Monday, February 10, 2020

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August, 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below.

The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 800 scientific papers. This 606-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:

Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.

Recent Papers


Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditions

Kostoff RN, Heroux P, Aschner M, Tsatsakis A. Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditions. Toxicology Letters. Published online Jan 25, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.01.020.

Highlights

• Identifies wide-spectrum of adverse health effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation
• Most laboratory experiments were not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of real-life conditions
• Many experiments do not include the real-life pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal
• Vast majority of experiments do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli with wireless radiation
• 5G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, but will have adverse systemic effects as well

Abstract

This article identifies adverse effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation (hereafter called wireless radiation) reported in the premier biomedical literature. It emphasizes that most of the laboratory experiments conducted to date are not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of the real-life operating environment in which wireless radiation systems operate. Many experiments do not include pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal. The vast majority do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli (such as chemical and biological) acting in concert with the wireless radiation. This article also presents evidence that the nascent 5 G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, as commonly believed, but will have adverse systemic effects as well.

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Appeals that matter or not on a moratorium on the deployment of the fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation

Hardell L, Nyberg R. [Comment] Appeals that matter or not on a moratorium on the deployment of the fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation. Molecular and Clinical Oncology. Published online January 22, 2020.

Abstract

Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range of 30 kHz‑300 GHz is classified as a ‘possible’ human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 2011. The evidence has since then been strengthened by further research; thus, RF radiation may now be classified as a human carcinogen, Group 1. In spite of this, microwave radiations are expanding with increasing personal and ambient exposure. One contributing factor is that the majority of countries rely on guidelines formulated by the International Commission on Non‑Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a private German non‑governmental organization. ICNIRP relies on the evaluation only of thermal (heating) effects from RF radiation, thereby excluding a large body of published science demonstrating the detrimental effects caused by non‑thermal radiation. The fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation is about to be implemented worldwide in spite of no comprehensive investigations of the potential risks to human health and the environment. In an appeal sent to the EU in September, 2017 currently >260 scientists and medical doctors requested for a moratorium on the deployment of 5G until the health risks associated with this new technology have been fully investigated by industry‑independent scientists. The appeal and four rebuttals to the EU over a period of >2 years, have not achieved any positive response from the EU to date. Unfortunately, decision makers seem to be uninformed or even misinformed about the risks. EU officials rely on the opinions of individuals within the ICNIRP and the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR), most of whom have ties to the industry. They seem to dominate evaluating bodies and refute risks. It is important that these circumstances are described. In this article, the warnings on the health risks associated with RF presented in the 5G appeal and the letters to the EU Health Commissioner since September, 2017 and the authors' rebuttals are summarized. The responses from the EU seem to have thus far prioritized industry profits to the detriment of human health and the environment.


Excerpt

In conclusion, this article demonstrates that the EU has given mandate to a 13‑member, non‑governmental private group, the ICNIRP, to decide upon the RF radiation guidelines. The ICNIRP, as well as SCENIHR, are well shown not to use the sound evaluation of science on the detrimental effects of RF radiation, which is documented in the research which is discussed above (9,10,21‑24,54,55). These two small organizations are producing reports which seem to deny the existence of scientific published reports on the related risks. It should perhaps be questioned whether it is in the realm of protecting human health and the environment by EU and whether the safety of EU citizens and the environment can be protected by not fully understanding the health‑related risks.


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Limiting liability with positioning to minimize negative health effects of cellular phone towers

Pearce JM. Limiting liability with positioning to minimize negative health effects of cellular phone towers. Environmental Research. Available online 29 November 2019, 108845.

Highlights

• Cellular phone networks demand widespread human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR).
• Cellular phone base stations density & power output increasing global human RFR exposure.
• Already enough medical-scientific evidence to warrant long-term liability concerns.
• To protect cell phone tower firms, companies should seek to minimize human RFR exposure.

Abstract

The use of cellular phones is now ubiquitous through most of the adult global population and is increasingly common among even young children in many countries (e.g. Finland, where the market for smart phones is nearly saturated). The basic operation of cellular phone networks demands widespread human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) with cellular phone base stations providing cellular coverage in most areas. As the data needs of the population increase from the major shift in the source of Internet use from personal computers to smart phones, this coverage is widely predicted to increase. Thus, both the density of base stations and their power output is expected to increase the global human RFR exposure. Although direct causation of negative human health effects from RFR from cellular phone base stations has not been finalized, there is already enough medical and scientific evidence to warrant long-term liability concerns for companies deploying cellular phone towers. In order to protect cell phone tower firms from the ramifications of the failed paths of other industries that have caused unintended human harm (e.g. tobacco) this Current Issue summarizes the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of RFR from cellular phone base stations. Specifically the impacts of siting base stations are closely examined and recommendations are made for companies that deploy them to minimize their potential future liability.


Excerpts

A review article of the health effects near base stations concluded that deployment of base stations should be kept as efficient as possible to minimize exposure of the public to RFR and should not be located less than 500m from the population, and at a height of 50m (Levitt and Lai, 2010)....

There are several first steps a cellular phone company can take to minimize human exposure particularly of the most vulnerable populations. First, voluntarily restrictions can be made on the placement of cellular
phone base stations within 500m of schools and hospitals....

The second technical hurdle is more challenging. Ideally, all cell phone users would have coverage while minimizing the population density near cellular phone base stations (thus minimizing health impacts)....

The cell phone industry should also consider cell splitting, small cell deployment, beam and null steering antennae as possible technical means for reducing RF exposure. Moreover, more research on cognitive
radio should also be conducted, so that the overall RF exposure is reduced....

Finally, exposed companies should consider funding large-scale epidemiological studies with personal dosimeters for strict dose measurement and straight-forward tissue exposure. By quantifying the human medical threat themselves, more appropriate long-term planning can be made to minimize the risk of liability from unintended human harm due to cellular phone base station siting.

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Cancer statistics, 2020: Brain and other nervous system cancer incidence and death rates

Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A.  Cancer statistics, 2020. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. doi: 10.3322/caac.21590.

Cancer incidence

The American Cancer Society estimates that there will be 23,890 new cases of brain & other nervous system (ONS) cancers this year in the U.S. and 18,020 people will die from these types of cancer (Table 1). Leukemia is the most common childhood (birth to 19 years of age) cancer, accounting for 28% of cases, followed by brain & ONS cancers (26%), greater than one-quarter of which are benign/borderline malignant (Table 12).In adolescents, brain & ONS cancers are most common (21%), greater than one-half of which are benign/borderline malignant, followed closely by lymphoma (20%). (p. 18)

Cancer deaths

Death rates increased over the past decade for brain & ONS cancers (p. 13). Brain & ONS cancers are the first leading cause of cancer death among men aged younger than 40 years and women aged younger than 20 years. These cancers are the fourth leading cause of cancer death among women aged 20 to 39 years and the fifth leading cause of cancer death among men aged 40 to 59 years (Table 8). 


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An experimental study on effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on sleep in healthy elderly males and females: Gender matters!

Danker-Hopfe H, Dorn H, Sauter C, Schmid G, Eggert T. An experimental study on effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on sleep in healthy elderly males and females: Gender matters! Environmental Research. 183, April 2020, 109181

• First paper to investigate gender specific RF-EMF effects in elderly subjects.
• RF-EMF affects approximately 10% of the sleep variables directly.
• RF-EMF affects approximately 12% of the sleep variables differently in men and women.
• Women are more affected than men.
• None of the observed effects is indicative of a disturbed sleep.

Abstract

Background Results from human experimental studies investigating possible effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on sleep are heterogeneous. So far, there is no study on possible sex-differences in RF-EMF effects.

Objectives The present study aimed at analyzing differences in RF-EMF effects on the macrostructure of sleep between healthy elderly males and females.

Methods With a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled cross-over design effects of two RF-EMF exposures (GSM900 and TETRA) on sleep were investigated in samples of 30 elderly healthy male and 30 healthy elderly female volunteers. Participants underwent each of the three exposure conditions on three occassions following an individually randomized order resulting in a total of nine study nights per participant. Exposure was delivered for 30 min prior to sleep and for the whole night (7.5 h) by a head worn antenna specifically designed for the projects. The peak spatial absorption rate averaged over time in head tissues (psSAR10g) was 6 W/kg for TETRA and 2 W/kg for GSM900. Thirty variables characterising the macrostructure of sleep and arousals as well as four subjective sleep variables were considered for statistical analyses.

Results Multivariate analyses revealed that exposure to GSM900 and/or TETRA resulted in a significant reduction in arousals, a shorter latency to sleep stage N3, and a shorter self-reported time awake after sleep in both males and females. Exposure effects depending on sex (significant interactions) were observed. Latency to sleep stage R was shorter in females and tended to be longer in males under both exposures. Latency to stage N3 was shorter in females under TETRA exposure and almost not affected in males. The time awake within the sleep period under TETRA exposure was shorter in females and only slightly longer in males. Under GSM exposure, the self-rated total sleep time tended to be longer in females and to be shorter in males. Finally, the number of awakenings was lower only in females and tended to be higher in males under GSM exposure.

Discussion With regard to RF-EMF effects on human sleep it seems that gender matters since GSM900 and TETRA led to significantly more exposure effects in females. Regardless of gender, none of the observed changes is indicative of a sleep disturbing effect of RF-EMF exposure. Observed effects might be mediated by skin related thermoregulatory mechanisms.


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Dimensionless coefficients for assessing human exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields indoors and outdoors in urban areas

Paniagua JM, Rufo M, Jiménez A, Antolín A. Dimensionless coefficients for assessing human exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields indoors and outdoors in urban areas. Environmental Research
183, April 2020, 109188.

Highlights

• Residential areas were measured indoors and outdoors with a personal exposimeter.
• Different protocols were used for indoor and outdoor measurements.
• Electric field was systematically detected in the FM and downlink mobile phone bands.
• Median exposure quotient was 2.5 10−6 outdoors and 1.6 10−6 indoors.
• Exposure quotient: FM radio > downlink > DECT and WIFI.

Abstract

The main objective of this work was to evaluate human exposure to electromagnetic fields in a city of about one hundred thousand inhabitants, both inside and outside dwellings, using exposure quotients. To this end, a personal exposure meter was used, collecting data in different frequency bands, including radio and television broadcasting, mobile telephony, cordless telephones, and wireless communication networks. The indoor measurements were made with the exposure meter in a static position. Those outdoor were made by walking around the building with the exposure meter held by the operator. The median electric field was 0.200 V/m outdoors and 0.102 V/m indoors. The median of the ICNIRP exposure quotients for multiple-frequency sources was 25 x 10−6 outside and 16 x 10−6 inside. The proximity of the operator's body caused the readings of the electric field in the FM band to be overestimated by a factor of 1.35, and in the mobile telephony bands by factors from 0.76 to 1.02. The standard deviation of the measurements repeated inside a dwelling over five days was of the order of the exposure meter's standard uncertainty of calibration, but the spatial dispersion at the scale of a dwelling and of the city was much greater. The two main contributors to the exposure were FM radio followed by the “downlink” mobile telephony bands. Inside the dwellings, the DECT and WIFI bands contributed less. Exposure quotients are dimensionless parameters that characterize exposure, and reflect the relative weight of each service to that exposure.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32032813

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Spatial and temporal assessment of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted by smart meters and smart meter banks in urban environments

Aerts S, Van den Bossche M, Vergara X, Odie S, Verloock L, Martens L, WoutJ. Spatial and temporal assessment of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted by smart meters and smart meter banks in urban environments. Environmental Research. 183. Apr 2020. 109196.

Highlights
• We present a method to assess spatiotemporal RF-EMF exposure to AMI smart meters.
• Measurements of smart meter(s) (banks) were performed in a densely populated area.
• Maximum field levels at 0.3 m were 13 V/m (1 m) and 38 V/m (>20 m).
• Duty cycles were between 0.01% (1 m) and 14% (81-m bank).
• The maximum time-averaged exposure level was 9.43% of the ICNIRP reference level.

Abstract
This paper describes radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) measurements in the vicinity of single and banks of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) smart meters. The measurements were performed in a meter testing and distribution facility as well as in-situ at five urban locations. The measurements consisted of gauging the RF environment at the place of assessment, evaluating the worst-case electric-field levels at various positions around the assessed AMI meter configuration (spatial assessment), which ranged from a single meter to a bank of 81 m, and calculating the duty cycle of the system, i.e. the fraction of time that the AMI meters were actually transmitting (12-h temporal assessment). Both in-situ and in the meter facility, the maximum field levels at 0.3 m from the meter configurations were 10–13 V/m for a single meter and 18–38 V/m for meter banks with 20–81 m. Furthermore, 6-min average duty cycles of 0.01% (1 m) up to 13% (81-m bank) were observed. Next, two general statistical models (one for a single meter and one for a meter bank) were constructed to predict the electric-field strength as a function of distance to any configuration of the assessed AMI meters. For all scenarios, the measured exposure levels (at a minimum distance of 0.3 m) were well below the maximum permissible exposure limits issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Indeed, the worst-case time-average exposure level at a distance of 0.3 m from an AMI installation was 5.39% of the FCC/IEEE and 9.43% of the ICNIRP reference levels.

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Pulsed high-power microwaves do not impair the functions of skin normal and cancer cells in vitro: A short-term biological evaluation

Mumtaz S, Bhartiya P, Kaushik N, Adhikari M, Lamichhane P, Lee S-J, Kaushik NK, Choi EH. Pulsed high-power microwaves do not impair the functions of skin normal and cancer cells in vitro: A short-term biological evaluation. J Advance Research. 22: 47-55. Mar 2020.

Highlights

• Pulsed high power microwave (MW) at a frequency 3.5 GHz was generated.
• MW did not induce cell death in skin fibroblast normal cells and melanoma cells.
• MW did not alter the morphology of melanoma cells.
• Gene expression related to ATP synthesis and proliferation can get altered by MW.
• MW selectively stimulated viability and proliferation of only melanoma cells.

Abstract
Over the past few decades, microwave (MW) radiation has been widely used, and its biological effects have been extensively investigated. However, the effect of MW radiation on human skin biology is not well understood. We study the effects of pulsed high-power microwaves (HPMs) on melanoma (G361 and SK-Mel-31) and normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. A pulsed power generator (Chundoong) was used to generate pulsed HPMs (dominant frequency: 3.5 GHz). For treatment 1, 5, 15, and 45 shots are given to cells in which the electromagnetic energy of 0.6 J was delivered to the cells at each trigger shot. Cell viability, proliferation rate, apoptosis, cell death, metabolic activity, and oxygen-free radical regulation were evaluated after the MW exposure at low and high doses. MW exposure increased the viabilities and proliferation rates of both melanoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, while no significant effects on the fibroblast cells were observed. We found an elevated level of ATP and mitochondrial activity in melanoma cells. Also, it was observed that MW exposure did not affect cell death in melanoma and fibroblast cells. A polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the MWs induced dose-dependent proliferation markers without affecting the cell cycle and apoptotic genes in the melanoma cells. Our findings show the differential effects ofthe MW radiation on the melanoma cells, compared to those on the fibroblast cells.

Conclusion

This study reveals that the MW exposure led to increased cell growth and proliferation specific to melanoma after 24 h, which could be attributed to the increased mitochondrial activity by the  increased ATP level. The MW exposure did not affect the normal fibroblast cells at the considered doses, while it altered the melanoma cell physiology in a cell-type specific manner. Therefore, MW exposure may be utilized with mitotic inhibitory chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma cells and should be considered while analyzing melanoma cells in vitro.Further investigations are required to study the cellular signaling upon MW exposure.

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RF-induced temperature increase in a stratified model of the skin for plane-wave exposure at 6-100 GHz

Christ A, Samaras T, Neufeld E, Kuster N. RF-induced temperature increase in a stratified model of the skin for plane-wave exposure at 6-100 GHz. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2020 Jan 16. pii: ncz293. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncz293.

Abstract

This study assesses the maximum temperature increase induced by exposure to electromagnetic fields between 6 and 100 GHz using a stratified model of the skin with four or five layers under plane wave incidence. The skin model distinguishes the stratum corneum (SC) and the viable epidermis as the outermost layers of the skin. The analysis identifies the tissue layer structures that minimize reflection and maximize the temperature increase induced by the electromagnetic field. The maximum observed temperature increase is 0.4°C for exposure at the present power density limit for the general population of 10 W m -2 . This result is more than twice as high as the findings reported in a previous study. The reasons for this difference are identified as impedance matching effects in the SC and less conservative thermal parameters. Modeling the skin as homogeneous dermis tissue can underestimate the induced temperature increase by more than a factor of three.


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Effects of electromagnetic fields from (4G) long-term evolution on awake electroencephalogram in healthy humans

Nakatani-Enomoto S, Yamazaki M, Nishiura K, Enomoto H, Ugawa Y. Effects of electromagnetic fields from long-term evolution on awake electroencephalogram in healthy humans. Neurosci Res. 2020 Jan 25. pii: S0168-0102(20)30036-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2020.01.010.

Abstract

Mobile phones are indispensable for daily life, and the adverse effects of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phones have been a great concern. We studied the effects of long-term evolution (LTE) -like EMF for 30 min on an awake electroencephalogram (EEG). Thirty-eight healthy volunteers, aged 20 to 36 years old, participated in this study. The maximum local SAR (specific absorption rate) averaged over 10-g mass was 2.0 W/kg. The EEG was recorded before and after real or sham exposures. The effects of exposure conditions (real or sham) and the recording time (before, during, and after exposure) on each EEG power spectrum of θ, α, and β frequency ranges were analyzed. The θ and α band waves were enhanced after both exposure conditions. These results may be explained by the participants' drowsiness during the EEG recording in both exposures. We conclude that an LTE-like exposure for 30 min in this study showed no detectable harmful effects on awake EEGs in healthy humans.


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Investigation of SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) in Different Head Models Placed in Shielded Space

Psenakova Z, Benova M, Mydlova J. Investigation of SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) in Different Head Models Placed in Shielded Space. 2019 IEEE 20th International Conference on Computational Problems of Electrical Engineering (CPEE).15-18 Sept. 2019.

Abstract

This article deals with effects of electromagnetic (EM) fields to different types of numerical models of human head. There are differences between specific absorption rate (SAR) near human head model inside shielded space like in elevator or non-shielded space (open area). In the presented approach, the investigation is focused on modelling of EM field proceeded on the finite integration method. The simulations were carried out for specific scenario where a person/passenger was placed in the shielded space using a cellular phone. The results were evaluated in terms of the SAR values – the determination of EM energy absorption inside the human head. The dipole antenna with a frequency of 900 MHz was designed and working as radio frequency source. In the proposed matching method, two models of human head - SAM homogenous human head model and AustinMan model - were chosen to model three different distances of the cellular phone from the human head surface. Both have the dielectric properties determined to the evaluated frequency of source. The numerical results have shown that the obtained maximal SAR values in shielded/enclosure (such as the elevator) is higher than are maximum values determined according to maximum SAR in European standards limit. Additionally, the obtained SAR values are higher than the results achieved by the open space simulations.

Conclusions

In this paper, the study of the electromagnetic energy absorption changes caused to the human head models in different situations-open and shielded space was proposed. The near-field exposure results from have shown that the SAR values vary for the antenna distance and space, where is the antenna placed as well as to the use of human head model. The changes of EM fields relate to the above-mentioned process – occurrence of EM fields reflection from the surface of iron shielded space. This reflected wave interferes with the primary wave from the radiation source, resulting in increased wave amplitude. In a shaded environment, this affects the object by absorbing direct waves from the source in the tissue as well as reflected waves, resulting in a higher SAR value.

In some cases of our simulation scenarios, the SAR values results are not within the limits for public radio-frequency EM field exposure by ICNIRP. However, it could be caused by setting the specific parameters of our simulations – such as dielectric parameters of materials, number of voxels, boundary conditions in each space and model of human head. 

On the other hand, the cases presented in this paper, represent a risk for long-term exposure of human body, especially of human head, to EM field.

In this article we would like to show differences between open space and shielded space, which could be some vehicles like train, car and another shielded spaces with low signal from base station like underground park places or elevators. Mobile phone has highest power in this types of spaces and places, which was proven in our simulations. [12]

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Variation in Reported Human Head Tissue Electrical Conductivity Values

McCann H, Pisano G, Beltrachini L. Variation in Reported Human Head Tissue Electrical Conductivity Values. Brain Topogr. 2019 Sep;32(5):825-858. doi: 10.1007/s10548-019-00710-2.

Abstract

Electromagnetic source characterisation requires accurate volume conductor models representing head geometry and the electrical conductivity field. Head tissue conductivity is often assumed from previous literature, however, despite extensive research, measurements are inconsistent. A meta-analysis of reported human head electrical conductivity values was therefore conducted to determine significant variation and subsequent influential factors. Of 3121 identified publications spanning three databases, 56 papers were included in data extraction. Conductivity values were categorised according to tissue type, and recorded alongside methodology, measurement condition, current frequency, tissue temperature, participant pathology and age. We found variation in electrical conductivity of the whole-skull, the spongiform layer of the skull, isotropic, perpendicularly- and parallelly-oriented white matter (WM) and the brain-to-skull-conductivity ratio (BSCR) could be significantly attributed to a combination of differences in methodology and demographics. This large variation should be acknowledged, and care should be taken when creating volume conductor models, ideally constructing them on an individual basis, rather than assuming them from the literature. When personalised models are unavailable, it is suggested weighted average means from the current meta-analysis are used. Assigning conductivity as: 0.41 S/m for the scalp, 0.02 S/m for the whole skull, or when better modelled as a three-layer skull 0.048 S/m for the spongiform layer, 0.007 S/m for the inner compact and 0.005 S/m for the outer compact, as well as 1.71 S/m for the CSF, 0.47 S/m for the grey matter, 0.22 S/m for WM and 50.4 for the BSCR.


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A Theoretical Study on the Biophysical Mechanisms by Which Tumor Treating Fields Affect Tumor Cells during Mitosis


Li X, Yang F, Rubinsky B. A Theoretical Study on the Biophysical Mechanisms by Which Tumor Treating Fields Affect Tumor Cells during Mitosis. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2020 Jan 13. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2020.2965883.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: A theoretical study on the mechanisms through which Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) affect dividing tumor cells.

METHODS: Numerical analysis was used to revisit two previously proposed mechanisms and introduce a third. We examine the previous hypotheses that: a) TTFields generate a moment that affects microtubule assembly during early mitosis, and b) dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces cause neutral particles to move toward the cleavage furrow during the telophase stage. We further introduce a new hypothesis that TTFields modify cell membrane potential in dividing tumor cells.

RESULTS: a) The Brownian energy is several orders of magnitude larger than the moment induced by TTFields on tubulin dimers. b) Adding Stokes drag forces to DEP forces shows that the motion of the particles in the cytoplasm is very slow, approximately 0.003 μm/s, and therefore, unless the duration of the telophase is long enough there will be no substantial effect from the DEP forces. c) The Schwan equation shows that electric fields at the frequencies of clinical TTFields can cause a 10% - 17% change in tumor cell membrane potential.

CONCLUSION: Our studies find limited support for the previously suggested hypotheses and suggest that the TTFields effect on cell membrane potential by affecting ion channels could be a mechanism of tumor cell death.

SIGNIFICANCE: Previously suggested mechanisms of tumor cell death from TTFields are found lacking. The effect of TTFields on the tumor cell membrane potential warrants further research.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31940516

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A Critical Review and Synthesis of Clinical and Neurocognitive Effects of Noninvasive Neuromodulation Antidepressant Therapies.

McClintock SM, Kallioniemi E, Martin DM, Kim JU, Weisenbach SL, Abbott CC. A Critical Review and Synthesis of Clinical and Neurocognitive Effects of Noninvasive Neuromodulation Antidepressant Therapies.
Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ). 2019 Jan;17(1):18-29. doi: 10.1176/appi.focus.20180031.

Abstract

There is a plethora of current and emerging antidepressant therapies in the psychiatric armamentarium for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Noninvasive neuromodulation therapies are one such therapeutic category; they typically involve the transcranial application of electrical or magnetic stimulation to modulate cortical and subcortical brain activity. Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used since the 1930s, with the prevalence of major depressive disorder and treatment-resistant depression (TRD), the past three decades have seen a proliferation of noninvasive neuromodulation antidepressant therapeutic development. The purpose of this critical review was to synthesize information regarding the clinical effects, neurocognitive effects, and possible mechanisms of action of noninvasive neuromodulation therapies, including ECT, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, and transcranial direct current stimulation. Considerable research has provided substantial information regarding their antidepressant and neurocognitive effects, but their mechanisms of action remain unknown. Although the four therapies vary in how they modulate neurocircuitry and their resultant antidepressant and neurocognitive effects, they are nonetheless useful for patients with acute and chronic major depressive disorder and TRD. Continued research is warranted to inform dosimetry, algorithm for administration, and integration among the noninvasive neuromodulation therapies and with other antidepressant strategies to continue to maximize their safety and antidepressant benefit.


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Review: The role of radiation induced oxidative stress as a regulator of radio-adaptive responses

Sisakht M, Darabian M, Mahmoodzadeh A, Bazi A, Shafiee SM, Mokarram P, Khoshdel Z.  The role of radiation induced oxidative stress as a regulator of radio-adaptive responses. Int J Radiat Biol. 2020 Jan 24:1-40. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2020.1721597.

Abstract

Purpose: Various sources of radiation including radiofrequency, electromagnetic radiation (EMR), low- dose X-radiation, low-level microwave radiation and ionizing radiation (IR) are indispensable parts of modern life. In the current review, we discussed the adaptive responses of biological systems to radiation with a focus on the impacts of radiation-induced oxidative stress (RIOS) and its molecular downstream signaling pathways.

Materials and methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in Web of Sciences, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Keywords included Mesh terms of "radiation", "electromagnetic radiation", "adaptive immunity", "oxidative stress", and "immune checkpoints". Manuscript published up until December 2019 were included.

Results: RIOS induces various molecular adaptors connected with adaptive responses in radiation exposed cells. One of these adaptors includes p53 which promotes various cellular signaling pathways. RIOS also activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and activating the caspase apoptotic cascade. RIOS is also involved in radiation-induced proliferative responses through interaction with mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPks) including p38 MAPK, ERK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Protein kinase B (Akt)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway has also been reported to be involved in RIOS-induced proliferative responses. Furthermore, RIOS promotes genetic instability by introducing DNA structural and epigenetic alterations, as well as attenuating DNA repair mechanisms. Inflammatory transcription factors including macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) paly major role in RIOS-induced inflammation.

Conclusion: In conclusion, RIOS considerably contributes to radiation induced adaptive responses. Other possible molecular adaptors modulating RIOS-induced responses are yet to be divulged in future studies.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31976798

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National observatory of electromagnetic fields: National telemetric network for the measurement of high-frequency electromagnetic fields in Greece

Karastergios I, Gialofas A, Karabetsos E. National observatory of electromagnetic fields: National telemetric network for the measurement of high-frequency electromagnetic fields in Greece. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2020 Feb 5. pii: ncz301. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncz301.

Abstract

At the end of 2015, the operation of the National Observatory of Electromagnetic Fields (established in 2012) has started. The National Observatory of Electromagnetic Fields is a network of 500 fixed (480 broadband and 20 frequency selective) and 13 mobile (vehicle mounted frequency selective) measurement stations throughout Greece that continuously monitor the electromagnetic field levels from all kinds of antenna stations in the frequency range 100kHz-7GHz. The results of this national monitoring network, which is operated and controlled by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE), are presented through an interactive web portal (https://paratiritirioemf.eeae.gr), in which data are constantly updated with the latest station measurements. This paper presents the operational aspects and the measurement results of the first 3 years of operation (2016-2018). The measurement results revealed that all values were well below the reference levels for general public exposure, as defined by the Greek legislation.


Conclusions
The scope of this study is to present the NOEF’s measurement data of the broadband measurement stations for the first 3 years of its operation. The measurement sample consists of 489 annual average and maximum values from all frequency bands of the broadband monitoring stations, 100kHz–7GHz, and the three sub-bands, 925–960 MHz, 1805–1880 MHz and 2110–2170 MHz.
It is concluded that 100% of the annual average and maximum values, from all four aforementioned frequency bands, are lower than 10 V/m (equivalent to 0.2653 W/m2), which is well below the Greek reference levels for general public exposure. It should be noted that the established Greek safety limits for general public exposure in the vicinity of antenna stations are set in general to 70% of the 1999 EU Council’s Recommendation and the 1998 ICNIRP guidelines for basic restrictions and reference level values and to 60% of them for stations located closer than 300 meters from the perimeter of schools, kindergartens, hospitals or eldercare facilities. The comparison of the NOEF’s measurements data is performed with the 60% of the EU Recommendation reference levels in all cases, as this is the strictest Greek exposure limit.
Also, 91% of the annual average values of the 100kHz–7GHz frequency band are lower than 2 V/m (or 0.0106 W/m2), while 92% of the annual average values for both 925–960 MHz–1805–1880 MHz sub-bands are below 1 V/m (or 0.00265 W/m2), and 91% of the annual average values of the 2110–2170 MHz sub-band are below 1 V/m (or 0.00265 W/m2).

Regarding the annual maximum values, the statistics are similar; 80% of the annual maximum values of the 100kHz–7GHz frequency band are below 2 V/m (or 0.0106 W/m2); 83% of the annual maximum values of the 925–960 MHz frequency band are below 1 V/m (or 0.00265 W/m2); 79% of the annual maximum values of the 1805–1880 MHz frequency band are below 1 V/m (or 0.00265 W/m2); 80% of the annual maximum values of the 2110–2170 MHz frequency band are below 1 V/m (or 0.00265 W/m2).

It is to be noted that, as expected, at the lower value intervals of electrical field strength, there is a higher concentration of average values than at the higher value intervals.
Also, the standard deviation values of the annual average values are below 0.5 V/m for the majority of the measurement locations. This is due to the normal daily fluctuations of the telecommunication networks traffic which results to variations of the measured electromagnetic fields levels.

Moreover, at locations with higher-than-normal standard deviation values, a change of the electromagnetic fields background levels has been observed within the 3-year period of the study which was verified with in situ measurements with handheld frequency selective EMF measuring equipment.

It should also be mentioned that the aforementioned results show higher exposure levels when compared to the results from the international radiofrequency exposure surveys(13) that mostly concern ground-level measurements. This is expected since all the NOEF’s fixed measuring stations are installed on rooftops, and so, measurement results represent ‘worst-case’ general public exposure conditions. Rooftop measurements are also performed by the telemetric networks mentioned in (7, 8) and Table 1. Hence, the NOEF’s results are similar to those of the abovementioned telemetric networks.

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Apoptotic Effect of 1800 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on NIH/3T3 Cells

Li DY, Song JD, Liang ZY, Oskouei K, Xiao XQ, Hou WZ, Li JT, Yang YS, Wang ML, Murbach M. Apoptotic Effect of 1800 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on NIH/3T3 Cells. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jan 28;17(3). pii: E819. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17030819.

Abstract

To investigate the effect of 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on apoptosis, we exposed NIH/3T3 cells at 1800 MHz with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg intermittently for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. After exposure, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry were used to detect cell viability and apoptosis; the expression of p53, a molecule with the key role in apoptosis, was measured by real-time qPCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence; and images of the structure of the mitochondria, directly reflecting apoptosis, were captured by electron microscopy. The results showed that the viability of cells in the 12, 36, and 48 h exposure groups significantly decreased compared with the sham groups; after 48 h of exposure, the percentage of late apoptotic cells in the exposure group was significantly higher. Real-time qPCR results showed that p53 mRNA in the 48 h exposure group was 1.4-fold of that in the sham group; significant differences of p53 protein fluorescence expression were observed between the exposure groups and the sham groups after 24 h and 48 h. The mitochondrial swelling and vesicular morphology were found in the electron microscopy images after 48 h exposure. These findings demonstrated 1800 MHz, SAR 2 W/kg EMR for 48 h may cause apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells and that this apoptosis might be attributed to mitochondrial damage and upregulation of p53 expression.


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Electromagnetic field modulates aggregation propensity of amyloid peptides

Todorova N, Bentvelzen A, Yarovsky I. Electromagnetic field modulates aggregation propensity of amyloid peptides. J Chem Phys. 2020 Jan 21;152(3):035104. doi: 10.1063/1.5126367.

Abstract

Nonthermal effects of the electromagnetic (EM) field in the radio and microwave frequency ranges on basic biological matter are difficult to detect and thus remain poorly understood. In this work, all-atom nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of an amyloidogenic peptide response to nonionizing radiation of varying field characteristics. The results showed that the EM field induced peptide conformations dependent on the field frequency and strength. At the high field strength (0.7 V/nmrms), the peptide explored a wider conformational space as the frequency increased from 1.0 to 5.0 GHz. At the intermediate strength fields (0.07-0.0385 V/nmrms), the frequencies of 1.0 and 2.5 GHz resulted in the peptide being trapped in specific conformations, with 1.0 GHz enabling both fibril-forming and fibril-inhibiting conformations, while 2.5 GHz led to formation of mostly fibril-forming conformations. In contrast, the 5.0 GHz frequency caused increased peptide dynamics and more extended conformations with fibril-enabling aromatic side-chain arrangement akin to the structures formed under ambient conditions. All the simulated frequencies at low strength fields (0.007-0.0007 V/nmrms) resulted in the formation of amyloid-prone hairpin conformations similar to those formed under the weak static electric field and ambient conditions. These results suggest that specific ranges of EM field parameters produce peptide conformations unfavorable for formation of amyloid fibrils, a phenomenon that can be exploited in treatment and prevention of amyloid diseases. Alternatively, EM field parameters can be selected to modulate the formation of well-ordered peptide assemblies as a rational design strategy for engineering biocompatible materials.


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Comparison of statistic methods for censored personal exposure to RF-EMF data

Najera A, Ramirez-Vazquez R, Arribas E, Gonzalez-Rubio J. Comparison of statistic methods for censored personal exposure to RF-EMF data. Environ Monit Assess. 2020 Jan 2;192(2):77. doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-8021-z.

Abstract

Several studies have characterized personal exposure to RF-EMF, which allows possible effects on health to be studied. All equipment has a detection limit, below which we obtain nondetects or censored data. This problem is a challenge for researchers as it makes the analysis of such data complex. We suggest reconsidering the statistical protocols of the nondetects analysis by comparing four different methods. Three of them substitute censored data using different approaches: regression on order of statistics (ROS) to simulate data below the detection limit (Method 1), substituting nondetect values by the detection limit divided by 2 (Method 2), a naïve calculation (Method 3) using the detection limit as a valid measurement. The fourth method consists of considering censored data to be missing values (Method 4). This article examines how these methods affect the quantification of personal exposure. We considered data from 14 frequency bands from FM to WiMax measured in Albacete (Spain) for 76 days every 10 s by a personal exposimeter (PEM) Satimo EME Spy 140.Methods 3 and 2 gave similar mean and median values to Method 1, but both underestimated the mean values when high nondetects records occurred, which conditioned the physical description of the real situation. The mean values calculated by Method 4 differed from those obtained by Method 1 but were similar when the percentage of nondetects was below 20%.Our comparison suggests that nondetects can be neglected when the percentage of censored data is low to provide a more realistic physical situation.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31897614

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Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure of Western Honey Bees

Thielens A, Greco MK, Verloock L, Martens L, Joseph W. Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure of Western Honey Bees. Sci Rep. 2020 Jan 16;10(1):461. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56948-0.

Abstract

Radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) can be absorbed in all living organisms, including Western Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera). This is an ecologically and economically important global insect species that is continuously exposed to environmental RF-EMFs. This exposure is studied numerically and experimentally in this manuscript. To this aim, numerical simulations using honey bee models, obtained using micro-CT scanning, were implemented to determine RF absorbed power as a function of frequency in the 0.6 to 120 GHz range. Five different models of honey bees were obtained and simulated: two workers, a drone, a larva, and a queen. The simulations were combined with in-situ measurements of environmental RF-EMF exposure near beehives in Belgium in order to estimate realistic exposure and absorbed power values for honey bees. Our analysis shows that a relatively small shift of 10% of environmental incident power density from frequencies below 3 GHz to higher frequencies will lead to a relative increase in absorbed power of a factor higher than 3.

Conclusions

Exposure of Western Honey Bees (apis mellifera) to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields was studied using a combination of in-situ exposure measurements near bee hives in Belgium and numerical simulations. The simulations use the finite-difference time-domain technique to determine the electromagnetic fields in and around five honey bee models exposed to plane waves at frequencies from 0.6 GHz up to 120 GHz. These simulations lead to a quantification of the whole-body averaged absorbed radio-frequency power (Pabs) as a function of frequency. The average Pabs increases by factors 16 to 121, depending on the considered phantom, when the frequency is increased from 0.6 GHz to 6 GHz for a fixed incident electric field strength. A relatively small decrease in Pabs is observed for all studied honey bees between 12 and 120 GHz. RF exposure measurements were executed on ten sites near five different locations with bee hives in Belgium. These measurements resulted in an average total incident RF field strength of 0.06 V/m, which was in excellent agreement with literature. This value was used to assess Pabs for those honey bees at those measurement sites. A realistic Pabs is estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.7 nW for the studied honey bee models. Assuming that 10% of the incident power density would shift to frequencies higher than 3 GHz would lead to an increase of this absorption between 390–570%. Such a shift in frequencies is expected in future networks.


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Testing of behavioral and cognitive development in rats after prenatal exposure to 1800 and 2400 MHz radiofrequency fields

Li ZQ, Zhang Y, Wan YM, Zhou Q, Liu C, Wu HX, Mu YZ, He YF, Rauniyar R, Wu XN. Testing of behavioral and cognitive development in rats after prenatal exposure to 1800 and 2400 MHz radiofrequency fields. J Radiat Res. 2020 Jan 11. pii: rrz097. doi: 10.1093/jrr/rrz097.

Abstract

The objective of the study was to explore the effects of behavioral and cognitive development in rats after prenatal exposure to 1800 and 2400 MHz radiofrequency fields. Pregnant female rats were exposed to radiofrequency fields beginning on the 21st day of pregnancy. The indicators of physiological and behavioral development were observed and measured in the offspring rats: Y maze measured at 3-weeks postnatal, open field at 7-weeks postnatal, and the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) measured by reverse transcription-PCR in the hippocampus at 9-weeks postnatal. The body weight of the 1800 MHz group and the 1800 MHz + WiFi group showed a downward trend. The eye opening time of newborn rats was much earlier in the WiFi group than in the control group. Compared to the control group, the overall path length of the 1800 MHz + WiFi group was shortened and the stationary time was delayed. The path length of the WiFi group was shortened and the average velocity was increased in the error arm. The 1800 MHz + WiFi group displayed an increased trend in path length, duration, entry times and stationary time in the central area. In both the 1800 MHz + WiFi and WiFi groups, NR2A and NR2B expression was down-regulated, while NR2D, NR3A and NR3B were up-regulated. Moreover, NR1 and NR2C in the WiFi group were also up-regulated. Prenatal exposure to 1800 MHz and WiFi radiofrequency may affect the behavioral and cognitive development of offspring rats, which may be associated with altered mRNA expression of NMDARs in the hippocampus

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Radioprotection in prenatal care using a nonwoven fabric with electromagnetic shielding property

Sahmelikoglu, AG, Karakas S, Tellioglu AM, Acer, N, Bilgen M. Radioprotection in prenatal care using a nonwoven fabric with electromagnetic shielding property. Erciyes Medical Journal. 41(4):444-449.Dec 2019.

Abstract

Objective: Electromagnetic shielding fabrics (EMSFs) have been marketed by several manufacturers within the past few years. However, their efficacies in protecting living organisms against the harmful effects of EM noise have yet to be established. The aim of the present study was to accomplish this task with novel in vivo experiments where fetal development and the pathological consequences of wearing protective fabric against EM radiation during pregnancy were investigated.

Materials and Methods: Nine pregnant rats were equally divided into three groups. Sham controls were kept unexposed, but the remaining six were subjected to EM radiation at 900 MHz for 1 h daily throughout the pregnancy. However, three of the rats were protected by a nonwoven fabric manufactured locally and characterized previously. After birth, the kidneys of newborns were extracted and evaluated by histopathology. Histometry data were analyzed statistically.

Results: EM exposure affected the kidney structure and morphology as revealed by the disruption of glomerular basement membrane continuity, increased Bowman capsule and proximal tubule sizes (from 15.01 +/- 2.56 mu m to 29.94 +/- 4.42 mu m), and thickened cortex and medulla (from 261.13 +/- 4.10 mu m to 284.57 +/- 10.93 pm for cortex and from 594.25 +/- 23.48 pm to 732.61 +/- 20.46 mu m for medulla). However, the effects were significantly attenuated in those kidneys placed behind the fabric.

Conclusion: EMSF effectively protects the fetal kidney against EM radiation at 900 MHz during the developmental phase and possibly at other frequencies and for other organs. It is advisable to wear such fabrics during pregnancy when EM pollution is of significant concern.


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Radio frequency-induced superoxide accumulation affected the growth and viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast)

Li Q, Tian M, Teng J, Gao P, Tang BQ, Wu H. Radio frequency-induced superoxide accumulation affected the growth and viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Int Microbiol. 2020 Jan 2. doi: 10.1007/s10123-019-00111-2.

Abstract

With the development of the electric technologies, the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) were widely studied. However, the results remain controversial and the biophysical mechanisms are still unknown. To our knowledge, little studies pay attention to the radio frequency (RF) of 2.6-5 MHz. In the present study, we investigated the effect of these radio frequencies on the growth and cell viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at very low power density below 0.1 mT. The result appeared to be time-dependent. The growth of the yeast cells was obviously affected by the RF-EMF with a 43.5% increase when exposed for 30 h, and the growth-promoting effect decreased along with the radiation time and eventually turned to an inhibiting effect retarding growth by 20.7% at 89 h. The cell viability was improved to 70.1% at 8 h and reduced by 33.5% at 28 h. The superoxide accumulated in exposed cells as radiation time increased which may lead to the inhibition of viability and growth of the cells. However, the efficient frequency, power density, and exposure dosage await further investigation. Nevertheless, the wave band studied in this research is effective to produce biological effect, and therefore, it may provide an optional new radio frequency which is valuable for the development and utilization in therapy technique and medical use.


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In vitro study of effects of ELF-EMF on testicular tissues of roe

Koziorowska A, Depciuch J, Kozioł K, Nowak S, Lach K. In vitro study of effects of ELF-EMF on testicular tissues of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) - FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation. Anim Reprod Sci. 2020 Feb;213:106258. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2019.106258. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Abstract

Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are classified as an environmental factor affecting living organisms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of EMF at different frequencies (50 and 120 Hz), durations of treatment (2 and 4 h) and with the magnetic induction of 8 m T on testicular tissues of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in vitro by comparison with the control samples. Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized in this study to identify the chemical changes in the testicular tissues. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy methods were used to evaluate differences in spectra of the treated tissues compared to the control group. The results from the analysis of the spectra indicated there were characteristic differences in the testicular tissue compared with the control samples. There was identification of peaks attributed to different biochemical components. Comparing the spectra for different frequencies and treatment times, there was a greater intensity of peaks originating from most of the functional groups in the tissues evaluated. With the FTIR spectra, there were five of 15 peaks, while with the FT-Raman spectra, there were six of ten peaks that were shifted. For FTIR and FT-Raman analyzed spectral ranges, results from the PCA analysis indicate there was no similarity between control groups (2 and 4 h) and samples treated with EMF at a frequency of 120 Hz for 2 and 4 h. In conclusion, therefore, EMF is an environmental factor affecting the testis of roe deer.


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Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Low-Power 915 MHz Unmodulated Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

Surducan V, Surducan E, Neamtu C, Mot AC, Ciorîță A. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Low-Power 915 MHz Unmodulated Radiation on Phaseolus vulgaris L. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Feb 6. doi: 10.1002/bem.22253.

Abstract

The morphophysiological response of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to low-power electromagnetic radiation was investigated in order to assess the potential harmful effects of long-term continuous exposure. The plants were grown in two separate electromagnetic field (EMF) shielded rooms, in a controlled, greenhouse-like environment. One batch was continuously irradiated during the growth period (from sowing to maturity) and the other one was used as a reference. An unmodulated signal at 915 MHz (the central frequency between the uplink and downlink of the GSM900 mobile communications band) was used, with a maximum power density of 10 mW/m2 measured near the plants. The plants were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible, statistical, morphometric, and electron microscopy methods. Significant differences were observed regarding the height of the plants, number of inflorescences, and chlorophyll and carotenoid content, all closely connected with the ultrastructural changes observed in the leaves. The irradiated batch grew higher (19% increase in plant height, 20% increase in stem and leaves' dry mass), with 18% fewer inflorescences, and extremely long roots (34% increase in dry mass). The ultrastructure of the irradiated leaves showed irregular cells and a higher content of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts. All results indicate that the irradiated plants suffered significant morphological modifications during their long-term exposure to the specific EM radiation.