The latest additions appear below.
The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 1,000 scientific papers. This 932-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:
• Mobile phone use was related to sperm quality decline of men in some areas.
• Mobile phone RF-EMR directly impaired mature sperm of men in vitro.
• Mobile phone RF-EMR affected some parameters of sperm quality in experiment animals.
• Experiment conditions affected pooled results of animal experiments.
• More studies should be conducted to investigate this issue in new era.
The results of our meta-analysis indicated that in East Europe and West Asia, mobile phone use is associated with a decline in human sperm density and motility. Mobile phone RF-EMR can reduce motility and viability of mature human sperm in vitro, and it can also reduce sperm motility and viability in male animals and decrease sperm density of sexually mature restrained rats. Some important factors that affect the results of animal experiments are study setup and radiation device as well as age and exposure time. Our study is an extension of previous studies and has scientific value for future studies on effects of mobile phone RF-EMR associated with sperm quality.
Protocol for personal RF-EMF exposure measurement studies in 5th generation telecommunication networks
Maarten Velghe, Sam Aerts, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph, Arno Thielens. Protocol for personal RF-EMF exposure measurement studies in 5th generation telecommunication networks. Environ Health. 2021 Apr 1;20(1):36. doi: 10.1186/s12940-021-00719-w.
Background: The general population is exposed to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMFs) used by telecommunication networks. Previous studies developed methods to assess this exposure. These methods will be inadequate to accurately assess exposure in 5G technologies or other wireless technologies using adaptive antennas. This is due to the fact that 5G NR (new radio) base stations will focus actively on connected users, resulting in a high spatio-temporal variations in the RF-EMFs. This increases the measurement uncertainty in personal measurements of RF-EMF exposure. Furthermore, a user's exposure from base stations will be dependent on the amount of data usage, adding a new component to the auto-induced exposure, which is often omitted in current studies.
Goals: The objective of this paper is to develop a general study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure research adapted to 5G technologies. This protocol will include the assessment of auto-induced exposure of both a user's own devices and the networks' base stations.
Method: This study draws from lessons learned from previous RF-EMF exposure research and current knowledge on 5G technologies, including studies simulating 5G NR base stations and measurements around 5G NR test sites.
Results: To account for auto-induced exposure, an activity-based approach is introduced. In survey studies, an RF-EMF sensor is fixed on the participants' mobile device(s). Based on the measured power density, GPS data and movement and proximity sensors, different activities can be clustered and the exposure during each activity is evaluated. In microenvironmental measurements, a trained researcher performs measurements in predefined microenvironments with a mobile device equipped with the RF-EMF sensor. The mobile device is programmed to repeat a sequence of data transmission scenarios (different amounts of uplink and downlink data transmissions). Based on simulations, the amount of exposure induced in the body when the user device is at a certain location relative to the body, can be evaluated.
Conclusion: Our protocol addresses the main challenges to personal exposure measurement introduced by 5G NR. A systematic method to evaluate a user's auto-induced exposure is introduced.
This study examines the nonuniform exposure to the cornea from incident millimeter waves at 94-100 GHz. Two previous studies measured temperature increases in the rhesus cornea exposed to brief (1-6 s) pulses of high-fluence millimeter waves (94 GHz), one of which also estimated thresholds for corneal damage (reported as ED50, the dose resulting in a visible lesion 50% of the time). Both studies noted large variations in the temperature increase across the surface of the cornea due to wave interference effects. This study examines this variability using high-resolution simulations of mm-wave absorption and temperature increase in the human cornea from exposures to plane wave energy at 100 GHz. Calculations are based on an earlier study. The simulations show that the peak temperature increases in the cornea from short exposures (up to 10 s) to high-intensity mm-wave pulses are 1.7-2.8 times the median increase depending on the polarization of the incident energy. A simple one-dimensional "baseline" model provides a good estimate of the median temperature increase in the cornea. Two different estimates are presented for the thresholds for producing thermal lesions, expressed in terms of the minimum fluence of incident 100 GHz pulses. The first estimate is based on thresholds for thermal damage from pulsed infrared energy, and the second is based on a thermal damage model. The mm-wave pulses presently considered far exceed current IEEE or ICNIRP exposure limits but may be produced by some nonlethal weapons systems. Interference effects due to wave reflections from structures in and near the eye result in highly localized variations in energy absorbed in the cornea and surrounding facial tissues and are important to consider in a hazard analysis for exposures to intense pulsed millimeter waves.
Both IEEE C95.1-2019 and ICNIRP (2020) specifically limit the fluence of brief, high intensity mm-wave pulses to avoid excessive temperature rises. The limits discussed below refer to power densities measured outside the body, which are defined in ICNIRP 2020 as “reference levels” and in IEEE as “exposure reference levels.” For 2-s pulses of mm-waves, IEEE C95.1-2019 (IEEE 2019) has fluence limits of 0.28 and 1.4 kJ m−2 for persons in unrestricted or restricted environments (equivalent to general public and occupational limits). The corresponding limits in ICNIRP (2020) (for 100 GHz pulses) are 1.7 and 8.6 kJ m−2 for general public and occupational exposures, respectively. All of the exposures in Table 2 far exceed these limits.
Exposures summarized in Table 2 would be acutely painful (Beuerman and Talenian 1979) and would trigger blink reflexes in most (but perhaps not all) awake subjects that would protect them from corneal damage. However, interference effects will also cause nonuniform absorption patterns away from the cornea, which is apparent in Fig. 1. In their corneal damage studies on rabbits, Kojima et al. (2009) noted significant thermal damage to the eyelids as well, to the extent that the eyelids had to be held open with tape during exposure to obtain reproducible corneal damage data. When analyzing potential hazards from the Active Denial nonlethal weapons system or other sources of intense mm-wave exposures, local enhancements in exposure due to interference effects over an appropriate range of subjects and exposure parameters would need to be considered.
Abstract in English
Styliani A Geronikolou, Ӧlle Johansson, George Chrousos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Dennis Cokkinos. Cellular Phone User's Age or the Duration of Calls Moderate Autonomic Nervous System? A Meta-Analysis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1194:475-488. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-32622-7_46.
Background: The European Health Risk Assessment Network on Electromagnetic Fields Exposure (EFHRAN) reported in 2012: "Children and adolescents represent the first generation of Europeans to be exposed to diffuse EMF since their conception and birth, thus, they are expected to be more sensitive to these fields." On the other hand, the body's physiologic processes are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in a way that warrants further elucidation.
Objective: Age and duration of exposure are investigated for modifying the variance of the reported effects of mobile/cellular phone call (CPC) on ANS indexed, herein, by the heart rate variability (HRV).
Method: Five studies targeted to 124 healthy subjects (aged 15.3-28.4 years (24.3 ± 5.2), who have been recorded in supine position before and/or sham versus real exposure (to a CPC lasting 5-32 minutes), are included in this meta-analysis. Age and duration of a CPC are evaluated as predictors in two separate meta-regressions.
Results: The meta-analysis identified a heterogeneity I2 = 63.2% for all outcomes and I2 = 65.2% for sympathovagal balance. Thus, we performed meta-regressions: for the sympathovagal balance rather than the combined parameters effect, the goodness of fit model presents significance only for age - the residual sum of squares compared to chi-square distribution (QR) is 4.24 for age (p = 0.12) - while, for minutes of exposure, QR = 8.2805 (p = 0.016).
Conclusions: The sympathovagal balance - indispensible for health/homeostasis maintenance - is strongly predicted by age. Minutes of exposure did not affect overall HRV or sympathovagal balance. The results endorse/validate the EFHRAN 2012 suggestion for future research targeting to youngsters.
Isabel López, Nazario Félix, Marco Rivera,Adrián Alonso, Ceferino Maestú. What is the radiation before 5G? A correlation study between measurements in situ and in real time and epidemiological indicators in Vallecas, Madrid. Environ Res. 2021 Mar;194:110734. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.110734.
Background: Exposure of the general population to electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phone base stations is one of the greater concerns of residents affected by the proximity of these structures due to the possible relationship between radiated levels and health indicators.
Objectives: This study aimed to find a possible relationship between some health indicators and electromagnetic radiation measurements.
Methods: A total of 268 surveys, own design, were completed by residents of a Madrid neighborhood surrounded by nine telephone antennas, and 105 measurements of electromagnetic radiation were taken with a spectrum analyzer and an isotropic antenna, in situ and in real - time, both outside and inside the houses.
Results: It was shown statistically significant p - values in headaches presence (p = 0.010), nightmares (p = 0.001), headache intensity (p < 0.001), dizziness frequency (p = 0.011), instability episodes frequency (p = 0.026), number of hours that one person sleeps per day (p < 0.001) and three of nine parameters studied from tiredness. Concerning cancer, there are 5.6% of cancer cases in the study population, a percentage 10 times higher than that of the total Spanish population.
Discussion: People who are exposed to higher radiation values present more severe headaches, dizziness and nightmares. Moreover, they sleep fewer hours.
• The population continues to receive radiation peaks in distances greater than 200 m, no one is free from exposure.
In conclusion, the data obtained shows that there is a relationship between the power density of radiation that a person receives at home every day and the presence of headaches, as well as the presence of sleep disorders. People who receive higher doses of radiation sleep less hours and have nightmares at night. In addition, these people suffer from headaches with greater intensity and are more prone to dizziness. In this study, indicators like fainting episodes, presence of tachycardias or instability cannot be related. No conclusive results were found for fatigue, since, out of nine parameters studied, only a statistically significant relationship was found in three of them. The study of how electromagnetic fields affect health, should not only be done in relation to cancer, but also health indicators related to day to day. The methodology for obtaining electromagnetic radiation measurements should be reviewed, the averaged radiation measurements that are described in the CENELEC standard are not the most appropriate, they should be carried out in a narrow band and with maximum peak measurements.
Nantakan Wongkasem. Electromagnetic pollution alert: Microwave radiation and absorption in human organs and tissues.Electromagn Biol Med. 2021 Feb 10;1-18. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2021.1874976.
Electromagnetic radiation from communication and electronic devices, networks, systems and base stations has drawn concern due to excessive global usage with increasing power and operating frequency level. Numerous previous researches only focus on how the radiation from certain frequency ranges of particular devices could harm specific human organs and tissues, resulting in distinct symptoms. In this research, electromagnetic propagation and properties in 14 human organs and tissues were analyzed and investigated based on the organs and tissues' electromagnetic and mechanical parameters, and chemical composition. Counting the organs and tissues as electromagnetic materials, their permittivity and conductivity, computed by a 4-Cole-Cole mode, directly respective to the operating frequency, are interrelated to wave behavior and hence influence the organs' response. Tests were conducted in 1 GHz to 105 GHz system settings, covering most microwave frequency uses: 2.4 GHz of 4G-LTE, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee and the 5G ranges: 28 GHz of 5G-mmW and 95 GHz of 5G-IoT. Trial human organs and tissues were placed in the wave propagation direction of 2.4 GHz and 28 GHz dipole antennas, and a waveguide port operating from 95 to 105 GHz. The quantitative data on the effects of 5G penetration and dissipation within human tissues are presented. The absorbance in all organs and tissues is significantly higher as frequency increases. As the wave enters the organ-tissue model, the wavelength is shortened due to the high organ-tissue permittivity. Skin-Bone-Brain layer simulation results demonstrate that both electric and magnetic fields vanish before passing the brain layer at all three focal frequencies of 2.4 GHz, 28 GHz and 100 GHz.
Eight human organ and tissue models (blood, brain, breast, eye bulb, heart, kidney, liver and lung), while tested with electromagnetic excitation from 2.4 GHz and 28 GHz dipole antennas, and 95–105 GHz waveguide ports, show that the wavelength of the E- and H-fields propagating inside the models is shortened or the wave frequency is accelerating, approximately 5–8 times. The lowest propagation frequency is found in the lung model, where the permittivity and conductivity are lowest among those of the eight studied models. The E-field intensity boosts significantly as the EM source frequency increases, approximately 10 times between 2.4 GHz and 28 GHz. The E-field intensity (from 95 GHz to 105 GHz radiation) rises from 3.89% (in the brain) to 4.86% (in the liver). The field intensity dramatically decreases as the wave propagates passing the model, indicating high wave attenuation from the material absorption.
The EM absorbance is found to be greater than 60% in all 14 organ and tissue models. At 100 GHz, the bone (83.01%), urinary bladder wall (82.95%), lung (80.02%), liver (68.18%), brain (66.18%) and eye bulb (64.46%) present the highest absorbance level. The absorbance increases significantly as the frequency increases, for instance, 43.78% at 2.4 GHz, 51.95% at 28 GHz and 66.16% at 100 GHz in the brain model. The transmittance in all models is below e-20 level. At all three operating frequencies: 2.4 GHz, 28 GHz and 100 GHz, the E- and H-fields vanish before passing through the brain layer of the Skin-Bone-Brain layered model. The overall layer absorbance is greatly elevated at all 3 frequencies: 69.18% at 2.4 GHz, 65.69% at 28 GHz and 71.49% at 100 GHz. The reflectance is around 30%, while the transmittance is significantly low. The scattering behavior and multiple absorbing possibility is observed. The absorbance is inversely proportional to the permittivity and conductivity of human organs and tissues. There is no clear correlation between the EM absorbance and heat transfer and generation rate. The models confirm that the higher the frequency, the greater the attenuation. Penetration is therefore reduced with increasing frequency. However, on the other hand, the absorption level increases with frequency. The results quantitatively validate the classic effects of the increase in frequency in terms of penetration and dissipation in human tissues and organs.
Further study of the EM radiation and propagation, either on specific complete human parts, for example, an eye bulb with cornea, anterior chamber, pupil, iris, lens, ciliary and vitreous body, macular, retina, choroid and optic nerve, or the whole human body, will definitely provide more insight and correlation of the EM radiation and its effects amid all human organs
Mikel Celaya-Echarri, Leyre Azpilicueta, Victoria Ramos, Peio Lopez-Iturri, Francisco Falcone. Empirical and Modeling Approach for Environmental Indoor RF-EMF Assessment in Complex High-Node Density Scenarios: Public Shopping Malls Case Study. IEEE Access. 22 March 2021.
This work provides an intensive and comprehensive in-depth study from an empirical and modeling approach of the environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) radiation exposure in public shopping malls, as an example of an indoor high-node user density context aware environment, where multiple wireless communication systems coexist. For that purpose, current personal mobile communications (2G-5G FR 1) as well as Wi-Fi services (IEEE 802.11n/ac) have been precisely analyzed in order to provide clear RF-EMF assessment insight and to verify compliance with established regulation limits. In this sense, a complete measurements campaign has been performed in different countries, with frequency-selective exposimeters (PEMs), providing real empirical datasets for statistical analysis and allowing discussion and comparison regarding current health effects and safety issues between some of the most common RF-EMF exposure safety standards: ICNIRP 2020 (Spain), IEEE 2019 (Mexico) and a more restrictive regulation (Poland). In addition, environmental RF-EMF exposure assessment simulation results, in terms of spatial E-field characterization and Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) probabilities, have been provided for challenging incremental high-node user dense scenarios in worst case conditions, by means of a deterministic in-house 3D Ray-Launching (3D-RL) RF-EMF safety simulation technique, showing good agreement with the experimental measurements. Finally, discussion highlighting the contribution and effects of the coexistence of multiple heterogenous networks and services for the environmental RF-EMF radiation exposure assessment has been included, showing that for all measured results and simulated cases, the obtained E-Field levels are well below the exposure limits established in the internationally accepted standards and guidelines. In consequence, the obtained results and the presented methodology could become a starting point to establish the RF-EMF assessment basis of future complex heterogeneous 5G FR 2 developments on the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency range, where massive high-node user density networks are expected.
It must be clearly remarked that, in the current state of knowledge, the results of scientific and epidemiological research have shown that in case of exposures at E-field levels below of far below the ICNIRP limits, there is no evidence of a relationship between exposure to radiofrequency fields produced by wireless technologies and potential adverse health effects. However, since the trend of 5G technology in towards the use of higher frequency ranges, it would be of great importance to carry out studies aimed at characterizing the effects of mmWave exposures, for which the information from scientific literature is not so complete and exhaustive as for the sub 6 GHz frequencies. This is a sort of knowledge gap that must be filled up to permit a specific and targeted surveillance held by the authorized health agencies and possibly an update of the guidelines/standards currently in use.
The proposed simulation methodology can be a useful and suitable technique to satisfactorily assess and verify in advance environmental RF-EMF exposure recommendations and limits to implement safe, efficient and reliable current and future wireless deployments for complex high-node density heterogeneous environments.
Hematobiochemical and histopathological alterations of kidney and testis due to exposure of 4G cell phone radiation in mice
Imam Hasan, Tanjina Amin, Md. Rafiqul Alam, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam. Hematobiochemical and histopathological alterations of kidney and testis due to exposure of 4G cell phone radiation in mice. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. Available online 17 February 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
The radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by smart phones on biological systems has wide media coverage and public concern in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of fourth-generation cell phone radiation exposure on hematological (Total leukocyte count, Total erythrocyte count, and hemoglobin %), biochemical (Serum creatinine) parameters, and histopathological changes in the kidney and testis of Swiss albino mice. A total of 30 male Swiss albino mice weighing 45–65 g was randomly divided into three groups (n = 10). The first group A was the control group, the second group B, was exposed to 40 minutes of mobile phone radiation daily, the third group C was exposed to 60 minutes of radiation daily from two 2400 Megahertz fourth-generation connected mobile phones for 60 days, respectively. The electromagnetic radiation frequency radiometer measured the frequency of electromagnetic radiation emitted from cell phones. The specific absorption rate was calculated as 0.087 W/kg. The control group was kept under similar conditions, but the electromagnetic field was not given for the same period. All the mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiment. The blood samples were collected for hematobiochemical study, and then kidney and testis tissues were collected for histopathological study. Results of the study showed that the body weight and total erythrocyte count values were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased while total leukocyte count, hemoglobin %, and serum creatinine values were significantly (p < 0.05) increased in both the radiation exposure groups relative to the control group. Histopathological observation showed the kidney of 60 minutes exposed mice interstitial inflammation that causes marked mononuclear cellular infiltration compared to the 40 minutes and control mice. Compared to control mice, histopathological examinations of testicular tissue from the exposed mice, showed irregular in shapes and non-uniform sizes and fewer spermatogenic cells layer that leads to the larger lumen in the seminiferous tubules. It is concluded that fourth-generation cell phone radiation exposure may affect blood hemostasis and inflammation of mice's kidney and testis tissue. Based on these studies, it is important to increase public consciousness of potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure.
Erkin Özdemir, Ülkü Çömelekoglu, Evren Degirmenci, Gülsen Bayrak, Metin Yildirim, Tolgay Ergenoglu, Banu Coşkun Yılmaz, Begüm Korunur Engiz, Serap Yalin, Dilan Deniz Koyuncu, Erkan Ozbay. The effect of 4.5 G (LTE Advanced-Pro network) mobile phone radiation on the optic nerve. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2021 Mar 3;1-27. doi: 10.1080/15569527.2021.1895825.
Purpose: Rapid development in mobile phone technologies increase the average mobile phone usage duration. This increase also triggers exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RF), which is a risk factor for the health. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of mobile phone working with LTE-Advanced Pro (4.5G) mobile network on the optic nerve, which is responsible for the transmission of visual information.
Material and methods: Thirty-two rats divided into two groups as control (no RF, sham exposure) and experimental (RF exposure using a mobile phone with LTE-Advanced Pro network; 2 hours/day, 6 weeks). The visual evoked potential (VEP) was recorded and determined amplitudes and latencies of VEP waves. Optic nerve malondialdehyde level, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were determined. Furthermore, ultrastructural and morphometric changes of optic nerve were evaluated.
Results: In VEP recordings, the mean VEP amplitudes of experimental group were significantly lower than control group. In ultrastructural evaluation, myelinated nerve fibers and glial cells were observed in normal histologic appearance both in sham and experimental group. However, by performing morphometric analysis, in the experimental group, axonal diameter and myelin thickness were shown to be lower and the G-ratio was higher than in the sham group. In the experimental group, malondialdehyde level was significantly higher and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly lower than sham group. There was a high correlation between VEP wave amplitudes and oxidative stress markers.
Conclusion: Findings obtained in this study support optic nerve damage. These results point out an important risk that may decrease the quality of life.
Potential influence of prenatal 2.45 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on Wistar albino rat testis
Viera Almášiová, Katarína Holovská, Sandra Andrašková, Viera Cigánková, Zuzana Ševčíková, Adam Raček, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Katarína Beňová, Štefan Tóth, Eva Tvrdá, Ján Molnár, Enikö Račeková. Potential influence of prenatal 2.45 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on Wistar albino rat testis. Histol Histopathol. 2021 Mar 25;18331. doi: 10.14670/HH-18-331.
An ever-increasing use of wireless devices over the last decades has forced scientists to clarify their impact on living systems. Since prenatal development is highly sensitive to numerous noxious agents, including radiation, we focused on the assessment of potential adverse effects of microwave radiation (MR) on testicular development. Pregnant Wistar albino rats (3 months old, weighing 282±8 g) were exposed to pulsed MR at a frequency of 2.45 GHz, mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm², and a specific absorption rate of 1.82 W/kg for 2 hours/day throughout pregnancy. Male offspring were no longer exposed to MR following birth. Samples of biological material were collected after reaching adulthood (75 days). In utero MR exposure caused degenerative changes in the testicular parenchyma of adult rats. The shape of the seminiferous tubules was irregular, germ cells were degenerated and often desquamated. The diameters of the seminiferous tubules and the height of the germinal epithelium were significantly decreased (both at ∗∗p<0.01), while the interstitial space was significantly increased (∗∗p<0.01) when compared to the controls. In the group of rats prenatally exposed to MR, the somatic and germ cells were rich in vacuoles and their organelles were often altered. Necrotizing cells were more frequent and empty spaces between Sertoli cells and germ cells were observed. The Leydig cells contained more lipid droplets. An increased Fluoro Jade - C and superoxide dismutase 2 positivity was detected in the rats exposed to MR. Our results confirmed adverse effects of MR on testicular development.
Raquel Ramirez-Vazquez, Jesus Gonzalez-Rubio, Isabel Escobar, Carmen Del Pilar Suarez Rodriguez, Enrique Arribas. Personal Exposure Assessment to Wi-Fi Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields in Mexican Microenvironments. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Feb 14;18(4):1857. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18041857
In recent years, personal exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF) has substantially increased, and most studies about RF-EMF with volunteers have been developed in Europe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study carried out in Mexico with personal exposimeters. The main objective was to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF from Wireless Fidelity or wireless Internet connection (Wi-Fi) frequency bands in Tamazunchale, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, to compare results with maximum levels permitted by international recommendations and to find if there are differences in the microenvironments subject to measurements. The study was conducted with 63 volunteers in different microenvironments: home, workplace, outside, schools, travel, and shopping. The mean minimum values registered were 146.5 μW/m2 in travel from the Wi-Fi 2G band and 116.8 μW/m2 at home from the Wi-Fi 5G band, and the maximum values registered were 499.7 μW/m2 and 264.9 μW/m2 at the workplace for the Wi-Fi 2G band and the Wi-Fi 5G band, respectively. In addition, by time period and type of day, minimum values were registered at nighttime, these values being 129.4 μW/m2 and 93.9 μW/m2, and maximum values were registered in the daytime, these values being 303.1 μW/m2 and 168.3 μW/m2 for the Wi-Fi 2G and Wi-Fi 5G bands, respectively. In no case, values exceeded limits established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Of the study participants (n = 63), a subgroup (n = 35) answered a survey on risk perception. According to these results, the Tamazunchale (Mexico) population is worried about this situation in comparison with several European cities; however, the risk perception changes when they are informed about the results for the study.
Radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposure and contribution of sources in the general population: an organ-specific integrative exposure assessment
Luuk van Wel, Ilaria Liorni, Anke Huss, Arno Thielens, Joe Wiart, Wout Joseph, Martin Röösli, Milena Foerster, Amelie Massardier-Pilonchery, Myles Capstick, Elisabeth Cardis, Roel Vermeulen. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposure and contribution of sources in the general population: an organ-specific integrative exposure assessment. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2021 Mar 2. doi: 10.1038/s41370-021-00287-8.
In order to achieve an integrated radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) dose assessment, detailed information about source-specific exposure duration and output power is needed. We developed an Integrated Exposure Model (IEM) to combine energy absorbed due to use of and exposure to RF-EMF sources and applied it to a sample of the general population to derive population RF-EMF estimates. The IEM used specific absorption rate transfer algorithms to provide RF-EMF daily dose estimates (mJ/kg/day) using source-specific attributes (e.g. output power, distance), personal characteristics and usage patterns. Information was obtained from an international survey performed in four European countries with 1755 participants. We obtained median whole-body and whole-brain doses of 183.7 and 204.4 mJ/kg/day. Main contributors to whole-brain dose were mobile phone near the head for calling (2G networks) and far-field sources, whereas the latter together with multiple other RF-EMF sources were main contributors for whole-body dose. For other anatomical sites, 2G phone calls, mobile data and far-field exposure were important contributors. The IEM provides insight into main contributors to total RF-EMF dose and, applied to an international survey, provides an estimate of population RF-dose. The IEM can be used in future epidemiological studies, risk assessments and exposure reduction strategies.
by nearby Wi-Fi-routers. Regarding whole-body dose, the contribution of other sources becomes more important. Far-field exposure, Wi-Fi-routers, laptops, tablets and even other functions than calling on a mobile phone provide a higher contribution to the whole-body dose. This indicates that while just looking at mobile phone calls may include most RF-EMF exposure for health outcomes focused on the brain, this is not the case for the whole-body. In addition, adaptive output power control depending on the mobile phones’ function may further influence exposure levels, as explained below. When looking at potential health endpoints at anatomical sites other than the brain (e.g. heart, liver), multiple devices should be included.
RF-EMF dose reduction
With the relative contributions found in this study, various non-technical interventions may be considered to reduce overall RF-EMF dose. The avoidance of using a mobile phone near the head when using 2G networks may be an efficient way to reduce overall exposure by half for the whole-brain and up to 25% for the whole-body. This can be achieved on modern smartphones by disabling the use of 2G networks altogether or by using a wired hands-free kit instead. In the latter case, the exposure will shift from the head to other parts of the body when the device is held in a hand or pocket. In general, we observed a higher RF-EMF dose with device functions that require higher amounts of data, such as video streaming. Placing the device on a nearby surface or stand with data intensive uses can be considered to reduce dose. For far-field exposure, it is generally difficult to achieve individual reduction as these are continuous exposures generally not controlled by the subject, such as FM radio broadcast and mobile phone antennas.
In conclusion, we developed the most comprehensive RF-EMF dose estimation tool to date. Realistic population exposure scenarios were obtained by using data on mobile phone use from an international survey in the model. Overall RF-EMF dose for the whole-body and whole-brain was found to be higher in younger age groups in comparison with older groups. Mobile phone calls on 2G networks were found to be the main contributor to whole-brain RF-EMF dose. For whole-body dose, far-field of telecommunications and multiple other RF-EMF sources played a prominent role as well. These findings can be used in the creation of non-technical interventions aimed at lowering RF-EMF exposure from current technologies, with the modular structure of the model allowing inclusion of new technologies such as 5th generation networks. Future epidemiological studies involving RF-EMF exposure should take multiple RF-EMF sources into account by adding detailed questions on exposure duration when investigating other anatomical sites than the brain.
Olga Zeni, Stefania Romeo, Anna Sannino, Rosanna Palumbo, Maria Rosaria Scarfì. Evidence of bystander effect induced by radiofrequency radiation in a human neuroblastoma cell line. Environ Res. 2021 Feb 26;110935. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.110935.
In previous studies we demonstrated that radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) is able to reduce DNA damage induced by a subsequent treatment with genotoxic agents, resembling the adaptive response, a phenomenon well known in radiobiology. In this study we report on the capability of the culture medium from SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to 1950 MHz to elicit, in recipient non-exposed cells, a reduction of menadione-induced DNA damage (P<0.05; comet assay), indicating the capability of non-ionizing radiation to elicit a bystander effect. A comparable reduction was also detected in cultures directly exposed to the same EMF conditions (P<0.05), confirming the adaptive response. In the same exposure conditions, we also evidenced an increase of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) in culture medium of cells exposed to RF with respect to sham exposed ones (western blot analysis; P<0.05), while no differences were detected in the intracellular content of hsp70. On the whole, our results evidence a protective effect of RF against menadione-induced DNA damage in directly and non-directly exposed cells, and suggest hsp70 pathway to be investigated as one of the potential candidate underpinning the interaction between RF exposure and biological systems.
The Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Angiogenesis
Lihong Peng, Chenying Fu, Lu Wang, Qing Zhang, Zejun Liang, Chengqi He, Quan Wei. The Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Angiogenesis. Bioelectromagnetics. 2021 Mar 6. doi: 10.1002/bem.22330.
A pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been used to treat inflammation-based diseases such as osteoporosis, neurological injury, and osteoarthritis. Numerous animal experiments and in vitro studies have shown that PEMF may affect angiogenesis. For ischemic diseases, in theory, blood flow may be richer by increasing the number of blood vessels which supply blood to ischemic tissue. PEMF plays a role in enhancing angiogenesis, and their clinical application may go far beyond the current scope. In this review, we analyzed and summarized the effects and possible mechanisms of PEMF on angiogenesis. Most studies have shown that PEMF with specific parameters can promote angiogenesis, which is manifested by an increased vascular growth rate and increased capillary density. The potential mechanisms consist of promoting vascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation, and increasing the expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and other angiogenic growth factors. Additionally, PEMF has an impact on the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC).
Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from a mobile phone base station on the redox homeostasis in different organs of Swiss albino mice
Mary Zosangzuali, Marina Lalremruati, C Lalmuansangi, F Nghakliana, Lalrinthara Pachuau, Priyanka Bandara, Zothan Siama. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from a mobile phone base station on the redox homeostasis in different organs of Swiss albino mice. Electromagn Biol Med. 2021 Mar 9;1-15. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2021.1895207.
This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of exposure to mobile phone base station (MPBS) emits 1800-MHz RF-EMR on some oxidative stress parameters in the brain, heart, kidney and liver of Swiss albino mice under exposures below thermal levels. Mice were randomly assigned to three experimental groups which were exposed to RF-EMR for 6 hr/day, 12 hr/day and 24 hr/day for 45 consecutive days, respectively, and a control group. The glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly reduced in mice brain after exposure to RF-EMR for 12 hr and 24 hr per day. Exposure of mice to RF-EMR for 12 hr and 24 hr per day also led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (an index of lipid peroxidation) levels in mice brain. On the contrary, exposures used in this study did not induce any significant change in various oxidative stress-related parameters in the heart, kidney and liver of mice. Our findings showed no significant variations in the activities of aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine amino-transferase (ALT), and on the level of creatinine (CRE) in the exposed mice. This study also revealed a decrease in RBC count with an increase in WBC count in mice subjected to 12 hr/day and 24 hr/day exposures. Exposure to RF-EMR from MPBS may cause adverse effects in mice brain by inducing oxidative stress arising from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by enhanced lipid peroxidation, and reduced levels and activities of antioxidants.
Effects of 1.5-GHz high-power microwave exposure on the reproductive systems of male mice
Guofu Dong, Hongmei Zhou, Yan Gao, Xuelong Zhao, Qi Liu, Zhihui Li, Xi Zhao, Jiye Yin, Changzhen Wang. Effects of 1.5-GHz high-power microwave exposure on the reproductive systems of male mice. Electromagn Biol Med. 2021 Mar 10;1-10. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2021.1891091.
High-power microwaves (HPMs) have been reported to have hazardous effects on multiple human and animal organs. However, the biological effects of 1.5-GHz HPMs on the reproductive system are not clear. Here, we studied the effects of 1.5 -GHz HPM whole-body exposure on the pathological structure of the testicles and changes in spermatozoa mobility. C57BL/6 mice of groups L, M, and H were exposed to 1.5-GHz HPM fields for two 15-min intervals at the average specific absorption rates of 3, 6, and 12 W/Kg, respectively. The pathological structure of the testicles and spermatozoa, as well as serum testosterone and sperm motility parameters, were evaluated at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after exposure. As a result, there were no significant pathological or ultrastructural changes in the testicles or spermatozoa and serum testosterone levels. The number of progressively motile spermatozoa, curvilinear velocity, linear velocity, and average path velocity of the exposure group increased at 6 h, decreased at 1 d, and recovered at 3 d. The opposite results were considered a stress response to the thermal effect of the microwaves. Our results indicated that 1.5-GHz HPM whole-body exposure in mice at SARs of 3, 6, and 12 W/Kg for 30 min did not cause obvious damage to the reproductive system.
Travis H. Jones, Kirti Kaul, Ayush A. Garg, Jonathan W. Song, Ramesh K. Ganju, Vish V. Subramaniam. Directional Migration of Breast Cancer Cells Hindered by Induced Electric Fields May Be Due to Accompanying Alteration of Metabolic Activity. Bioelectricity. 20 Jan 2021. https://doi.org/10.1089/bioe.
Background: Induced electric fields (iEFs) control directional breast cancer cell migration. While the connection between migration and metabolism is appreciated in the context of cancer and metastasis, effects of iEFs on metabolic pathways especially as they relate to migration, remain unexplored.
Materials and Methods: Quantitative cell migration data in the presence and absence of an epidermal growth factor (EGF) gradient in the microfluidic bidirectional microtrack assay was retrospectively analyzed for additional effects of iEFs on cell motility and directionality. Surrogate markers of oxidative phosphorylation (succinate dehydrogenase [SDH] activity) and glycolysis (lactate dehydrogenase activity) were assessed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and normal MCF10A mammary epithelial cells exposed to iEFs and EGF.
Results: Retrospective analysis of migration results suggests that iEFs increase forward cell migration speeds while extending the time cells spend migrating slowly in the reverse direction or remaining stationary. Furthermore, in the presence of EGF, iEFs differentially altered flux through oxidative phosphorylation in MDA-MB-231 cells and glycolysis in MCF10A cells.
Conclusions: iEFs interfere with MDA-MB-231 cell migration, potentially, by altering mitochondrial metabolism, observed as an inhibition of SDH activity in the presence of EGF. The energy intensive process of migration in these highly metastatic breast cancer cells may be hindered by iEFs, thus, through hampering of oxidative phosphorylation.
Kjell Hansson Mild, Roland Bergling, Rolf Hörnsten. Heart Rate Variability and Magnetic Field Exposure Among Train Engine Drivers-A Pilot Study. Bioelectromagnetics. 2021 Mar 1. doi: 10.1002/bem.22329.
Effects Induced by a Weak Static Magnetic Field of Different Intensities on HT-1080 Fibrosarcoma Cells
Hakki Gurhan, Rodolfo Bruzon, Sahithi Kandala, Ben Greenebaum, Frank Barnes. Effects Induced by a Weak Static Magnetic Field of Different Intensities on HT-1080 Fibrosarcoma Cells. Bioelectromagnetics. 2021 Mar 18. doi: 10.1002/bem.22332.
In this study, we investigated the effects of weak static magnetic fields (SMFs) on HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Exposures to SMFs for four consecutive days were varied from 0.5 to 600 µT for treated units, while exposures to control units were held at 45 µT. Growth rates were measured by comparing cell counts, whereas membrane potentials, mitochondrial calcium, mitochondrial superoxide (O2 - ), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), intercellular pH, and oxidative stress were measured by using fluorescent dyes. The relative cell growth rates vary with the angle of the SMFs. Increases in the magnitude of the SMFs increased concentrations of mitochondrial calcium and membrane potential and decreased intracellular pH. H2 O2 , an important reactive oxygen species (ROS), increases at 100 and 200 µT, decreases at 300 and 400 µT and increases again at 500 and 600 µT. Overall, oxidative stress increases slightly with increasing SMFs, while superoxide and NO concentrations decrease. These results indicate that weak SMFs can accelerate and inhibit cell growth rates and induce alterations in ROS. Changes in ROS and oxidative stress are important for various cell functions. Calcium influx into mitochondria was one of the initial steps into the corresponding changes.
The importance of these results is that variations of background MFs can both increase and decrease cell growth rates and corresponding concentrations of ROS and other signaling molecules. These observed changes are significant as different concentration levels of ROS could have beneficial or adverse effects on biology. In conclusion, the basic effect observed here is that changes in SMFs create a change in the growth rate of the cells and changes in some important molecular concentrations on both sides of the cell and mitochondrial membrane. Though the growth rate is one of the parameters that we have studied, the changes in the signaling molecules and other cell parameters might cause long‐term effects in biological systems. An example of this is long‐term changes in oxidative stress related to cancer and aging‐related diseases. Canceling out the earth′s MF substantially, down to 0.5 µT by Mu metal cages, not only gave us the capability to eliminate background noise but also allowed us to observe effects at a level much lower than the earth′s MF. Thus, in this study, we believe that measuring and controlling the SMFs and eliminating the effects of temperature and background noise in experiments are important for attempting to understand the effects of electromagnetic fields on biological systems. Additionally, we believe that the amplitude, angle of incidence, and length of the exposure can lead to variable results and need to be included in the description of experimental protocols [Barnes and Greenebaum, 2015].
Future work will include time‐varying MFs, where we expect to see both electric and MF effects. Time‐varying MFs induce electric fields; other data indicate that both electric and MFs can induce changes in cell growth rates and other biological parameters [Bingham, 1996]. More research work will be required to determine the mechanisms by which these two different fields modify the behavior of cells.
No evidence for genotoxicity in mice due to exposure to intermediate-frequency magnetic fields used for wireless power-transfer systems
Shin Ohtani, Akira Ushiyama, Keiji Wada, Yukihisa Suzuki, Kazuyuki Ishii, Kenji Hattori. No evidence for genotoxicity in mice due to exposure to intermediate-frequency magnetic fields used for wireless power-transfer systems. Mutat Res. Mar-Apr 2021;863-864:503310. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2021.
• We examined the genotoxicity of IF-MF exposure more than twice the ICNIRP guideline.
Time varying magnetic fields (MFs) are used for the wireless power-transfer (WPT) technology. Especially, 85 kHz band MFs, which are included in the intermediate frequency (IF) band (300 Hz - 10 MHz), are commonly used WPT system for charging electric vehicles. Those applications of WPT technology have elicited public concern about health effects of IF-MF. However, existing data from health risk assessments are insufficient and additional data are needed. We assessed the genotoxic effects of IF-MF exposure on erythroid differentiation in mice. A high-intensity IF-MF mouse exposure system was constructed to induce an average whole-body electric field of 54.1 V/m. Blood samples were obtained from male mice before and after a 2-week IF-MF exposure (1 h/day, total: 10 h); X-irradiated mice were used as positive controls. We analyzed the blood samples with the micronucleus (MN) test and the Pig-a mutation assay. No significant differences were seen between IF-MF-exposed and sham-exposed mice in the frequencies of either MN or Pig-a mutations in mature erythrocytes and reticulocytes. IF-MF exposure did not induce genotoxicity in vivo under the study conditions (2.36× the basic restriction for occupational exposure, 22.9 V/m, in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines). The absence of significant biological effects due to IF-MF exposure supports the practical application of this technology.
Previous meta-analyses have suggested an increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF). However, results should be interpreted with caution since studies were methodologically heterogeneous. Here, we assessed the feasibility of a pooling study to harmonize and re-analyze available original data. A systematic literature search was conducted. Published epidemiological studies were identified in PubMed and EMF-Portal from literature databases' inception dates until January 2019. The characteristics of all studies were described, including exposure metrics, exposure categories, and confounders. A survey among the principal investigators (PI) was carried out to assess their willingness to provide their original data. The statistical power of a pooling study was evaluated. We identified 15 articles published between 1997 and 2019. Studies differed in terms of outcome, study population, exposure assessment, and exposure metrics. Most studies assessed ELF-MF as average magnetic flux density per working day; however, exposure categories varied widely. The pattern of adjustment for confounders was heterogeneous between studies, with age, sex, and socioeconomic status being most frequent. Eight PI expressed their willingness to provide original data. A relative risk of ≥1.14 for ALS and occupational exposure to ELF-MF can be detected with a power of more than 80% in a pooled study. The pooling of original data is recommended and could contribute to a better understanding of ELF-MF in the etiology of ALS based on a large database and reduced heterogeneity due to a standardized analysis protocol with harmonized exposure metrics and exposure categories.
Cios A, Ciepielak M, Stankiewicz W, Szymański Ł. The Influence of the
Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Clear Cell Renal
Carcinoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(3):1342.
The development of new technologies and industry is conducive to the
increase in the number and variety of electromagnetic field (EMF)
sources in our environment. The main sources of EMF are high-voltage
lines, household appliances, audio/video devices, mobile phones, radio
stations, and radar devices. In the growing use of electronic devices,
scientists are increasingly interested in the effects of EMF on human
health. Even though many studies on the effects of EMF have already been
carried out, none of them has shown a significant effect on mammals,
including humans. Moreover, it is not entirely clear how EMF influences
cell behavior. The International Agency for Research on Cancer on 31 May
2011, classified PEM as a possible carcinogenic factor. This study
aimed to investigate the effect of the electromagnetic field on
morphological and functional changes in clear cell renal carcinoma. The
research was carried out on in vitro cultures of four cell lines:
HEK293, 786-O 769-P, and Caki1. The results of the research showed that
the EMF of low frequency had a slight effect on the viability of cells.
EMF, which induced cell arrest in the G1 phase, increased the number of
early apoptotic cells and decreased the number of viable cells in the
786-O line. EMF did not affect the proliferation and viability of HEK293
cells. Extreme low-frequency EMF (ELF-EMF) also showed an inhibitory
effect on the migration and metastatic properties of clear cell kidney
cancer cells. Moreover, shortly after the end of ELF-EMF exposure,
significant increases in ROS levels were observed in all tested cell
lines. As part of the work, it was shown that low-frequency EMF shows an
inhibitory effect on the proliferation of primary cancer cells,
diminishing their migratory, invasive, and metastatic abilities. It also
increases the apoptosis of cancer cells and the amount of reactive
oxygen species. Based on the results of our research, we want to point
up that the effect of ELF-EMF depends on a specific metabolic state or
at a specific stage in the cell cycle of the cells under study
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-
Interference of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices by Static Electric and Magnetic Fields
Kai Jagielski, Thomas Kraus, Dominik Stunder. Interference of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices by Static Electric and Magnetic Fields. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1080/17434440.2021.1902802.
Introduction: Electromagnetic interference (EMI) of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) can lead to malfunctions and pose a danger for implant carriers. The increased use of DC technologies, e.g., in electric mobility, creates more static fields representing an increasing hazard for implant carriers.
Areas covered: A combination of approaches was used to determine thresholds for EMI by static fields. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant EMI mechanisms and to extract possible thresholds. The literature search revealed four interference mechanisms caused by static magnetic fields and none for static electric fields. Due to the scarce information on motion-induced EMI, numerical simulations were performed to obtain a threshold. The simulation results were evaluated using medical product standards and benchmark tests on commercially available CIEDs. The results show that motion-induced interference should not occur below the activation of the magnetic safety switch (reed switch or Hall-effect sensor, MSS).
Expert opinion: The determined threshold for motion-induced EMI at 24.8 mT shows that the MSS activation is still the most relevant mechanism that can occur at 0.8 mT. Limit values for the general population do not protect implant carriers from EMI.
The aim of this study was the assessment of risks for CIED patients by SEF and SMF. Regarding SEF, no indication was found that CIED can be interfered with when implant wearers are exposed to SEF. This does not include potential EMI from contact currents as they may occur from charged objects in the vicinity of SEF. Contact currents were not the focus of this study due to the significantly different scenario between field exposure and contact current, in which skin resistance and voltage level play a decisive role. Under the influence of SEF exposure, the shielding of the human body as a Faraday cage is sufficient to prevent electric induction into CIED that are located entirely under the human skin.
Regarding SMF, four interference mechanisms have been identified. As a reed switch or Hall effect sensor, the unintended activation of the MSS is the most investigated effect and can occur at SMF greater than 0.8 mT. Magnetic forces on CIED may be relevant for strong magnetic fields in the magnitude of teslas as they arise from MRI devices. A parameter reset or reprogramming of the CIED by SMF seems to be relatively uncommon, and only one publication reported a reproducible case with a PM by earphones. Rather few publications treat motion-induced EMI with the iEGM of the CIED, which has been investigated with numerical simulations and benchmark tests in this study.
In this study, activation thresholds for motion-induced EMI were determined and published for the first time. However, an estimated occurrence starting at 24.8 mT shows that motion-induced EMIs are less relevant than the activation of MSS that can already occur at 0.8 mT. However, motion-induced EMIs still pose a potential risk to implant wearers because the CIED may not provide the necessary therapy.
Other DC technologies and SMF sources will likely emerge in the future, both in professional and private environments. As a result, EMI from static fields will continue to be significant. The question arises whether the triggering of MSS around 1 mT is still practical, where even today, many technical applications already generate static magnetic fields of more than 1 mT, or whether there is a need for innovation on the part of the manufacturers.
Ryan D Hunt, Ryan C Ashbaugh, Mark Reimers, Lalita Udpa, Gabriela Saldana De Jimenez, Michael Moore, Assaf A Gilad, Galit Pelled. Swimming direction of the glass catfish is responsive to magnetic stimulation. PLoS One. 2021 Mar 5;16(3):e0248141. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0248141.
Several marine species have developed a magnetic perception that is essential for navigation and detection of prey and predators. One of these species is the transparent glass catfish that contains an ampullary organ dedicated to sense magnetic fields. Here we examine the behavior of the glass catfish in response to static magnetic fields which will provide valuable insight on function of this magnetic response. By utilizing state of the art animal tracking software and artificial intelligence approaches, we quantified the effects of magnetic fields on the swimming direction of glass catfish. The results demonstrate that glass catfish placed in a radial arm maze, consistently swim away from magnetic fields over 20 μT and show adaptability to changing magnetic field direction and location.