than the one of the whole set of buildings. Finally, the exposure from 5G is strongly lower than the pre-5G one when the building attenuation is introduced and a maturity adoption level for 5G is assumed.

Summary

 We have assessed the impact of 5G towers on the EMF exposure over children/teenagers, school buildings and medical buildings. After introducing a novel methodology for the analysis of exposure over population and buildings, we have applied it in two meaningful scenarios that are subject to different urbanization levels as well as tower deployments. Our results reveal that, although 5G exposure radiated by towers is initially lower than the pre-5G one, 5G will become the dominant source of exposure from cellular towers when a maturity level will be reached. However, the scaling factors applied to the maximum power radiated by mid-band/mm-Wave antennas, the tower distribution and the positioning of the buildings are important aspects heavily influencing the exposure levels over young people and “sensitive” places. Eventually, the actual level of exposure over children and teenagers is largely impacted by the building attenuation level, which has a stronger effect over mid-band and mm-Wave 5G frequencies compared to pre-5G ones. Overall, our results indicate that the total exposure levels are always lower than the EMF limits reported in international regulations. Moreover, children and teenagers receive similar amount of exposure compared to the whole population. Eventually, the positioning of the “sensitive” building has an impact on the exposure level, but, however, the observed exposure trends are similar compared to the ones of the whole set of buildings.

As future work, we plan to extend our assessment to entire municipalities/cities, including zones covered by 5G small cells. In addition, as propagation has a strong effect over the exposure received by children and teenagers, massive campaigns of EMF measurements from 5G towers should be performed, especially inside the buildings. Finally, the investigation of joint uplink and downlink 5G exposure is another avenue of research.

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Six Months in the Life of a Cellular Tower: Is 5G Exposure Higher than pre-5G One?

L. Chiaraviglio, C. Lodovisi, D. Franci, S. Pavoncello, T. Aureli. Six Months in the Life of a Cellular Tower: Is 5G Exposure Higher than pre-5G One? 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Measurements & Networking (M&N), 2022, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/MN55117.2022.9887670.

Abstract

5G service is already available in many countries, including Italy. Currently, 5G networks are run in parallel to the already deployed pre-5G ones (including 4G). In this work, we face the problem of continuously monitoring the exposure from a vantage point over a very long period of time (i.e., several months). After designing and validating a measurement setup suitable for our aims, we extensively collected 5G and pre-5G exposure data from the considered location. Results show that, although the share of 5G exposure is in general lower than pre-5G one, both intensity and occurrence of 5G exposure peaks are rapidly increasing over the months, suggesting a growth of 5G exposure levels in the near future.


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Measurement of personal radio frequency exposure in Japan: The Hokkaido Study on the Environment and Children's health

Yamazaki K, Ikeda-Araki A, Miyashita C, Tamura N, Yoshikawa T, Hikage T, Omiya M, Mizuta M, Ikuyo M, Tobita K, Onishi T, Taki M, Watanabe S, Kishi R. Measurement of personal radio frequency exposure in Japan: The Hokkaido Study on the Environment and Children's health. Environ Res. 2022 Sep 26:114429. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.114429.

Abstract

The opportunities for exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) among children are increasing. Children's exposure to RF-EMF in Japan was recorded using a personal exposure meter (ExpoM-RF), and factors associated with the exposure examined. A total of 101 children, aged 10-15 years old, participated in the prospective birth cohort "Hokkaido study". RF-EMF data were recorded in the 700 MHz-5.8 GHz frequency range for 3 days. The recorded data were summarized into six groups of frequency bands: downlink from mobile phone base stations (DL), uplink from mobile phones to a base station (UL), Wireless Local Area Network (LAN), terrestrial digital TV broadcasting (digital TV), 2.5 GHz and 3.5 GHz Time Division Duplex (TDD), 1.9 GHz TDD, and total (the summation of power density in all measured frequency bands). A questionnaire was used to document the internet environment (at home) and mobile phone usage. Personal RF-EMF exposure in Japanese children was lower than that reported in studies in Europe. The DL signals from mobile phone base stations were the most significant contributors to total exposure, while Wireless LAN and digital TV were only higher at home. The urban residence was consistently associated with increases in the four groups of frequency bands (DL, UL, digital TV, and TDD). TDD level has several associations with mobile phone usage (calls using mobile phones, video viewing, text message service, and online game). The association between inattention/hyperactivity subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and higher Wireless LAN exposure at nighttime was also noted. Further studies with additional data will shed light on factors involved in RF-EMF exposure among Japanese children.

Excerpts

Regarding microenvironments, RF exposure from outdoor environmental sources was higher when outdoors than indoors, similar to findings of other studies (Birks et al., 2018; Gallastegi et al., 2018; Joseph et al., 2010; Verloock et al., 2014). The exposure levels for DL, digital TV from outdoor environmental sources (e.g. base station) were higher outside, and that in Wireless LAN was higher in the home. Regarding the contribution of each band to the total exposure level, the exposure to the DL contributed the most to the total exposure in all microenvironments....

... Interestingly, Wireless LAN levels at nighttime were significantly higher among those with high hyperactivity/inattention scores of SDQ, one of the common symptoms of ADHD, than those with low scores. Although the association between ADHD symptoms and internet addiction has been reported (Ho et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2017; Yen et al., 2009), there was no relationship between internet addiction and RF-EMF exposure in the present study. Tateno et al. (2016) suggested that ADHD traits, such as impulsivity, could be related to difficulty in controlling internet use and online gaming. Therefore, the exposure to Wireless LAN recorded by the exposure meter might increase for those who could not limit the use of wireless electrical devices (mobile phones, gaming devices, among others) at nighttime because of impulsivity, rather than internet addiction....


Conclusions

We recorded children’s personal RF-EMF exposures using the exposure meter and examined related factors for their exposure. The personal RF-EMF exposure in Japanese children was lower than that reported in previous European studies. Downlink from mobile phone base stations was the most significant contributor to the total exposure, while Wireless LAN and digital TV were higher at home than in other microenvironments. There were several significant associations between internet environment and mobile phone usage and exposure level in the daytime analysis. Among them, the urban residence and related characteristics were consistently associated with higher levels of DL, UL, digital TV, and TDD band. At nighttime, the association between the inattention/hyperactivity subscale of SDQ and Wireless LAN exposure was found in addition to associations between the internet environment or mobile phone usage and the RF-EMF exposure. Further studies with additional data and robust study designs are required to explore the most possible factors involved in RF-EMF exposure among Japanese children.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36174753/

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Association of increased pain intensity, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, & quality of life with mobile phone overuse in patients with migraine

Butt M, Chavarria Y, Ninmol J, Arif A, Tebha SS, Daniyal M, Siddiqui UM, Shams SS, Sarfaraz Q, Haider SF, Essar MY. Association of increased pain intensity, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and quality of life with mobile phone overuse in patients with migraine: A multicenter, cross-sectional comparative study. Brain Behav. 2022 Sep 20:e2760. doi: 10.1002/brb3.2760.

Abstract

Background: The number of regular smartphone users has increased dramatically worldwide. Headaches, followed by sleep difficulties, forgetfulness, dizziness, and other ailments, are among the most prevalent complaints among smartphone users during or after use. In addition, migraine is a debilitating disease and is the world's second leading cause of disability. Hence, we performed this study to determine how smartphone overuse influenced migraine patients' level of disability, pain intensity, sleep quality, and overall quality of life.

Methods: In this observational study, the patients were divided into two groups high mobile phone use group (HMPUG) and the low mobile phone user group (LMPUG) using the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale. We assessed, for each group, patients' level of disability, pain intensity, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life through the Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, Visual Analogue Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and 24-h Migraine Quality of Life Questionnaire, respectively.

Results: Our study showed that the respondents' average age was 27.59 (9.79) years. The average number of family members was 5.98 (2.3251). A total of 65.8% (n = 263) of the 400 participants were female, while 34.3 % (n = 137) were male. Greater pain intensity, poor sleep quality, and reduced medication effectivity were found in HMPUG compared to LMPUG (p < .05). However, increased duration of migraine and medication intake was reported in the LMPUG (p < .05).

Conclusion: We observed that smartphone overuse could worsen pain, sleep, and reduce treatment efficacy in individuals with migraine. Therefore, controlled smartphone use is recommended to avoid worsening symptoms.


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A qualitative approach to experiential knowledge identified in focus groups aimed at co-designing a provocation test in the study of electrohypersensitivity

Bordarie J, Dieudonné M, Ledent M, Prignot N. A qualitative approach to experiential knowledge identified in focus groups aimed at co-designing a provocation test in the study of electrohypersensitivity. Ann Med. 2022 Dec;54(1):2363-2375. doi: 10.1080/07853890.2022.2114605.

Abstract

Patients' experiential knowledge is increasingly recognised as valuable for biomedical research. Its contribution can reveal unexplored aspects of their illnesses and allows research priorities to be refined according to theirs. It can also be argued that patients' experiential knowledge can contribute to biomedical research, by extending it to the most organic aspects of diseases. A few examples of collaboration between medicine and patient associations are promising, even if there is no single, simple methodology to apply. This article provides feedback on a project involving the experiential knowledge of electrohypersensitive persons with a view to developing an experimental protocol to study their condition. It presents the participatory approach with focus groups that was implemented and reflects on ways to take advantage of experiential knowledge. It also demonstrates the complexity of the electrohypersensitivity syndrome and reflects on the difficult transition between the experiential knowledge and the experimental design of provocation studies.KEY MESSAGESExperiential knowledge is a valuable source of information for research and the design of investigation protocols.The participatory approach allows co-designing protocols by drawing on experiential knowledge.The controversial dimension of EHS reveals the complexity of translating experiential knowledge into an experimental protocol.


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Disease Burden, Risk Factors, and Trends of Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Cancer: a global study of registries data

Huang J, Chan SC, Lok V, Zhang L, Lin X, Lucero-Prisno DE, Xu W, Zheng ZJ, Elcarte E, Withers M, Wong MCS; NCD Global Health Research Group, Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU). Disease Burden, Risk Factors, and Trends of Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Cancer: a global study of registries data. Neuro Oncol. 2022 Sep 1:noac213. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/noac213.

Abstract

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the global incidence, mortality, associated risk factors, and temporal trends of central nervous system (CNS) cancer by sex, age, and country.

Methods: We extracted incidence and mortality of CNS cancer from the GLOBOCAN (2020), Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series I-X, WHO mortality database, the Nordic Cancer Registries, and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. We searched the Global Health data exchanges for the prevalence of its associated risk factors. We tested the trends by Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC) from Joinpoint regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals in different age groups.

Results: The age-standardized rates (ASRs) of CNS cancer incidence and mortality were 3.5 and 2.8 per 100,000 globally. Southern Europe (ASR=6.0) and Western Asia (ASR=4.2) had the highest incidence and mortality, respectively. The incidence was associated with Human Development Index, Gross Domestics Products per capita, prevalence of traumatic brain injuries, occupational carcinogens exposure, and mobile phone use at the country level. There was an overall stable and mixed trend in the CNS cancer burden. However, increasing incidence was observed in younger male population from five countries, with Slovakia (AAPC=5.40; 95% CI=1.88, 9.04; p=0.007) reporting the largest increase.

Conclusions: While the overall global trends of cancer have been largely stable, significant increasing trends were found in the younger male population. The presence of some higher-HDI countries with increasing mortality suggested an ample scope for further research and exploration of the reasons behind these epidemiological trends.


Key points

Brain cancer burden was higher in more developed countries and male population.
Brain cancer was related to HDI, GDP, brain injuries, carcinogens, and phone use.
There was an increasing trend of brain cancer in the younger male population.

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Road User Exposure from ITS-5.9 GHz Vehicular Connectivity

Benini M, Parazzini M, Bonato M, Gallucci S, Chiaramello E, Fiocchi S, Tognola G. Road User Exposure from ITS-5.9 GHz Vehicular Connectivity. Sensors (Basel). 2022 Sep 15;22(18):6986. doi: 10.3390/s22186986.

Abstract

This study addressed an important but not yet thoroughly investigated topic regarding human exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) generated by vehicular connectivity. In particular, the study assessed, by means of computational dosimetry, the RF-EMF exposure in road users near a car equipped with vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication antennas. The exposure scenario consisted of a 3D numerical model of a car with two V2V antennas, each fed with 1 W, operating at 5.9 GHz and an adult human model to simulate the road user near the car. The RF-EMF dose absorbed by the human model was calculated as the specific absorption rate (SAR), that is, the RF-EMF power absorbed per unit of mass. The highest SAR was observed in the skin of the head (34.7 mW/kg) and in the eyes (15 mW/kg); the SAR at the torso (including the genitals) and limbs was negligible or much lower than in the head and eyes. The SAR over the whole body was 0.19 mW/kg. The SAR was always well below the limits of human exposure in the 100 kHz-6 GHz band established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The proposed approach can be generalized to assess RF-EMF exposure in different conditions by varying the montage/number of V2V antennas and considering human models of different ages.


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Study of microwave non-thermal effects on hydrogen bonding in water by Raman spectroscopy

Han G, Liu F, Zhang T, Xu W, Zhang Y, Wu N, Ouyang S. Study of microwave non-thermal effects on hydrogen bonding in water by Raman spectroscopy. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2022 Sep 22;285:121877. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2022.121877.

Abstract

Microwave chemistry plays an important role in organic synthesis. It has been debatable whether or not there are microwave non-thermal effects. Through analyzing the Raman spectra of pure water under two different heating methods (oil bath and microwave), the existence of microwave non-thermal effect is verified in this paper. The findings demonstrate that temperature has a significant impact on the Raman shift of the OH stretching band, which shifts to a high wave number as temperature rises and deforms the hydrogen bond (HB) network structure. Because microwave electric fields selectively heat water molecules (polar molecules) and destroy hydrogen bond structures in water, results in microwave heating more severe destruction of fully hydrogen-bonded structure than oil bath and transforms it more quickly into the partially hydrogen-bonded and free H2O structure. Under the non-thermal effects of microwaves, hydrogen bonds that initially existed as stable tetrahedral structures are transformed into chain-like structures more rapidly. By comparing the Raman shift, it can be found that the microwave non-thermal effect can affect the hydrogen bonding in water for a long time (>1h). This study provides an experimental basis for enriching the mechanism of microwave non-thermal effects on hydrogen bonding.


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Molecular Dynamics Research of Spatial Orientation and Kinetic Energy of Active Site Collision of Carnosine under Weak Microwave Irradiation

Gou D, Huang K, Liu Y, Shi H, Wu Z. Molecular Dynamics Research of Spatial Orientation and Kinetic Energy of Active Site Collision of Carnosine under Weak Microwave Irradiation. J Phys Chem B. 2022 Sep 22. doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.2c03930.

Abstract

The molecular mechanism of the microwave nonthermal effect is still not clear. This work investigated the spatial orientation and kinetic energy of active site collision of carnosine, a natural bioactive dipeptide, under the weak microwave irradiation using the molecular dynamics simulation. Our results showed the influences of the temperature, microwave intensity, microwave frequency, and microwave polarization mode (linear polarization and circular polarization) on the spatial orientation and kinetic energy of active site collision of carnosine. First, under the constant intensity and frequency of linear polarization microwave irradiation, the increment of the collision probability between the 6N atom of carnosine and the 28H atom of the other carnosine at effective space angle decreases from 85.0% to 3.5% with increasing temperature. Second, with the increase of microwave intensity, the change of spatial orientation and kinetic energy becomes more and more significant. However, the change of circular polarization microwaves on the spatial orientation and kinetic energy of collision is weaker than that of linear polarization. Third, under the constant intensity of linear polarization microwave irradiation, the collision probability between the 6N atom and the 28H atom at effective space angle decreases from 70.2% to 14.7% with increasing frequency. Finally, under the microwave polarization, the spatial orientation and kinetic energy of molecular collision are changed, which is summarized as the microwave postpolarization effect (MWPPE). The dependence of MWPPE on temperature, microwave intensity, microwave frequency, and polarization mode is very complicated. In the end, this effect can provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism of the microwave nonthermal effect.


Conclusions

The goal of this investigation is to study the spatial orientation and kinetic energy of active site collision of carnosine under weak microwave irradiation. In this work, the effects of temperature, microwave intensity, microwave frequency, and microwave polarization mode (linear polarization and circular polarization) on carnosine active site collision were inves- tigated using molecular dynamics simulation. For the active site collision of carnosine, we mainly targeted the collision between the 6N atom of carnosine and the 28H atom of the other carnosine and the collision between the 6N atom of carnosine and the 30H atom of the other carnosine. The influence of weak microwave irradiation on active site collision of carnosine is affected by many factors mentioned above.

First, for linear polarization microwave radiation with the constant microwave intensity and frequency, the increment of total collision number decreases with the increase of temperature. Similarly, the increment of collision probability at specific spatial angle also decreases, and the fraction of high-energy collisions also decreases. This confirms that the molecular thermal motion becomes more intense as the temperature rises, which weakens the polarization effect of microwaves. Second, with the increase of microwave intensity, the influence of spatial orientation and kinetic energy becomes more and more significant. However, the effect of circular polarization on the spatial direction and kinetic energy of collision is weaker than that of linear polarization. This shows that, compared with linear polarization microwaves, the direction of the electric field in circular polarization changes faster, and the orientation effect of dipole molecules is obviously weaker than that of linear polarization. Third, under the constant intensity of linear polarization microwave radiation, with the increase of microwave frequency, the influence of spatial direction and kinetic energy becomes weaker and weaker. This proves that the orientation effect of molecules following the direction of electric field decreases with increasing microwave frequency. Finally, we determine the effect of the microwave radiation on the spatial orientation and kinetic energy of collision. The higher intensity is the more obvious the effect will be. However, the higher temperature, the higher frequency, and circular polarization will weaken the effect.

On the basis of the collision theory, we further verify the total effect of weak microwave irradiation on spatial orientation and kinetic energy of active site collision by analyzing the effective molecular collision number and introduce electromagnetic action factor. The conclusion is consistent with that described above. At last, the effect of the weak microwaves on the spatial orientation and kinetic energy of active site collision is called the microwave postpolarization effect (MWPPE). The MWPPE provides a new way to understand the molecular mechanism of the microwave nonthermal effect. In addition, it can also provide useful reference for designing experiments to verify the nonthermal effect of weak microwave irradiation.

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Human Exposure Influence Analysis for Wireless Electric Vehicle Battery Charging

El-Shahat A, Danjuma J, Abdelaziz AY, Abdel Aleem SHE. Human Exposure Influence Analysis for Wireless Electric Vehicle Battery Charging. Clean Technologies. 2022; 4(3):785-805. https://doi.org/10.3390/cleantechnol4030048

Abstract

Wireless charging schemes aim to counter some drawbacks of electric vehicles’ wired charging, such as the fact that it does not encourage mobility, leads to safety issues regarding high voltage cables, power adapters high cost, and has more battery waste by companies. In this paper, a comparative study of wireless power transfer multiple coil geometries is performed to analyze the efficiency, coupling coefficient, mutual inductance, and magnetic flux density production for each geometry. Results show that coil geometry, current excitation, and shielding techniques within the Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging (WEVC) system substantially influence magnetic flux leakage. In addition, the paper proposes an analytical framework for a WEVC scheme via electromagnetic resonance coupling. Safety considerations of the WEVC system, including the effects on humans, are investigated in several scenarios based on the relative location of the human while EV charging is conducted as the leading paper’s goal. The exposure measurements are performed across various radial distances from the coils using 3-D FEA ANSYS Maxwell Software (American technology company, Pennsylvania, United States). The analysis shows that WEVC systems can achieve high power transfer, resulting in increased magnetic flux leakage around the coils. The safe distance for humans and animals during the charging sequence is attained from research results. For instance, in the 120 mm spiral coil, 120 mm square coil, and 600 mm spiral coil operating at 1 A, excitation, the SAR levels are under the threshold of 700 mm away from the coils. For the 600 mm spiral coil excited at 8 A, the SAR levels fall under the threshold at 900 mm away from the coils. When shielding is utilized, the safe distance is improved by up to 350 mm. Considering the regulations of the Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) standards, 600 mm is a safe distance away from the coils, and, vertically, anywhere past 300 mm is safe for humans.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2571-8797/4/3/48

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Physical Differences between Man-Made & Cosmic Microwave Electromagnetic Radiation & Exposure Limits, & Radiofrequencies as Generators of Biotoxic Free Radicals

Georgiou CD, Kalaitzopoulou E, Skipitari M, Papadea P, Varemmenou A, Gavriil V, Sarantopoulou E, Kollia Z, Cefalas A-C. Physical Differences between Man-Made and Cosmic Microwave Electromagnetic Radiation and Their Exposure Limits, and Radiofrequencies as Generators of Biotoxic Free Radicals. Radiation. 2022; 2(4):285-302. doi: 10.3390/radiation2040022.

Simple Summary

There is an inconsistency between the position that radio frequencies are sources of minor thermal effects in cells, tissues and living organisms and the experimental evidence indicating that non-ionising radiation is harmful, even at shallow power density radiation levels. A quantum mechanical survey of the interaction between microwaves and matter points to free radical-associated cytotoxic alterations of biomatter upon microwave irradiation.

Abstract

The critical arguments for radiofrequency radiation exposure limits are currently based on the principle that radio frequencies (RF) and electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are non-ionising, and their exposure limits are even 100-fold lower than those emitted from the Sun in the whole RF-EMF spectrum. Nonetheless, this argument has been challenged by numerous experimental and theoretical studies on the diverse biological effects of RF-EMF at much lower power density (W/m2) levels than today’s exposing limits. On the other hand, less attention has been given to counterarguments based on the differences in the physics concepts underlying man-made versus natural electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and on the fact that man’s biology has been adapted to the natural EMR levels reaching Earth’s surface at single EMF wavelengths, which are the natural limits of man’s exposure to EMFs. The article highlights the main points of interaction of natural and man-made radiation with biomatter and reveals the physical theoretical background that explains the effects of man-made microwave radiation on biological matter. Moreover, the article extends its analysis on experimental quantum effects, establishing the “ionising-like” effects of man-made microwave radiation on biological matter.

Excerpt

The current man-made power density exposure limits are compared to nature’s limits, and some observed biological effects are shown in Figure 3. The biological effects are based on studies presented in the BioInitiative 2012 Report [34,80–139], which have been updated in the present study. Nonetheless, the number of such studies has grown since then, listing as indicative ones that focus on oxidative stress [2,44,53,54,106,128,140,141], DNA damage [54,142] and carcinogenesis [143–147].

Indeed, the lowest power density of 1 × 109 W/m2 (1 × 10−6 mW/m2) with observed biological effects (oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species generation, DNA damage/repair failure) is ~10 13-fold higher than a natural exposure limit of ~1 × 1022 W/m2 (1019 mW/m2) of exposure to the cosmic frequencies and 10 10-fold lower than the today’s power density exposure limit of 10 W/m2 (1 × 10 4 mW/m2). Even the 3 to 6 × 106 W/m2 (3 to 6 × 103 mW/m2) limit proposed by the BioInitiative 2012 Report [148] is 10 14 to 10 18fold higher than the natural exposure limit.


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Investigation of oxidative damage, antioxidant balance, DNA repair genes, and apoptosis due to radiofrequency-induced adaptive response in mice

Kucukbagriacik Y, Dastouri M, Ozgur-Buyukatalay E, Akarca Dizakar O, Yegin K. Investigation of oxidative damage, antioxidant balance, DNA repair genes, and apoptosis due to radiofrequency-induced adaptive response in mice. Electromagn Biol Med. 2022 Sep 5:1-13. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2022.2117187.

Abstract

This study aims to determine whether exposure to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields could induce an adaptive response (AR) in adult mice and to reveal potential molecular mechanisms triggered by RF-induced AR. The study was performed on 24 adult male Swiss-Albino mice. The average mass of the mice was 37 g. Four groups of adult mice, each consisting of 6, were formed. The radiofrequency group (R) and the adaptive response group (RB) were exposed to 900 MHz of global system for mobile communications (GSM) signal at 0.339 W/kg (1 g average specific absorption rate) 4 h/day for 7 days, while the control group (C) and the bleomycin group (B) were not exposed. 20 minutes after the last radiofrequency field (RF) exposure, the mice in the B and RB groups were injected intraperitoneal (ip) bleomycin (BLM), 37.5 mg/kg. All the animals were sacrificed 30 minutes after the BLM injection. Oxidative damage and antioxidant mechanism were subsequently investigated in the blood samples. Changes in the expression of the genes involved in DNA repair were detected in the liver tissue. TUNEL method was used to determine the apoptosis developed by DNA fragmentation in the liver tissue. The RB group, which produced an adaptive response, was compared with the control group. According to the results, the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the RB group may have played an important role in triggering the adaptive response and producing the required minimum stress level. Furthermore, tumor suppressor 53(p53), oxo guanine DNA glycosylase (OGG-1) levels responsible for DNA repair mechanism genes expression were increased in conjunction with the increase in ROS. The change in the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) gene expression were not statistically significant. The antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were decreased in the group with adaptive response. According to the data obtained from terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, apoptosis was decreased in the RB group due to the decrease in cell death, which might have resulted from an increase in gene expression responsible for DNA repair mechanisms. The results of our study show that exposure to RF radiation may create a protective reaction against the bleomycin. The minimal oxidative stress due to the RF exposure leads to an adaptive response in the genes that play a role in the DNA repair mechanism and enzymes, enabling the survival of the cell.


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2.45 GHz microwave radiation induced oxidative stress: Role of inflammatory cytokines in regulating male fertility through estrogen receptor alpha in Gallus gallus domesticus

Gupta V, Srivastava R. 2.45 GHz microwave radiation induced oxidative stress: Role of inflammatory cytokines in regulating male fertility through estrogen receptor alpha in Gallus gallus domesticus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Sep 8;629:61-70. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2022.09.009.

Abstract

Due to the growing number of gadgets emitting electromagnetic radiation (EMR), particularly microwave (MW) radiation, in our daily lives, it is believed that EMR have both long-term and short-term biological impacts that are quite concerning for avian as well as human health. Due to the negative impact of MW emitting equipment on the biological system this study looks into the mechanistic approach by which low-level of 2.45 GHz MW radiation causes an oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the testes micro-environment which further gets regulated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression in immature Gallus gallus domesticus leading to male infertility. Two weeks old immature male chickens were exposed to non-thermal low-level 2.45-GHz MW radiation for 2 h/day for 30 days (power density = 0.1264 mw/cm2 and SAR = 0.9978 W/kg). In the exposed group, morphometric examination of the testes revealed decreased testicular weight, volume and gonado-somatic index. Further, histological staining demonstrated a substantial reduction in the diameter of seminiferous tubules in the exposed group as compared to the control. The degree of oxidative stress was also determined showing an increase in oxidative stress parameters after exposure. The radiation exposed testes showed a significant increase in IL-1β immunoreactivity and decline in IL-10 immunoreactivity, indicating a sense of MW radiation-induced oxidative stress-regulated inflammatory response. A substantial reduction in ERα expression was also observed in exposed testes by Western blotting. Our investigations conclude that testes being vulnerable to free radical damage become an easy target organ for MW exposure induced oxidative and inflammatory stress. Therefore it becomes evident that it may cause male infertility in chicks via downregulation of ER-α in testis. 

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36113179/

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The Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Transmitted from Routers on Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Pathogens

Pegios A, Kavvadas D, Ζarras K, Mpani K, Soukiouroglou P, Charalampidou S, Vagdatli E, Papamitsou T. The Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Transmitted from Routers on Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial Pathogens. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2022 Aug 1;12(4):327-338. doi: 10.31661/jbpe.v0i0.2111-1433. PMID: 36059284; PMCID: PMC9395630.

Abstract
Background: Electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation has both thermal and non-thermal outcomes on biological systems, such as humans, animals, and bacteria.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of non-ionizing radiofrequency radiation, emitted by Wi-Fi routers, on bacterial strains and the modification of their susceptibility to modern antibiotics.

Material and methods: In this case-control paired study, four bacteria were selected, and one colony from each bacterial strain was exposed to Wi-Fi radiation forming the exposure group. Another set of colonies was not exposed to Wi-Fi radiation, forming the control group. Eight different antibiotic disks were set on the bacterial plates, and the inhibition zone was measured every 3 h for each colony.

Results: Electromagnetic radiation affects bacterial colonies and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences, correlated with the bacterial strain, the antibiotic agent, and the time of the exposure, in the inhibition zones, mostly after 6 and 24 h (p-value < 0.05).

Conclusion: A correlation was observed between antibiotic susceptibility and non-ionizing radiofrequency exposure. Studying the effects of radiofrequency radiation on prokaryotic organisms could clarify more complicated cell structures and organisms, such as eukaryotic. Further experiments, in vitro and in vivo, could provide more information about these outcomes and cause experts to discuss the current guidelines of exposure limits.


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Effects of Radiofrequency EMF from Mobile Phones and Wi-Fi Router on the Growth Rate and Susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis to Antibiotics

Mortazavi SMJ, Taheri M, Paknahad M, Khandadash S. Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Mobile Phones and Wi-Fi Router on the Growth Rate and Susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis to Antibiotics. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2022 Aug 1;12(4):387-394. doi: 10.31661/jbpe.v0i0.1268.

Abstract

Background: During the last decade, people have been dramatically exposed to radiation emitted from widely-used radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) generating devices.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exposure to RF-EMF emitted from smart phones and Wi-Fi routers on the growth rate and antibiotic sensitivity of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as a pathogen in the root canals of teeth.

Material and methods: In this experimental study, E. faecalis ATCC 19115 was used, characterized and confirmed by morphological and biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was measured for several common antibiotics. To perform antibiotic susceptibility tests, disk diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method on Mueller-Hinton agar plates was used before and after exposure to RF-EMFs emitted from a commercial Wi-Fi router or a mobile phone simulator. Moreover, we measured the optical density at 625 nm after different exposure times using a calibrated UV-visible spectrophotometer to evaluate the effect of RF-EMF exposure on the bacterial growth rate.

Results: Exposure to RF-EMF significantly altered the antimicrobial sensitivity of the E. faecalis. While the susceptibility of the bacteria decreased significantly after 6 h of exposure, longer exposure time (e.g. exposure for 24 h) increased the susceptibility of the bacteria to all antibiotics. Furthermore, it was found that the bacteria tended to regress to their early state. Moreover, the non-exposed E. faecalis showed a slower growth rate than the bacteria exposed to RF-EMFs.

Conclusion: Exposure to RF-EMF emitted by Wi-Fi routers or mobile phone simulator can significantly change the antibiotic susceptibility and growth rate of E. faecalis.


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ELF-MF Exposure, Actual and Perceived, and Associated Health Symptoms: A Case Study of an Office Building in Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel

Raz-Steinkrycer LS, Dubnov J, Gelberg S, Jia P, Portnov BA. ELF-MF Exposure, Actual and Perceived, and Associated Health Symptoms: A Case Study of an Office Building in Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel. Sustainability. 2022; 14(17):11065. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141711065.

Abstract

Empirical studies link exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) to several health symptoms. However, it is unclear whether these symptoms are associated with actual or perceived exposure. In this study we attempted to answer this question by studying the health complaints of employees working in a multi-story office building located near a major high-voltage power line. ELF-MF measurements were conducted in the building using a triaxial sensor coil device on all 15 floors. In parallel, questionnaires were administered to evaluate the prevalence of various health symptoms among the employees. Multivariate logistic regressions were used next to quantify the associations between actual and perceived ELF-MF exposure and the employees’ health complaints. The analysis revealed that feelings of weakness, headache, frustration, and worry were associated with both measured and perceived ELF-MF exposure (p < 0.01), while perceived ELF-MF exposure was also found to be associated with eye pain and irritation (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2–1.6), sleepiness (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1–1.5), dizziness and ear pain (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0–1.4). We conclude that high-voltage power lines produce both physiological and psychological effects in nearby workers, and, hence, proximity to such power lines should become a public health issue.

Conclusions

The main findings of this study can be summarized as follows:
  • The analysis revealed no significant association between instrumentally measured and perceived ELF-MF exposure, which implies that individuals cannot detect actual ELF-MF exposure accurately;
  • The analysis revealed that feelings of weakness, headache, frustration and worries were associated with both measured and perceived ELF-MF exposure, while perceived ELF-MF exposure was also found to be associated with eye pain and irritation, sleepiness, as well as dizziness and ear pain.
  • As we conclude, working near a high voltage power line appears to produce not only psychological but also physiological effects, and should thus become a public health concern.
As several reported symptoms (including headache, frustration/worry, and exhaustion/weakness) were found to be significantly related to measured exposure, not just perceived exposure, the results should lead to revisiting ELF-MF exposure standards. Moreover, follow-up studies should attempt to estimate other effects of ELF-MF exposure, such as its effects on employee productivity, the number of visits to physicians, absenteeism, and medication intake.


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Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Impairs the Development of Honeybee

Li Y, Sun C, Zhou H, Huang H, Chen Y, Duan X, Huang S, Li J. Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Impairs the Development of Honeybee (Apis cerana). Animals (Basel). 2022 Sep 14;12(18):2420. doi: 10.3390/ani12182420.

Abstract

Increasing ELF-EMF pollution in the surrounding environment could impair the cognition and learning ability of honeybees, posing a threat to the honeybee population and its pollination ability. In a social honeybee colony, the numbers of adult bees rely on the successful large-scale rearing of larvae and continuous eclosion of new adult bees. However, no studies exist on the influence of ELF-EMFs on honeybee larvae. Therefore, we investigated the survival rate, body weight, and developmental duration of first instar larvae continuously subjected to ELF-EMF exposure. Moreover, the transcriptome of fifth instar larvae were sequenced for analyzing the difference in expressed genes. The results showed that ELF-EMF exposure decreases the survival rate and body weight of both white-eye pupae and newly emerged adults, extends the duration of development time and seriously interferes with the process of metamorphosis and pupation. The transcriptome sequencing showed that ELF-EMF exposure decreases the nutrient and energy metabolism and impedes the degradation of larvae tissues and rebuilding of pupae tissues in the metamorphosis process. The results provide an experimental basis and a new perspective for the protection of honeybee populations from ELF-EMF pollution.


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Suppression of Glucocorticoid Response in Stressed Mice Using 50 Hz Electric Field According to Immobilization Degree and Posture

Harakawa S, Hori T, Hiramoto T, Nedachi T, Shinba T, Suzuki H. Suppression of Glucocorticoid Response in Stressed Mice Using 50 Hz Electric Field According to Immobilization Degree and Posture. Biology (Basel). 2022 Sep 9;11(9):1336. doi: 10.3390/biology11091336.

Abstract

Various studies on immobilized BALB/c mice to evaluate changes in hormone levels associated with stress responses have advanced the characterization of multiple aspects of the biological actions of extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric fields (EFs). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of mouse posture on its stress responses and evaluate the importance of adjusting the stress degree in the model. Mice were immobilized inside centrifuge tubes and exposed to an ELF EF generated between parallel plate electrodes. Blood was collected under anesthesia immediately after EF exposure, and plasma glucocorticoids were assayed. The inhibitory effects of EFs on glucocorticoid elevation by immobilization were reproduced regardless of whether mice were in the abdominal or lateral recumbent position, for the EF vector delivered to mice through the sagittal or frontal plane. The effect of ELF EF was reproduced in moderately and mildly stressed mice but not in severely immobilized mice. Hence, adjusting the stress degree is critical to the reproducibility of the results for this model. We characterized the effects of ELF EF on homeostasis, including the stress response, and provided valuable information for the scientific evaluation of the biological risks and medical applications of ELF EF.


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Magnetic field interactions of smartwatches and portable electronic devices with CIEDs - Did we open a Pandora's box?

Badertscher P, Vergne C, Féry C, Mannhart D, Quirin T, Osswald S, Kühne M, Sticherling C, Knecht S, Pascal J. Magnetic field interactions of smartwatches and portable electronic devices with CIEDs - Did we open a Pandora's box? Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc. 2022 Sep 8;43:101122. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcha.2022.101122.

Abstract

Introduction: Magnetic interaction of portable electronic devices (PEDs), such as state-of-the art mobile phones, with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) has been reported. The aim of the study was to quantify the magnetic fields of latest generation smartwatches and other PEDs and to evaluate and predict their risk of CIED interactions.

Methods: High resolution magnetic field characterization of five smartwatches (Apple Watch 6/7, Fitbit Sense, Samsung Galaxy 3, Withings Scanwatch) was performed using a novel magnetic field camera. Ex vivo measurements of the minimal safety distance (MSD) at which no mode switch can be observed were performed between 11 PEDs and six representative CIEDs.

Results: Maximal 1 mT distances ranged between 10 mm (Withings) and 19 mm (Fitbit and AppleWatch), and 1 mT volumes between 6 cm3 (Withings) and 19 cm3 (Fitbit). All these measures were observed only for the back side of the smartwatches. While most smartwatches with measured 1 mT distance < 15 mm posed low ex vivo interaction within a distance of < 10 mm, PEDs such as electronic pens and in-ear-headphones with measured 1 mT distance > 15 mm showed device interaction up to > 15 mm. Linear regression analysis showed a linear relationship of the MSD with 1 mT distance (B coefficient: 0.46; 95 %-CI: 0.25-0.67, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Smartwatches are safer compared to other PEDs such as electronic pens or in-ear headphones with regards to CIED interaction. With a standardized magnetic field camera, the risk assessment of CIED interaction of novel PEDs is feasible.


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Radical triads, not pairs, may explain effects of hypomagnetic fields on neurogenesis

Ramsay J, Kattnig DR. Radical triads, not pairs, may explain effects of hypomagnetic fields on neurogenesis. PLoS Comput Biol. 2022 Sep 15;18(9):e1010519. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1010519.

Abstract

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent cognition in mice have been found to be adversely affected by hypomagnetic field exposure. The effect concurred with a reduction of reactive oxygen species in the absence of the geomagnetic field. A recent theoretical study suggests a mechanistic interpretation of this phenomenon in the framework of the Radical Pair Mechanism. According to this model, a flavin-superoxide radical pair, born in the singlet spin configuration, undergoes magnetic field-dependent spin dynamics such that the pair's recombination is enhanced as the applied magnetic field is reduced. This model has two ostensible weaknesses: a) the assumption of a singlet initial state is irreconcilable with known reaction pathways generating such radical pairs, and b) the model neglects the swift spin relaxation of free superoxide, which abolishes any magnetic sensitivity in geomagnetic/hypomagnetic fields. We here suggest that a model based on a radical triad and the assumption of a secondary radical scavenging reaction can, in principle, explain the phenomenon without unnatural assumptions, thus providing a coherent explanation of hypomagnetic field effects in biology.

Author Summary

The hippocampal region of the brain plays a major role in learning and memory functionality. In male mice, shielding of the Earth’s magnetic field was found to decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e. the formation of new neurons, following from a decrease in levels of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we suggest an explanation in terms of spin dynamics of a three radical system composed of flavin-semiquinone, superoxide and ascorbyl radical. This model agrees with the experimental data whilst retaining realistic parameters for a biological system, unlike the Radical Pair Mechanism.


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Hsp72-Based Effect and Mechanism of Microwave Radiation-Induced Cardiac Injury in Rats

Li D, Xu X, Gao Y, Wang J, Yin Y, Yao B, Zhao L, Wang H, Wang H, Dong J, Zhang J, Peng R. Hsp72-Based Effect and Mechanism of Microwave Radiation-Induced Cardiac Injury in Rats. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022 Aug 18;2022:7145415. doi: 10.1155/2022/7145415.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the role of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) changes in cardiac injury caused by microwave radiation, aimed at providing novel insights into the mechanism of this damage. A digital thermometer was used to measure the rectal temperature of the rats' pre- and post-radiation. On the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 28th days post-radiation, the changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) were analyzed by a multi-channel physiological recorder. The myocardial enzyme activities and ion concentrations were detected by an automatic biochemical analyzer. Additionally, the levels of myocardial injury markers were established by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and those of hormones were measured by radioimmunoassay. The structure and ultrastructure of the myocardial tissue were observed using an optical microscope and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expression of Hsp72 was measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Post-exposure, the rectal temperature in the R-group increased significantly, ECG was disordered, and the concentrations of ions were decreased. Furthermore, the activities of myocardial enzymes were changed, and the contents of myocardial injury markers and hormones were increased. We observed damage to the structure and ultrastructure and significantly increased expression of Hsp72. As a whole, the results indicated that S-wave microwave radiation at 30 mW/cm2 for 35 min resulted in damage to the cardiac functionality organigram, caused by a combination of the thermal and nonthermal effects.


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Genomic DNA damage induced by co-exposure to DNA damaging agents and pulsed magnetic field

López-Díaz B, Mercado-Sáenz S, Burgos-Molina AM, González-Vidal A, Sendra-Portero F, Ruiz-Gómez MJ. Genomic DNA damage induced by co-exposure to DNA damaging agents and pulsed magnetic field. Int J Radiat Biol. 2022 Sep 7:1-31. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2022.2121873.

Abstract

Purpose: Many articles describe the effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (MF) on DNA damage induction. However, the mechanism of MF interaction with living matter is not yet known with certainty. Some works suggest that MF could induce an increase in the efficacy of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. This work investigates whether pulsed MF exposure produces alterations in genomic DNA damage induced by co-exposure to DNA damaging agents (bleomycin and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)).

Materials and methods: Genomic DNA, prepared from S. cerevisiae cultures, was exposed to pulsed MF (1.5 mT peak, 25 Hz) and MMS (0-1%) (15-60 minutes), and to MF and bleomycin (0-0.6 IU/ml) (24-72 hours). The damage induced to DNA was evaluated by electrophoresis and image analysis.

Results: Pulsed MF induced an increment in the level of DNA damage produced by MMS and bleomycin in all groups at the exposure conditions assayed.

Conclusions: Pulsed MF could modulate the cytotoxic action of MMS and bleomycin. The observed effect could be the result of a multifactorial process influenced by the type of agent that damages DNA, the dose, and the duration of the exposure to the pulsed MF.


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Investigation of Fetuin-A pathway in diabetes mellitus formation in rats exposed to ELF magnetic fields

Sert C, Delin M, Eren MA, Çakmak Y. Investigation of Fetuin-A pathway in diabetes mellitus formation in rats exposed to elf magnetic fields. Electromagn Biol Med. 2022 Sep 8:1-7. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2022.2117189.

Abstract

The presence of technological devices in our lives has increased exposure to environmental electromagnetic fields. As a result of this, especially Cancer and Diabetes are increasing.Rats were divided into 3 groups with 12 rats in each group. The 1st experimental group (n = 12) was exposed to a 50 Hz ELF magnetic field of 0.4 mT for 6 hours a day for 5 days, the 2nd experimental group (n = 12) was exposed for 10 days, and the control group (n = 12) was never exposed to a magnetic field. After completing the applications, blood collection from the rats was performed under appropriate conditions, measurements were made in the laboratory, and statistical analysis was performed between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the results of transaminases and lipid profiles and C-Peptide. There was no significant difference in insulin, urea, creatinine, Na, K, Ca, and uric acid parameters between the groups. However, there was a significant increase in glucose, HbA1c, and Hba1 IFCC values between the control group and the experimental groups (p < .001). There was a significant increase in the level of Fetuin-A between the control group and the experimental groups (p < .05). There was an increase in the Fetuin-A, Glucose, HbA1c, and Hba1c IFCC values in both of the experimental groups compared to the control group. We believe that an increase in these values may cause Type 3 diabetes.


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Biological experimental study on cumulative effect of vehicle electromagnetic radiation

J. Li, W. Changyuan and Z. Yujie. Biological experimental study on cumulative effect of vehicle electromagnetic radiation. 2022 Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), 2022, pp. 261-263, doi: 10.1109/APEMC53576.2022.9888471.

Abstract

Compared with power frequency magnetic field or mobile phone, electric vehicles are equipped with more and more high-voltage components, more and more electronic components, and their frequency, waveform and modulation mode are more flexible, which may make the electromagnetic exposure scene of passengers in the vehicle more complex. With the acceleration of the comprehensive electrification trend of public transport, people are exposed to electric vehicles more and more frequently, and the time is also gradually increasing. Whether the cumulative effect of vehicle electromagnetic radiation has an impact on occupant health is a matter of general concern to consumers. At present, there is still a lack of relevant research and standards on the cumulative effect of vehicle electromagnetic radiation at home and abroad. In this paper, a pure electric vehicle is taken as the test object, and the test mice are taken as an example to verify whether the cumulative effect of vehicle electromagnetic radiation has an impact on the body weight and blood immune cells of mice. The results showed that there were significant gender differences in body weight. However, the test time needs to be further increased to judge whether the cumulative effect causes the impact.

Conclusion

The results showed that the test had a significant effect on the body weight of female mice. Weight is not only a comprehensive index to measure growth and development, but also an overall response to the operation of various physiological functions of the body. In the past, it has been reported that radiation can cause loss of appetite, affect human endocrine system and slow growth and development. Although the mechanism of this effect is not particularly clear and lack of relevant evidence, it is a problem worthy of attention. However, with the increase of exposure time, the change trend
needs to be further verified.

In addition, the environmental noise, temperature and humidity of the exposure group and the control group are slightly different in the design of this test, which may have a certain impact on the test results more or less. Therefore, in order to eliminate the interference of environmental factors, laboratory animal experiments will be carried out later to further verify whether the cumulative effect of vehicle electromagnetic radiation will affect the normal immune function of animals.


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Unveiling the space weather during the Starlink satellites destruction event on 4 February 2022

Dang, T., Li, X., Luo, B., Li, R., Zhang, B., Pham, K., et al. (2022). Unveiling the space weather during the Starlink satellites destruction event on 4 February 2022. Space Weather, 20, e2022SW003152. https://doi.org/10.1029/2022SW003152

Abstract

On 4 February 2022, 38 Starlink satellites were destroyed by the geomagnetic storm, which brought significant financial, aerospace and public influences. In this letter, we reveal the space weather process during 3–4 February 2022 geomagnetic disturbances, from the Sun all the way to the satellite orbiting atmosphere. Initiated by an M1.0 class flare and the following coronal mass ejection (CME), a moderate geomagnetic storm was stimulated on 3rd February by the CME arrival at Earth. Subsequently, another moderate storm was triggered on 4th February by the passage of another CME. Model simulations driven by solar wind show that the first geomagnetic storm induced around 20% atmospheric density perturbations at 210 km altitude on 3rd February. The unexpected subsequent storm on 4th February led to a density enhancement of around 20%–30% at around 210 km. The resulting atmospheric drag can be even larger, since the regional density enhancement was over 60% and the satellite orbits were continuously decaying. This event brings forth the urgent requirements of better understanding and accurate prediction of the space weather as well as collaborations between industry and space weather community.