Thursday, December 2, 2021

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since August 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below. The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 1,400 scientific papers. This 1,127-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:


Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.

Recent Papers

Effect of electromagnetic field on abortion: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Masumeh Ghazanfarpour, Zahra Atarodi Kashani, Reza Pakzad, Fatemeh Abdi , Fatemeh Alsadat Rahnemaei, Pouran Akhavan Akbari, Nasibeh Roozbeh.  Effect of electromagnetic field on abortion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.Open Medicine. doi: 10.1515/med-2021-0384

Abstract

Background  The increasing use of new technologies by pregnant women inevitably exposes them to the risks of the electromagnetic fields (EMFs). According to the World Health Organization, EMFs are the major sources of pollutants which harm human health. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of EMF exposure on abortion.

Methods   Web of Science, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched until 2021. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was explored using Cochran’s Q test and I 2 index. A meta-regression method was employed to investigate the factors affecting heterogeneity between the studies. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the credibility of the studies.

Results  Eligible studies (N = 17) were analyzed with a total of 57,693 participants. The mean maternal age (95% CI) was 31.06 years (27.32–34.80). Based on meta-analysis results, the pooled estimate for OR of EMF with its effects was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.10–1.46). According to the results of meta-regression, sample size had a significant effect on heterogeneity between studies (p: 0.030), but mother’s age and publication year had no significant effect on heterogeneity (p-value of both were >0.05). No publication bias was observed.

Conclusion  Exposure to EMFs above 50 Hz or 16 mG is associated with 1.27× increased risk of abortion. It may be prudent to advise women against this potentially important environmental hazard. Indeed, pregnant women should receive tailored counselling.

Open access paper: https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/med-2021-0384/html

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Estimated all-day and evening whole-brain radiofrequency electromagnetic fields doses, and sleep in preadolescents

Cabré-Riera A, van Wel L, Liorni I, Koopman-Verhoeff ME, Imaz L, Ibarluzea J, Huss A, Wiart J, Vermeulen R, Joseph W, Capstick M, Vrijheid M, Cardis E, Röösli M, Eeftens M, Thielens A, Tiemeier H, Guxens M. Estimated all-day and evening whole-brain radiofrequency electromagnetic fields doses, and sleep in preadolescents. Environ Res. 2021 Oct 29:112291. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.112291.

Highlights
• We estimated whole-brain RF-EMF doses (mJ/kg/day) for several RF-EMF sources.
• We estimated all-day and evening whole-brain RF-EMF doses.
• We assessed subjective and objective sleep measures in preadolescents.
• No association between all-day whole-brain RF-EMF doses and sleep.
• Evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose from phone calls related to shorter total sleep time.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the association of estimated all-day and evening whole-brain radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) doses with sleep disturbances and objective sleep measures in preadolescents.

Methods: We included preadolescents aged 9-12 years from two population-based birth cohorts, the Dutch Generation R Study (n = 974) and the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project (n = 868). All-day and evening overall whole-brain RF-EMF doses (mJ/kg/day) were estimated for several RF-EMF sources including mobile and Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) phone calls (named phone calls), other mobile phone uses, tablet use, laptop use (named screen activities), and far-field sources. We also estimated all-day and evening whole-brain RF-EMF doses in these three groups separately (i.e. phone calls, screen activities, and far-field). The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children was completed by mothers to assess sleep disturbances. Wrist accelerometers together with sleep diaries were used to measure sleep characteristics objectively for 7 consecutive days.

Results: All-day whole-brain RF-EMF doses were not associated with self-reported sleep disturbances and objective sleep measures. Regarding evening doses, preadolescents with high evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose from phone calls had a shorter total sleep time compared to preadolescents with zero evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose from phone calls [-11.9 min (95%CI -21.2; -2.5)].

Conclusions: Our findings suggest the evening as a potentially relevant window of RF-EMF exposure for sleep. However, we cannot exclude that observed associations are due to the activities or reasons motivating the phone calls rather than the RF-EMF exposure itself or due to chance finding.


Excerpts

Preadolescents spend 48.9 min/day using mobile communication devices for screen activities and 2.5 min/day making phone calls (Supplementary Table S3). The median of the overall estimated all-day whole-brain RF-EMF dose was 60 (interquartile range (IQR) 20; 118) mJ/kg/day and the main contributor to the all-day whole-brain RF-EMF dose were phone calls (78%) (Table 2).... Preadolescents who spent more time with console/computer gaming or television watching were more likely to have higher evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose from screen activities....

Objective total sleep time was on average 7.5 h, sleep efficiency was 84%, and wake after sleep onset was 71.4 min in the study sample (Table 3)....

Preadolescents with high evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose from phone calls had a shorter total sleep time and longer sleep latency compared to preadolescents with zero evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose from phone calls [−11.9 min (95%CI -21.2; −2.5) and) 0.3 min (95%CI 0.0; 0.7), respectively] (Table 6). However, the latter association did not survive correction for multiple testing. Overall evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose, and evening dose from screen activities were not associated with objective sleep measures (Table 6) and with sleep quality and restfulness (data not shown)....

This study investigated the association of overall and source-specific all-day and evening whole-brain RF-EMF doses with sleep parameters in preadolescents. We found that the all-day whole-brain RF-EMF doses were not associated with sleep disturbances and objective sleep measures. Regarding evening doses, preadolescents with a high evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose from phone calls had shorter total sleep time....

All-day and evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose from screen activities were not associated with subjective or objective sleep measures....

A more comprehensive study needs to be designed to disentangle between all the potential factors related to the use of mobile communication devices that might affect sleep, including RF-EMF exposure. Also, of note, preadolescents are reducing the use of phones for calling and those who make phone calls use hands-free devices or mobile phone applications that allow voice or video calls. This changing pattern might decrease the overall RF-EMF dose the brain receives but increase the amount of RF-EMF dose from screen activities with mobile communication devices....

The levels of RF-EMF exposure from far-field sources are low and do not produce peak and high intensity exposures to the brain such as those from personal use of mobile communication devices for phone calls or screen activities (Birks et al., 2018, 2021). In our study, RF-EMF dose from far-field sources was not related to subjective or objective sleep measures. Previous studies assessing the association between RF-EMF exposure from far-field sources and sleep showed mixed results....

Conclusion

Overall all-day whole-brain RF-EMF dose and all-day dose from phone calls were not associated with sleep, though evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose from phone calls were associated with less favourable sleep characteristics as objectively measured by actigraphy. These findings suggest the evening as a potentially relevant window of exposure. Since this is the first study investigating the association between RF-EMF dose and sleep and there is not known biological mechanism explaining the observed associations, our results should be interpreted with caution. Studies exploring the relationship of RF-EMF exposure to the brain and sleep should assess the amount of RF-EMF dose absorbed by the brain in the evening or at night which might be more relevant for adolescents’ sleep.

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Original Findings Confirmed in Replication Study: Provocation with 2.4 GHz Cordless Phone affects Autonomic Nervous System as measured by Heart Rate Variability

Magda Havas, Jeffrey Marrongelle. Original Findings Confirmed in Replication Study: Provocation with 2.4 GHz Cordless Phone affects the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) as measured by Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Medical Research Archives.  9(11). Nov. 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.18103/mra.v9i11.2605.

Abstract

This is a double-blind, placebo-controlled replication of a study that we previously conducted in Colorado with 25 subjects designed to test the effect of radio frequency radiation (RFR) generated by the base station of a cordless phone on heart rate variability (HRV). In this study, we analyzed the response of 69 subjects between the ages of 26 and 80 in both Canada and the USA. Subjects were exposed to radiation for 3-min intervals generated by a 2.4-GHz cordless phone base station (3–8 microW/cm2). Prior to provocation we conducted an orthostatic test to assess the state of adrenal exhaustion, which interferes with a person’s ability to mount a response to a stressor. A few participants had a severe reaction to the RFR with an increase in heart rate and altered HRV indicative of an alarm response to stress. Based on the HRV analyses of the 69 subjects, 7% were classified as being “moderately to very sensitive”, 29% were “little to moderately sensitive”, 30% were “not to a little sensitive” and 6% were “unknown”. These results are not psychosomatic and are not due to electromagnetic interference. Twenty-five percent of the subjects’ self-proclaimed sensitivity corresponded to that based on the HRV analysis, while 32% overestimated their sensitivity and 42% did not know whether or not they were electrically sensitive. Of the 39 participants who claimed to experience some electrical hypersensitivity, 36% claimed they also reacted to a cordless phone and experienced heart symptoms and, of these, 64% were classified as having some degree of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) based on their HRV response. Novel findings include documentation of a delayed response to radiation. This protocol underestimates the reaction to electromagnetic radiation and may provide a false negative for those with a delayed reaction and/or with adrenal exhaustion. Orthostatic HRV testing combined with provocation testing may provide a useful diagnostic tool for some sufferers of EHS when they are exposed to electromagnetic radiation. It can be used to confirm EHS but not to reject EHS as a diagnosis since not everyone with EHS has an ANS reaction to electromagnetic radiation.

Conclusions

Our results show that 36% of the individuals tested reacted via altered heart rate variability (HRV) to the non-ionizing radiation generated by a cordless phone base station in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. These reactions were not psychosomatic. In this study, we document an increased heart rate (HR), altered HRV and changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic control of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) typical of a fight-or-flight stress response. These results are similar to our previous study. The results are not due to electromagnetic interference (EMI), since we have examples of a delayed response after the radiation was turned off and have tested EMI with much higher exposure using the same technology with no reactions noted. Our results demonstrate that the radiation from a 2.4-GHz cordless phone affects the ANS and may put some individuals with pre-existing heart conditions at risk when exposed to electromagnetic frequencies to which they are sensitive. Individuals fell into 3 categories: those who had a healthy ANS and were able to tolerate the stress without reactions; those who reacted; and those who had a compromised ANS with adrenal exhaustion and were unable to mount a response leading, in some cases, to a false negative result. Although documenting a response is relatively simple, determining the degree of EHS is quite complex and requires further study especially for those with a compromised ANS.

Open access paper: https://esmed.org/MRA/mra/article/view/2605

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Micronucleus Assay in Cell Phone Users: Importance of Oral Mucosa Screening

Melika Ghandehari, Donia Sadri, Sareh Farhadi. Micronucleus Assay in Cell Phone Users: Importance of Oral Mucosa Screening. Int J Prev Med. 2021 Sep 29;12:125. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_489_19.

Abstract

Background: One of the concerns of cell phone users is prolonged exposure to harmful and potentially carcinogenic waves. This study was aimed to investigate the correlation between amount of cell phone use and related factors with percentage of micronucleus containing cells.

Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on selected patients referring to Islamic Azad University Faculty of Dentistry using cell phones regarding related inclusion and exclusion criteria. Papanicolaou staining method was approached for mucosal smears of samples and frequency of micronucleus containing cells and also, frequency of micronucleus in each cell were recorded for each sample; then, correlation of these findings with amount of daily cell phone usage was statistically analyzed using the calculation of Pearson correlation coefficient and preparation of regression analysis (backward) with significant level of lower than 0.05.

Results: Of 100 samples, the frequency of micronucleus containing cells was 2.94% ± 1.89% and the frequency of micronucleus in each cell was 1.02% ± 1.68%. The amount of cell phone usage was significantly correlated with the frequency of micronucleus containing cells (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001) and also with the frequency of micronucleus in each cell (r = 0.57, P = 0.0001). Also, age and sex were not significantly correlated with the frequency of micronucleus containing cells (P = 0.47 and 0.32) and also with the frequency of micronucleus in each cell, respectively (P = 0.16 and 0.27).

Conclusions: The present study showed that the increased amount of cell phone usage had a strong and significant correlation with the higher frequency of the micronucleus containing cells and the higher frequency of micronucleus in each cell in the buccal mucosa. Also, the related factors as age and sex were not significantly correlated with the frequency of micronucleus containing buccal mucosa cells.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8551792/

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The biological effects of electromagnetic exposure on immune cells and potential mechanisms

Chuanfu Yao, Li Zhao, Ruiyun Peng. The biological effects of electromagnetic exposure on immune cells and potential mechanisms. Electromagn Biol Med. 2021 Nov 9;1-10. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2021.2001651.

Abstract

Anxiety about potential health hazards of electromagnetic exposure has been growing in the past decades, with their widely application in many fields. The immune system plays pivotal role in maintaining body's homeostasis. Importantly, immune system is also a sensitive target for electromagnetic fields. In recent years, the biological effects of electromagnetic fields on immune cells have been attracting more and more attentions. Accumulated data suggested that electromagnetic exposure could affect the number and function of immune cells to some extent, including cell proportion, cell cycle, apoptosis, killing activity, cytokines contents and so on. The research objects basically covered all types of immune cells, mainly on PBMC, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, NK cells and macrophages. Meanwhile, there also are negative reports of electromagnetic fields on immune cells. This article reviews the results of epidemiological investigation, the progresses in animal studies and in vitro experiments, and the current attempts to explore potential mechanisms. Knowledge of the biological effects on immune cells associated with electromagnetic fields is critical for proper health hazard evaluation, development of safety standards, and safe exploitation of new electromagnetic devices and applications.


Outlook

In an organism, the role of the defence system against external stressors is played by the immune system consisting of various cell types. The immune cells are engaged in many physiological processes and responsible for the proper function of the whole organism. Any factor with an ability to cause immunomodulatory effects may weaken or enhance the response of the immune system (Piszczek et al. 2021). The biological effects of electromagnetic fields on immune cells have been attracting more and more attention in recent years. Researchers from numerous groups focused on both epidemiological investigations and experimental studies. Accumulated data suggested that electromagnetic exposure could affect the number and function of immune cells to some extent, including cell proportion, cell cycle, apoptosis, killing activity, cytokines contents and so on. The research objects basically covered all types of immune cells, mainly on PBMC, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, NK cells and macrophages. Meanwhile, there also are negative reports of electromagnetic fields on immune cells. Electromagnetic fields-induced biological effects on immune cells are influenced by two general factors: the exposure parameters (i.e., frequency, power density, exposure duration, etc.) and the composition and/or properties of the cell target. Any deviation from the two general factors will lead to inconsistent results. This may be the reason why the results are inconsistent and no comparability between different laboratories. Therefore, it is extremely difficult to find out a mechanism which could play a dominant role in the effects of various types of immune cells under electromagnetic exposure in a wide range of parameters. However, ROS, NF-κB signaling pathway, intracellular Ca2+ emerged as the potential mechanisms involved in electromagnetic field-induced activation and inhibition of immune cells; nevertheless, the specific mechanisms underlying the observed bio-effects in these cells remain unknown.

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Evidence for a connection between coronavirus disease-19 and exposure to radiofrequency radiation from wireless communications including 5G

My comments: If there is a connection between the Covid-19 pandemic and wireless communication radiation (WCR) due to impaired immune system response, it is likely attributable to the population's total EMF exposure including ELF EMF as well as WCR (e.g., 2G-5G, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth). 5G is not universally available and is only partially deployed in locations that have this infrastructure. Moreover, since 5G operates a fraction of the time and depends heavily on 4G communication now, I suspect that densification of 4G via small cell deployment is more likely to be problematic than 5G.

Beverly Rubik, Robert R Brown. Evidence for a connection between coronavirus disease-19 and exposure to radiofrequency radiation from wireless communications including 5G. J Clin Transl Res. 2021 Sep 29;7(5):666-681.

Abstract

Background and aim: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) public health policy has focused on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus and its effects on human health while environmental factors have been largely ignored. In considering the epidemiological triad (agent-host-environment) applicable to all disease, we investigated a possible environmental factor in the COVID-19 pandemic: ambient radiofrequency radiation from wireless communication systems including microwaves and millimeter waves. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caused the COVID-19 pandemic, surfaced in Wuhan, China shortly after the implementation of city-wide (fifth generation [5G] of wireless communications radiation [WCR]), and rapidly spread globally, initially demonstrating a statistical correlation to international communities with recently established 5G networks. In this study, we examined the peer-reviewed scientific literature on the detrimental bioeffects of WCR and identified several mechanisms by which WCR may have contributed to the COVID-19 pandemic as a toxic environmental cofactor. By crossing boundaries between the disciplines of biophysics and pathophysiology, we present evidence that WCR may: (1) cause morphologic changes in erythrocytes including echinocyte and rouleaux formation that can contribute to hypercoagulation; (2) impair microcirculation and reduce erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels exacerbating hypoxia; (3) amplify immune system dysfunction, including immunosuppression, autoimmunity, and hyperinflammation; (4) increase cellular oxidative stress and the production of free radicals resulting in vascular injury and organ damage; (5) increase intracellular Ca2+ essential for viral entry, replication, and release, in addition to promoting pro-inflammatory pathways; and (6) worsen heart arrhythmias and cardiac disorders.

Relevance for patients: In short, WCR has become a ubiquitous environmental stressor that we propose may have contributed to adverse health outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and increased the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend that all people, particularly those suffering from SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduce their exposure to WCR as much as reasonably achievable until further research better clarifies the systemic health effects associated with chronic WCR exposure.

Excerpts

Epidemiologists, including those at the CDC, consider multiple causal factors when evaluating the virulence of an agent and understanding its ability to spread and cause disease. Most importantly, these variables include environmental cofactors and the health status of the host. Evidence from the literature summarized here suggests a possible connection between several adverse health effects of WCR exposure and the clinical course of COVID-19 in that WCR may have worsened the COVID-19 pandemic by weakening the host and exacerbating COVID-19 disease. However, none of the observations discussed here prove this linkage. Specifically, the evidence does not confirm causation. Clearly COVID-19 occurs in regions with little wireless communication. Furthermore, the relative morbidity caused by WCR exposure in COVID-19 is unknown....

Another shortcoming of this paper is that we do not have access to experimental data on 5G exposures. In fact, little is known about population exposure from real-world WCR, which includes exposure to WCR infrastructure and the plethora of WCR emitting devices. In relation to this, it is difficult to accurately quantify the average power density at a given location, which varies greatly, depending on the time, specific location, time-averaging interval, frequency, and modulation scheme. For a specific municipality it depends on the antenna density, which network protocols are used, as, for example, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, Wi-Fi, WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), DECT (Digitally Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications), and RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging). There is also WCR from ubiquitous radio wave transmitters, including antennas, base stations, smart meters, mobile phones, routers, satellites, and other wireless devices currently in use. All of these signals superimpose to yield the total average power density at a given location that typically fluctuates greatly over time. No experimental studies on adverse health effects or safety issues of 5G have been reported, and none are currently planned by the industry, although this is sorely needed....

This paper points to the need for further research on nonthermal WCR exposure and its potential role in COVID-19. Moreover, some of the WCR exposure bioeffects that we discuss here — oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune system disruption — are common to many chronic diseases, including autoimmune disease and diabetes. Thus, we hypothesize that WCR exposure may also be a potential contributing factor in many chronic diseases....

Conclusion

There is a substantial overlap in pathobiology between COVID-19 and WCR exposure. The evidence presented here indicates that mechanisms involved in the clinical progression of COVID-19 could also be generated, according to experimental data, by WCR exposure. Therefore, we propose a link between adverse bioeffects of WCR exposure from wireless devices and COVID-19.

Specifically, evidence presented here supports a premise that WCR and, in particular, 5G, which involves densification of 4G, may have exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic by weakening host immunity and increasing SARS-CoV-2 virulence by (1) causing morphologic changes in erythrocytes including echinocyte and rouleaux formation that may be contributing to hypercoagulation; (2) impairing microcirculation and reducing erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels exacerbating hypoxia; (3) amplifying immune dysfunction, including immunosuppression, autoimmunity, and hyperinflammation; (4) increasing cellular oxidative stress and the production of free radicals exacerbating vascular injury and organ damage; (5) increasing intracellular Ca2+ essential for viral entry, replication, and release, in addition to promoting pro-inflammatory pathways; and (6) worsening heart arrhythmias and cardiac disorders.

WCR exposure is a widespread, yet often neglected, environmental stressor that can produce a wide range of adverse bioeffects. For decades, independent research scientists worldwide have emphasized the health risks and cumulative damage caused by WCR [,]. The evidence presented here is consistent with a large body of established research. Healthcare workers and policymakers should consider WCR a potentially toxic environmental stressor. Methods for reducing WCR exposure should be provided to all patients and the general population.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8580522/

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The association between mobile phones and the risk of brain cancer mortality: A 25-year cross-country analysis

Mialon HM, Nesson ET. The association between mobile phones and the risk of brain cancer mortality: A 25-year cross-country analysis. Contemporary Economic Policy. December 4, 2019. doi:10.1111/coep.12456.

Abstract

We investigate the relationship between cell phones and brain cancer using brain cancer death rates for 88 countries between 1990 and 2015 from the World Health Organization and country‐level mobile phone subscription rates from the World Bank. We estimate difference‐in‐difference models including country and year fixed effects and time‐varying country covariates. We find that mobile phone subscription rates are positively and statistically significantly associated with death rates from brain cancer 15–20 years later. In falsification tests, we find few positive associations between mobile phone subscription rates and deaths from rectal, pancreatic, stomach, breast or lung cancer or ischemic heart disease. Finally, differential effects models suggest that mobile phone subscription rates are associated with brain cancer deaths 15–19 years later relative to deaths from other causes.

Excerpts

The link between mobile phones and brain tumors has received much attention in the media (e.g., Hakim 2016; Knutson 2016; Storrs 2016), although previous evidence has not yielded conclusive results (Hardell and Carlberg 2014; Hardell, Carlberg, and Hansson Mild 2011; Hardell et al. 2013; M. Little et al. 2012; Myung et al. 2009).

...We find a positive association between mobile phone subscriptions and brain cancer death rates. Specifically, one more mobile phone subscription per 100 people is associated with 0.003 and 0.02 additional brain cancer deaths per 100,000 people 15 and 20 years later, respectively. This result is robust to a number of specification tests, although it is sensitive to the exclusion of country‐specific linear time trends. We run a number of falsification tests where we examine the relationship between mobile phone subscription rates and mortality rates from five other common forms of cancer, rectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer, as well as ischemic heart disease. We find much smaller coefficients with much larger standard errors for these other mortality outcomes, although we do find a few positive and statistically significant coefficients. Given that we find some sensitivity to country‐specific linear trends and some significant effects of mobile phone subscriptions on other cancers, we estimate a differential effects model where we compare the association between mobile phone subscription rates and brain cancer mortality relative to other disease mortality. In these models, we additionally find statistically significant, positive coefficients, suggesting that mobile phone prevalence is associated with brain cancer mortality about 15–20 years later relative to other disease mortality.

Our study is the first to analyze the potential link between brain cancer and mobile phone use on the aggregate, across multiple countries, and over a period spanning more than 20 years....

We collect information on annual mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 people from the World Bank (The World Bank 2016). The first mobile cellular phones were introduced in the Nordic countries in the early 1980s, and by 1990, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden had more than three mobile phone subscriptions per 100 people. Additionally, the United States, Hong Kong, Singapore, Kuwait, and New Zealand were relatively early adopters, with more than one subscription per 100 people by 1990. By 1995, the European Union had an average of over four subscriptions per 100 people, growing to over 53 subscriptions per 100 people in 2000. North American and high income Asian and Middle Eastern countries followed similar patterns.

Table 1 shows summary statistics for all variables in our sample over the period from 1990 to 2015. On average, the annual brain cancer death rate is about 3.7 individuals per 100,000. There are about 62 mobile phone subscriptions per 100 people on average. However, there is a lot of temporal variation in mobile phone subscriptions, which we detail more below....

Results from Table 2:

... one more mobile phone subscription per 1,000 people is associated with 0.00012 more brain cancer deaths per 1,000 people 15 years later and 0.00073 more brain cancer deaths per 1,000 people 20 years later.

In the first column of Table 4, we find very similar effects to Table 2, and we again find that mobile phone subscriptions are related to increases in brain cancer mortality starting about 15–25 years later. The next four columns show results from differential effects models. In these models, we again find a positive and statistically significant association between mobile phone subscription rates and brain cancer mortality 15–19 years later relative to mortality from the other diseases studied. Our results here are robust to specification changes, with the exception that we lose statistical significance when not using country weights. 3 However, we do note that the mobile phone coefficient is much larger for the 15–19 year lag compared to other lags.

We find a statistically significant relationship between mobile phone subscriptions and brain cancer death rates 15–20 years later. Our estimated effect sizes are small but statistically significant. The implications of our findings are potentially very large. Almost 16,000 people died from brain cancer in the United States in 2014. If our findings are correct, the number of brain cancer deaths will continue to rise as the number of mobile phone users rose rapidly in the early part of the century. To err on the side of caution, individuals may want to make greater use of the speaker phone and/or texting options on their cell phones or investigate cell phone cases that may deflect radiation away from their ears.

Some caveats to our analysis are warranted. First, we cannot make an unambiguous claim of causality based on our results. Although we control for other characteristics likely to affect brain cancer death rates and find limited statistically significant relationships between mobile phone subscriptions and other mortality outcomes, there may be yet other factors that are correlated with mobile phone subscriptions and are also drivers of changes in brain cancer death rates. For example, ionizing radiation from computed tomography (CT) scans is an established risk factor for brain cancer (Pearce et al. 2012), and if the use of CT scans is correlated with mobile phone use, our estimates may be biased. We include controls for health spending, which should control for the number of X‐rays to some degree, and moreover, if X‐rays and mobile phone adoption were truly correlated, we would expect mobile phones to have an effect on cancer mortality rates in other sites. But, omitted variables do remain a concern in our analysis.

Second, our measure of mobile phone use, mobile phone subscriptions per 100 people, may not be perfectly accurate....

Third, long lags between mobile phone subscriptions and brain cancer death rates mean that, depending on the specified lag between mobile phone subscriptions and mortality, the large recent variations in mobile phone adoption may not be part of our analysis. Additionally, the recent innovations in mobile phone technology, for example switching from 2G to 3G and 4G have resulted in changes in the radiation emitted from mobile phones (Croft et al. 2010; Leung et al. 2011). Moreover, the transition of peoples' use of mobile phones as predominantly phones to the rise of texting and other forms of social media may also change the relationship between mobile phones and brain cancer in the future.


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Effect of cell phone use on salivary components; a review of literature


Fateme Arbabi Kalati, Tahereh Nosratzehi. Effect of cell phone use on salivary components; a review of literature. J Complement Integr Med. 2021 Nov 25. doi: 10.1515/jcim-2021-0397.

Abstract

Mobile phones have been increasingly used in the past decade and have become a cultural instrument. There is a great concern over the harmful effects of electromagnetic and radiofrequency waves as well as microwaves generated by mobile phones and their telecommunication stations on health. The saliva plays an important role in preserving oral homeostasis as the first defensive line against the microbial invasion which protects oral mucosa mechanically and immunologically. A search was run in Pub med, Goggle Scholar, Medline, and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: cell phone, mobile phone, antioxidant profile, saliva, oxidative stress, interleukin, and inflammation. Sixty-five published articles were identified. Studies on the use of cell phones as educational aids, the use of immune histochemistry on salivary glands, or the evaluation of saliva in individuals with specific conditions, such as the use of orthodontic brackets, were excluded. In addition, duplicate articles are eliminated, and finally, 14 articles were included in the present study. Nowadays mobile phone is very popular, causing concern about the effect it has on people's health. Parotid salivary glands are in close contact with a cell phone while talking with the phone and the possibility of being affected by them; so this study was designed to investigate the effect of cell phone use on salivary components.


Excerpt

The above studies show that using cell phones affects the antioxidative system, immune system, and inflammatory system of saliva. Although to date, no specific medical condition has been attributed to these changes, decreasing the frequency and duration of cellphone use is advisable.

Thus, based on these findings, it is recommended that a long-term/or excessive use of mobile phones, especially by young individuals, should be avoided. This goal can be accomplished by telehealth technology promotion activities targeting the more sensitive ages, children, and adolescents since their developing brains absorb more EMR from a mobile phone. Such activities include group discussions, public presentations, and mass communication through available electronic and print media sources.

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Occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (review)


Rianne Stam. Occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Ind Health. 2021 Nov 16. doi: 10.2486/indhealth.2021-0129.

Abstract

High exposures to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) are possible in workplaces involving sources used for broadcasting, telecommunication, security and identification, remote sensing and the heating and drying of goods. A systematic literature review of occupational RF EMF exposure measurements could help to clarify where more attention to occupational safety may be needed. This review identifies specific sources of occupational RF EMF exposure and compares the published maximum exposures to occupational exposure limits. A systematic search for peer-reviewed publications was conducted via PubMed and Scopus. Relevant grey literature was collected via web searches. For each publication, the highest measured electric field strength, magnetic flux density or power density was extracted. Maximum exposures exceeding the limits were reported for dielectric heating, scanners for security and radiofrequency identification, plasma devices and broadcasting and telecommunication transmitters. Occupational exposure exceeding the limits was rare for microwave heating and radar applications. Some publications concerned case studies of occupational accidents followed by a medical investigation of thermal health effects. These were found for broadcasting antennas, radar installations and a microwave oven and often involved maintenance personnel. New sources of occupational exposure such as those in fifth generation telecommunication systems or energy transition will require further assessment.


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Magnetic Field-Induced Interactions between Phones Containing Magnets and Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices - Flip it to be Safe?

Lacour P, Dang PL, Heinzel FR, Parwani AS, Bähr F, Kucher A, Hohendanner F, Niendorf T, Rahimi F, Saha N, Han H, Rubarth K, Sherif M, Boldt LH, Pieske B, Blaschke F. Magnetic Field-Induced Interactions between Phones Containing Magnets and Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices - Flip it to be Safe? Heart Rhythm. 2021 Nov 9:S1547-5271(21)02334-1. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.11.010.

Abstract

Background: Recent case reports and small studies have reported activation of the magnet-sensitive switches in cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) by the new iPhone 12 series, initiating asynchronous pacing in pacemakers and suspension of anti-tachycardia therapies in ICDs.

Objective and methods: We performed a prospective single-center observational study to quantify the risk of magnetic field interactions of the iPhone 12 with CIEDs. A representative model of each CIED series from all manufacturers was tested ex vivo. Incidence and minimum distance necessary for magnet mode triggering were analyzed in 164 CIED patients with either the front or the back of the phone facing the device. The magnetic field of the iPhone 12 was analyzed using a 3-axis hall probe.

Results: Ex vivo, magnetic interferences occurred in 84.6% with the back compared to 46.2% with the front of the iPhone 12 facing the CIED. In vivo, activation of the magnet-sensitive switch occurred in 30 CIED patients (18.3%; 21 pacemaker, 9 ICDs) when the iPhone 12 was placed in close proximity over the CIED pocket and the back of the phone was facing the skin. Multiple binary logistic regression analysis identified the implantation depth (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02 to 0.24) as independent predictor of magnet-sensitive switch activation.

Conclusion: Magnetic field interactions occur only in close proximity, and with precise alignment of the iPhone 12 and CIEDs. It is important to advise CIED patients to not put the iPhone 12 directly on the skin above the CIED. Further recommendations are not necessary.


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Compact Exposimeter Device for the Characterization and Recording of Electromagnetic Fields from 78 MHz to 6 GHz with Several Narrow Bands (300 kHz)

Marco Xavier Rivera González, Nazario Félix González, Isabel López, Juan Sebastián Ochoa Zambrano, Andrés Miranda Martínez, Ceferino Maestú Unturbe.  Compact Exposimeter Device for the Characterization and Recording of Electromagnetic Fields from 78 MHz to 6 GHz with Several Narrow Bands (300 kHz). Sensors (Basel). 2021 Nov 7;21(21):7395. doi: 10.3390/s21217395.

Abstract

A novel compact device with spectrum analyzer characteristics has been designed, which allows the measuring of the maximum power received in multiple narrow frequency bands of 300 kHz, recording the entire spectrum from 78 MHz to 6 GHz; the device is capable of measuring the entire communications spectrum and detecting multiple sources of electromagnetic fields using the same communications band. The proposed device permits the evaluation of the cross-talk effect that, in conventional exposimeters, generates a mistake estimation of electromagnetic fields. The device was calibrated in an anechoic chamber for far-fields and was validated against a portable spectrum analyzer in a residential area. A strong correlation between the two devices with a confidence higher than 95% was obtained; indicating that the device could be considered as an important tool for electromagnetic field studies.

Conclusions

A compact exposimeter system has been proposed, which has similar characteristics to a spectrum analyzer, without losing the advantages of conventional exposimeters, and can be a useful tool for electromagnetic field studies analyzing a far-field. The proposed exposimeter measures the received power in the spectrum between 78 MHz and 6 GHz with a resolution bandwidth of 300 KHz, measuring approximately 19,500 narrow bands; the proposed exposimeter has passed the testing phase compared with spectrum analyzers with a significant factor of 0.948 for Student’s t-test and a correlation factor of 0.9682 between the measurements of both devices.

The proposed exposimeter requires one second to measure the entire radioelectric spectrum; therefore, it has less sensitivity to variations in electromagnetic fields. This could be improved by restricting the measurements to the communication bands of interest; however, information from the rest of the radio spectrum is lost. It is important to define the relationship between the communication bands to be measured and the sensitivity to electromagnetic field variations with respect to time.

In future work, it is expected to use several of the proposed devices in electromagnetic field surveys to cover residential areas and provide information as an electromagnetic field sensor network to be used in epidemiological studies in the deployed area.


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Computational modeling investigation of pulsed high peak power microwaves and the potential for traumatic brain injury

Amy M Dagro, Justin W Wilkerson, Thaddeus P Thomas, Benjamin T Kalinosky, Jason A Payne. Computational modeling investigation of pulsed high peak power microwaves and the potential for traumatic brain injury. Sci Adv. 2021 Oct 29;7(44):eabd8405. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abd8405.

Amy Dagro and Thaddeus Thomas are with the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; Benjamin Kalinosky is with General Dynamics Information Technology, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX; and Jason Payne is with U.S, Air Force Research Laboratory, 711th Human Performance Wing, Airman Systems Directorate, Bioeffects Division, Radio Frequency Bioeffects Branch, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX.

Abstract

When considering safety standards for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave energy, the dominant concerns pertain to a thermal effect. However, in the case of high-power pulsed RF/microwave energy, a rapid thermal expansion can lead to stress waves within the body. In this study, a computational model is used to estimate the temperature profile in the human brain resulting from exposure to various RF/microwave incident field parameters. The temperatures are subsequently used to simulate the resulting mechanical response of the brain. Our simulations show that, for certain extremely high-power microwave exposures (permissible by current safety standards), very high stresses may occur within the brain that may have implications for neuropathological effects. Although the required power densities are orders of magnitude larger than most real-world exposure conditions, they can be achieved with devices meant to emit high-power electromagnetic pulses in military and research applications.

Excerpts

"The bulk of scientific literature uses continuous waves and moderate field strengths (typical of real-life scenarios), with less emphasis on pulsed fields of very high peak strength that may occur with ultrawideband pulse generators or EM pulse simulators (4). It is worth investigating whether extremely high peak power sources applied with a slow repetition frequency, or low duty cycle, can induce injurious effects without thermal buildup greater than a few degrees Celsius."

"With the exception of low intracranial absorption at 1400 MHz, the highest ratio of peak average intracranial SAR* to peak average skin SAR* occurs between 1 to 1.8 GHz."

"The MAE, also referred to as “microwave hearing” or the “Frey effect” due to its discovery by Allan Frey in 1961 (7, 8), was initially observed when subjects standing up to hundreds of feet away from a radar transponder could hear an audible tonal noise (e.g., chirping, buzzing, or clicking). The scientific underpinnings of the MAE were controversial for the first several years (9–11). After more than a decade of investigations, it became generally accepted that the perceived sound is due to the cochlea detecting stress waves that result from a rapid temperature rise in tissues within the head due to pulsed RF/microwave exposure (11, 12)."

"Typically, relatively low-average powers and small temperature changes (10−6°C) are required to elicit the MAE (12). Although adverse health effects from the MAE have not been previously established, one study on rodents suggests that very high–peak power pulsed microwaves can result in cognitive deficits (13)."

"This study uses a two-simulation approach to investigate whether an HPM source could theoretically induce adverse mechanical responses within the brain."

"This study has shown that, by applying a small temperature increase (<0.0005°C) in a very short amount of time (less than several microseconds), potentially injurious stress waves are created."

"For frequencies between 400 MHz to 2 GHz, the IEEE C95.1 RF exposure guidelines limit the exposure reference limit (ERL) to fmhz/200 (W/m2) over an averaging time of 30 min. For 1-GHz exposures, the IEEE C95.1 ERL of 5 W/m2 over 30 min would equate to an average energy density of 9000 J/m2. Our computational model shows that, for sufficiently high incident power densities, a single pulse could potentially result in biologically meaningful pressures. For example, large pressures may occur following 1-GHz frequency, a pulse duration of 5 μs, and incident power densities of at least 1.5 × 107 W/m2. The energy density associated with such a pulse would be equal to PIN×τd or 75 J/m2 (significantly less than the ERL standard)."

" Note that the proposed HPM power densities in this study are extremely large and several orders of magnitude larger than power densities typically experienced by the public. As an illustrative example, at around 200 feet from a cell phone base station, a person will be exposed to a power density of only 0.001 mW/cm2 or less (36). This study establishes a testable hypothesis between potential neurocognitive effects and the thermoelastic mechanism from HPM systems. To date, however, adverse effects from HPM systems have not been established in the scientific literature."


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Assessment of Human Exposure in Iasi-City using Data Provided by the (Romanian) National Autonomous RF-EMF Monitoring System

M. Ursachianu, O. Bejenaru, C. Lazarescu, A. Salceanu and M. Paulet. The Assessment of Human Exposure in Iasi-City using Data Provided by The National Autonomous RF-EMF Monitoring System throughout 2020. 2021 International Conference on Electromechanical and Energy Systems (SIELMEN), 2021, pp. 225-230, doi: 10.1109/SIELMEN53755.2021.9600350.

Abstract

In the last decades, we are all witnessed to an explosive increase and development of applications that integrate the electromagnetic environment in our day-by-day life. The principal and delicate problem of the human exposure to a various types of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources is very challenging and up to date one, being considered to have a higher level of importance especially from the safety point of view. The population has always been reluctant and ambiguous about the introduction of new technologies, like the actual case of the implementation around the world of the new 5G NR mobile communications technology for example. For that, the responsible authorities from different countries must conduct studies to ensure and to track the fact that the exposure at new technology is safe or not. So, that being said, the process of monitoring the EMF produce by a diversity of different sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) should be a priority in our days. In the study presented in this paper, using the National Autonomous Broadband EMF Monitoring System, a continuous 24/365(hours/days) monitoring system, we analyze real-time monitoring data for all months of the year 2020 for all EMF monitoring fixed station installed at that time in Iasi-city giving a special attention for the last month of the year, December 2020. It was made also an analysis and comparison off the measured data with those imposed by international organizations and national regulatory bodies. At the final a set of preliminary conclusions have been taken.


Conclusions

Evaluation the levels of the electromagnetic fields generated by a diversity of communication systems and other sources of RF-EMFs should be a priority in our days. An Autonomous Continuous and Intelligent Broadband EMF monitoring system with multiband frequency sensors represent an important step in this area. The network of tri-axials sensors from EMF monitoring system measures the total levels of electromagnetic field from all surrounding sources and can also do a real-time measure of the assessment results to the public.

The continuous monitoring of the electromagnetic field is very important to realize to reassure the population who is in an area of ambiguity regarding the exposure to electromagnetic radiation generated by various sources of radio frequency electromagnetic fields in our country. The exposure to RF-EMFs is an actual problem of concern for many people in nowadays and should be a priority area of investigation, especially regarding the emergence of new communication technologies, like 5G NR.

The present study offers an insight view into the EMF exposure levels recorded by the national EMF real-time monitoring system, for a full month of the year 2020. The results of our analysis indicate that the exposure levels to radio electromagnetic fields are much more below the reference levels values adopted by the national legislation for population.

The E-field values of different transmitters may vary over the time. In the case of base stations of cellular mobile services, the transmitted power depends highly on the actual traffic load and user behavior. During a monitoring of 24h the electric field values was well below the limits. Traffic load may also depend on the time of the day, day of the week, and even in season as we will see in a future study. Monitoring the E-Field values from mobile base station antenna may also depend on the distance from the source.

An EMF monitoring station with a tri-axial electric field probe who can measured the electric field in a broadband frequency range like one of those used in the national EMF monitoring system could be also use for providing a good assessment of human exposure to EMF generated by new types of mobile communication services. 5G NR (NR – New Radio).

Further research can be directed on the study of EMF monitoring values in case of extending the evaluation study over more EMF monitoring stations from different cities of the country, eventually for a long period of time, in order to obtain a better assess of the coverage and the temporal evolution over the problem of the exposure to different electromagnetic field sources.

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5G Base Station Deployment Review for RF Radiation

M. S. Elbasheir, R. A. Saeed, S. Edam. 5G Base Station Deployment Review for RF Radiation. 2021 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC), 2021, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/ISNCC52172.2021.9615689.

Abstract

The 5G is expected to make great change for Mobile network and technology in the coming years. there is extensive discussion about the electromagnetic radiation that the 5G will contribute and its impact to the human and other technologies. The aggressive deployment of the technology associated with the new massive Internet of Things (IoT) devices, all are indicator to the great electromagnetic radiation and exposure that 5G may cause. This problem considered as a challenge constrain for deployment of massive 5G base stations especially in residential areas. This paper reviews the recent works on the Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) radiation assessment for 5G base stations (BS) on human evaluation and analysis from different perspectives. The review covers the international standard exposure limits adopted by some of the regulatory bodies. The reviewed cases are classified into two main categories, assessment based on model simulation, and on field measurement, where both categories have the same objective to assess and evaluate the EMF radiation exposure from BSs.

Conclusions

EMF exposure has increasingly earned attention in the community and media. Recently the 5G has been proposed to be deployed under the 3GPP released 18. One of the main challenges for 5G deployment is the EMF exposure, especially when accumulated with the other deployed technologies i.e., 4G, 3G and low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies. This paper reviewed the EMF radiation assessment from 5G BSs, where we reviewed some recent related work recently done through measurement and simulations. Various results were discussed, analyzed and compared with the regulation bodies like ICNIRP and FCC. there are many EMF assessment methodologies and techniques were presented and discussed. Most of the recommendations were to conduct more investigations with different perspectives, parameters, assumptions and scenarios


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Magnetite Particle Presence in the Human Brain: A Computational Dosimetric Study to Emphasize the Need of a Complete Assessment of the Electromagnetic Power Deposition at 3.5 GHz

D. Vatamanu, S. Miclaus. Magnetite Particle Presence in the Human Brain: A Computational Dosimetric Study to Emphasize the Need of a Complete Assessment of the Electromagnetic Power Deposition at 3.5 GHz. Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., 11(5): 7720–7729, Oct. 2021.

Abstract

The growing evidence of increased magnetite nanoparticles (both endo- and exo-genic) in the human brain raises the importance of assessing the entire power deposition when electromagnetic waves at GHz frequencies propagate in such tissues. This frequency range corresponds to many popular portable communication devices that emit radiation close to a human's head. At these frequencies, the current dosimetric numerical codes can not accurately compute the magnetic losses part. This is due to the lack of an implemented computational algorithm based on solving the coupled Maxwell and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations, in the case of magneto-dielectrics, considering eddy currents losses and specific properties of magnetic sub-millimetric particles. This paper focuses on analyzing the limits and the inconsistencies when using commercial dosimetric numerical software to analyze the total absorbed power in brain models having ferrimagnetic content and being exposed to 3.5GHz electromagnetic waves. Magnetic losses computed using Polder’s permeability tensor as constitutive relation lead to unreliable results. However, using such software can provide a preliminary view of the electromagnetic impact of ultra- and super-high frequencies on magnetic-dielectric tissues.


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1,800 MHz RF Electromagnetic Irradiation Impairs Neurite Outgrowth With a Decrease in Rap1-GTP in Primary Mouse Hippocampal Neurons and Neuro2a Cells

Li Yanqi, Deng Ping, Chen Chunhai, Ma Qinlong, Pi Huifeng, He Mindi, Lu Yonghui, Gao Peng, Zhou Chao, He Zhixin, Zhang Yanwen, Yu Zhengping, Zhang Lei. 1,800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Irradiation Impairs Neurite Outgrowth With a Decrease in Rap1-GTP in Primary Mouse Hippocampal Neurons and Neuro2a Cells. Frontiers in Public Health. Vol. 9:1854. 2021. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.771508    

Abstract

Background: With the global popularity of communication devices such as mobile phones, there are increasing concerns regarding the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the brain, one of the most important organs sensitive to RF-EMR exposure at 1,800 MHz. However, the effects of RF-EMR exposure on neuronal cells are unclear. Neurite outgrowth plays a critical role in brain development, therefore, determining the effects of 1,800 MHz RF-EMR exposure on neurite outgrowth is important for exploring its effects on brain development.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the effects of 1,800 MHz RF-EMR exposure for 48 h on neurite outgrowth in neuronal cells and to explore the associated role of the Rap1 signaling pathway.

Material and Methods: Primary hippocampal neurons from C57BL/6 mice and Neuro2a cells were exposed to 1,800 MHz RF-EMR at a specific absorption rate (SAR) value of 4 W/kg for 48 h. CCK-8 assays were used to determine the cell viability after 24, 48, and 72 h of irradiation. Neurite outgrowth of primary hippocampal neurons (DIV 2) and Neuro2a cells was observed with a 20 × optical microscope and recognized by ImageJ software. Rap1a and Rap1b gene expressions were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Rap1, Rap1a, Rap1b, Rap1GAP, and p-MEK1/2 protein expressions were detected by western blot. Rap1-GTP expression was detected by immunoprecipitation. The role of Rap1-GTP was assessed by transfecting a constitutively active mutant plasmid (Rap1-Gly_Val-GFP) into Neuro2a cells.

Results: Exposure to 1,800 MHz RF-EMR for 24, 48, and 72 h at 4 W/kg did not influence cell viability. The neurite length, primary and secondary neurite numbers, and branch points of primary mouse hippocampal neurons were significantly impaired by 48-h RF-EMR exposure. The neurite-bearing cell percentage and neurite length of Neuro2a cells were also inhibited by 48-h RF-EMR exposure. Rap1 activity was inhibited by 48-h RF-EMR with no detectable alteration in either gene or protein expression of Rap1. The protein expression of Rap1GAP increased after 48-h RF-EMR exposure, while the expression of p-MEK1/2 protein decreased. Overexpression of constitutively active Rap1 reversed the decrease in Rap1-GTP and the neurite outgrowth impairment in Neuro2a cells induced by 1,800 MHz RF-EMR exposure for 48 h.

Conclusion: Rap1 activity and related signaling pathways are involved in the disturbance of neurite outgrowth induced by 48-h 1,800 MHz RF-EMR exposure. The effects of RF-EMR exposure on neuronal development in infants and children deserve greater focus.


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Solar and geomagnetic activity enhance the effects of air pollutants on atrial fibrillation

Zilli Vieira CL, Link MS, Garshick E, Peralta AA, Luttmann-Gibson H, Laden F, Liu M, Gold DR, Koutrakis P. Solar and geomagnetic activity enhance the effects of air pollutants on atrial fibrillation. Europace. 2021 Nov 13:euab269. doi: 10.1093/europace/euab269.

Abstract

Aims: Cardiac arrhythmias have been associated with intense solar and geomagnetic activity (SGA) and exposures to air pollution.

Methods: We examined whether oscillations of SGA can modify the effect of hourly exposures to air pollutants on atrial fibrillation ≥30 s (AF) risk in patients with dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. The effects of SGA on ambient particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (PN), and associations with AF were assessed. Measures of SGA included solar wind proton density (SW), total interplanetary magnetic field strength (IMF), and Kp index, a measure of global geomagnetic activity.

Results: Overall time lags between 0 and 24 h, periods of increased SGA (>50th percentile in IMF, SW, and Kp index) enhanced the effects of all three air pollutants on AF, while during periods of reduced SGA the associations were considerably weaker or absent. During periods of intense SW 6 h prior to an AF event, the odds ratio (OR) for PM2.5 exposure per interquartile range (IQR) of 5.6 µg/m3 was 1.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.3, P = 0.0001]. For periods of reduced SW, the OR for PM2.5 exposure per IQR was 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.5; P = 0.27). There were similar effects for PN and BC exposures. In patients with multiple AF events per hour, the associations with air pollutants during intense SGA were even greater.

Conclusion: The effects of air pollutants up to 24 h before AF events were enhanced during periods of increased SGA. Our results suggest that these effects may account for variation in AF risk.


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Human resting-state EEG and radiofrequency GSM mobile phone exposure: The impact of the individual alpha frequency


Jasmina Wallace, Lydia Yahia-Cherif, Christophe Gitton, Laurent Hugueville, Jean-Didier Lemaréchal, Brahim Selmaoui. Human resting-state EEG and radiofrequency GSM mobile phone exposure: The impact of the individual alpha frequency. Int J Radiat Biol. 2021 Nov 19;1-29. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2021.2009146.

Abstract

Purpose. With the extensive use of mobile phone (MP) several studies have been realized to investigate the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure on brain activity at rest via electroencephalography (EEG), and the most consistent effect has been seen on the alpha band power spectral density (PSD). However, some studies reported an increase or a decrease of the PSD, while others showed no effect. It has been suggested that these differences might partly be due to a variability of the physiological state of the brain between subjects. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the alpha band modulation, exploring the impact of the alpha band frequency ranges applied in the PSD analysis.

Materials & Methods. Twenty-one healthy volunteers took part in the study with a double-blind, randomized and counterbalanced crossover design, during which eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) resting-state EEG was recorded. The exposure system was a sham or a real GSM (global system for mobile) 900 MHz MP (pulse modulated at 217 Hz, mean power of 250 mW and 2 W peak, with a maximum specific absorption rate of 0.70 W/kg on 1 g tissue). The experimental protocol presented a baseline recording phase without MP exposure, an exposure phase during which the exposure system was placed against the left ear, and the post-exposure phase without MP. EEG data from baseline and exposure phases were analyzed and PSD was computed for the alpha band in the fixed range of 8-12 Hz and for the individual alpha band frequency range (IAF).

Results. Results showed a trend in decrease or increase of EEG power of both alpha oscillations during exposure in relation to EC and EO recording conditions, respectively, but not reaching statistical significance. Findings did not provide evidence for a different sensitivity to RF-EMF MP related to individual variability in the frequency of the alpha band.

Conclusion. In conclusion, these results did not show alpha band activity modulation during resting-state under RF-EMF. It might be argued the need of a delay after the exposure in order to appreciate an EEG spectral power modulation related to RF-EMF exposure.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34797205/

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The effects of radiofrequency exposure on male fertility and adverse reproductive outcomes: A protocol for two systematic reviews of human observational studies with meta-analysis

Ryan P.W. Kenny, Evelyn Barron Millar, Adenike Adesanya, Catherine Richmond, Fiona Beyer, Carolina Calderon, Judith Rankin, Mireille Toledano, Maria Feychting, Mark S Pearce, Dawn Craig, Fiona Pearson. The effects of radiofrequency exposure on male fertility and adverse reproductive outcomes: A protocol for two systematic reviews of human observational studies with meta-analysis. Environment International. 158, 2022, 106968. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106968.

Abstract

Background  The World Health Organization (WHO) is bringing together evidence on radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in relation to health outcomes, previously identified as priorities for evaluation by experts in the field, to inform exposure guidelines. A suite of systematic reviews are being undertaken by a network of topic experts and methodologists in order to collect, assess and synthesise data relevant to these guidelines. Here, we present the protocol for the systematic review on the effect of exposure to RF on adverse reproductive outcomes (human observational studies), also referred to as Systematic Review (SR) 3 within the series of systematic reviews currently being commissioned.

Objectives  Following the WHO handbook for guideline development and the COSTER conduct guidelines, we will systematically review the effect of RF-EMF exposure on both male fertility (SR3A) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (SR3B) in human observational studies. Herein we adhere to the PRISMA-P reporting guidelines.

Data sources  We will conduct a broad search for potentially relevant records relevant for both reviews within the following bibliographic databases: MEDLINE; Embase; and EMF Portal. We will also conduct searches of grey literature through relevant databases and organisational websites. RF-EMF experts will also be consulted. We will hand search citation and reference lists of included study records.

Study eligibility criteria  We will include quantitative human observational studies on the effect of RF-EMF exposure: (in SR3A) in adult male participants on infertility, sperm morphology, concentration or total sperm count or motility; and (in SR3B) in preconception adults or pregnant women on preterm birth, small for gestational age (associated with intrauterine growth restriction), miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital anomalies.

Study appraisal and synthesis methods  Titles, abstracts and then full texts will be screened in blinded duplicate against eligibility criteria with input from a third reviewer as required. Data extraction from included studies will be completed by two reviewers as will risk of bias assessment using the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) tool. If appropriate we will undertake meta-analysis to pool effect measures and explore heterogeneity using sub-group analyses or meta-regression as feasible. We will conduct sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of any assumptions made throughout the review process. The OHAT methodology, based on the GRADE guidelines for evidence assessment, will be used to evaluate the certainty of evidence per outcome and to conclude the level of evidence of a health effect.

Conclusion  This manuscript details the protocols for two systematic reviews. The aims of publishing details of both protocols are to: pre-specify their scope and methods; reduce the impact of reviewer bias; promote transparency and replicability; and improve the review process.

Prospero registration CRD42021265401 (SR3A), CRD42021266268 (SR3B).

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021005936

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The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields exposure on human self-reported symptoms: A protocol for a systematic review of human experimental studies

Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Ekpereonne Esu, Stefan Dongus, Chioma Moses Oringanje, Hamed Jalilian, John Eyers, Gunnhild Oftedal, Martin Meremikwu, Martin Röösli. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields exposure on human self-reported symptoms: A protocol for a systematic review of human experimental studies. Environment International. 158,
2022, 106953. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106953.

Abstract

Background  The technological applications of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been steadily increasing since the 1950s across multiple sectors exposing large proportions of the population. This fact has raised concerns related to the potential consequences to people’s health. The World Health Organization (WHO) is assessing the potential health effects of exposure to RF-EMF and has carried out an international survey amongst experts, who have identified six priority topics to be further addressed through systematic reviews, whereof the effects on symptoms is one of them. We report here the systematic review protocol of experimental studies in humans assessing the effects of RF-EMF on symptoms.

Objective  Our objectives are to assess the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (compared to no or lower exposure levels) on symptoms in human subjects. We will also assess the accuracy of perception of presence of exposure in volunteers with and without idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF).

Eligibility criteria  We will search relevant literature sources (e.g. the Web of Science, Medline, Embase, Epistemonikos) for randomized trials (comparing at least two arms) and randomised crossover trials of RF-EMF exposure that have assessed the effects on symptoms. We will also include studies that have measured the accuracy of the perception of the presence or absence of exposure. We will include studies in any language.

Study appraisal and synthesis  Studies will be assessed against inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Data on study characteristics, participants, exposure, comparators and effects will be extracted using a specific template for this review, by two independent reviewers. Discrepancies will be solved by consensus. Risk of bias (ROB) will be assessed using the ROB Rating Tool for Human and Animal Studies and the level of confidence in the evidence of the exposure-outcome relations will be assessed using the GRADE approach. For the perception studies, we will use adapted versions of the ROB tool and GRADE assessment. Where appropriate, data will be combined using meta-analytical techniques.

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The effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on biomarkers of oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro: A protocol for a systematic review

Bernd Henschenmacher, Annette Bitsch, Tonia de las Heras Gala, Henry Jay Forman, Athanassios Fragoulis, Pietro Ghezzi, Rupert Kellner, Wolfgang Koch, Jens Kuhne, Dmitrij Sachno, Gernot Schmid, Katya Tsaioun, Jos Verbeek, Robert Wright. The effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on biomarkers of oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro: A protocol for a systematic review. Environment International. 158, 2022, 106932. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106932.

Abstract

Background  Oxidative stress is conjectured to be related to many diseases. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that radiofrequency fields may induce oxidative stress in various cell types and thereby compromise human and animal health. This systematic review (SR) aims to summarize and evaluate the literature related to this hypothesis.

Objectives  The main objective of this SR is to evaluate the associations between the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and oxidative stress in experimental models (in vivo and in vitro).

Methods  The SR framework has been developed following the guidelines established in the WHO Handbook for Guideline Development and the Handbook for Conducting a Literature-Based Health Assessment). We will include controlled in vivo and in vitro laboratory studies that assess the effects of an exposure to RF-EMF on valid markers for oxidative stress compared to no or sham exposure. The protocol is registered in PROSPERO.

We will search the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, Scopus, and the EMF-Portal. The reference lists of included studies and retrieved review articles will also be manually searched.

Study appraisal and synthesis method  Data will be extracted according to a pre-defined set of forms developed in the DistillerSR online software and synthesized in a meta-analysis when studies are judged sufficiently similar to be combined. If a meta-analysis is not possible, we will describe the effects of the exposure in a narrative way.

Risk of bias  The risk of bias will be assessed with the NTP/OHAT risk of bias rating tool for human and animal studies.

We will use GRADE to assess the certainty of the conclusions (high, moderate, low, or inadequate) regarding the association between radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and oxidative stress.

Funding  This work was funded by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Registration  The protocol was registered on the PROSPERO webpage on July 8, 2021.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021005572

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The toxic effect of mobile phone radiation on rabbit organs

Shudong Zhu, Yan Zhu, Hao Li, Doudou Zhang, Dianzheng Zhang. The toxic effect of mobile phone radiation on rabbit organs. All Life. 252-258. 19 May 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/26895293.2020.1763481

Abstract

Whether electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted from mobile phones is hazardous to human health is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on critical organs in a rabbit model by exposing the animals to mobile phone radiation with sub-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.0 and 0.7 W/kg for the head and the body, respectively, for 16 weeks (6 h/day, 6 days/week). There is no apparent change at the organ level. However, H&E staining showed that radiation-exposure significantly increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver and the lungs with a lesser degree of myocardial cell cytoplasmic vacuolation. In addition, results from γ-H2AX staining suggest that radiation can also cause DNA damage in the brain. Of note, no apparent activation of Caspase-3 in the organs examined. Our data altogether suggest that mobile phone radiation may be more hazardous to both the liver and the lungs, and less toxic to the brain and heart.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/26895293.2020.1763481

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Does exposure to radiation emitted from mobile jammers influence spatial memory?

A. Shahi, F. Shahnazar, S. Nematolahi, A. Dehghan, M.B. Shojaeifard. Does exposure to radiation emitted from mobile jammers influence the spatial memory? Int J Radiat Res 2021, 19(4): 993-1000.

Abstract

Background: The central nervous system is sensitive to radiation exposure as environmental pollution. This project aimed to evaluate the influence of jammer exposure radiation on spatial learning and memory.

Materials and Methods: 50 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The experimental groups were exposed to jammer radiation for 2h/day once or 2h/day for two weeks. Sham groups were similar to the experimental groups which were exposed to switch-off. The distance from the jammer router to the animals’ cages was 30 cm. In the second phase, using Morris Water Maze, the effect of jammer exposure radiation on spatial learning and memory was studied.

Results: Data showed that radiation exposure once a day for 2h caused a significant increase in the learning procedure in the experimental group1, but we observed an increase in the parameters of distance and escape latency in finding the platform for two weeks' exposure in the experimental group 2.

Conclusion: Results indicated that probably the motivation of escape and use of the different cues led to learning in the animals, while disrupting mobile performance through jammer router from animal environment caused a better brain performance in the spatial learning and memory in short term jammer radiation-treated animals group. However, with the same test conditions, in long term jammer the radiation-treated animals’ motivation reduced, which affected the responses and performance and reduced the learning. Moreover, environmental conflicts such as radiofrequency waves lead to behavioral alternations.

Exposure set up

The animals were placed in Plexiglas cages individually and exposed to radiation. The electromagnetic field measurements were done using an Aaronia Spectran HF-4060 device (Euscheid, Germany) with the frequency range 100 MHz -6 GHz. The frequency band, power output, and power density measured from electromagnetic fields of Jammer router were 1052-1979(MHz), -32±3 (dB mw), 86.18000 (μw/m2), and ICNIRP 0.31(%) respectively. Jammer router (MB06Mobile Blocker) works in four different frequency ranges (Global System for Mobile Communications [GSM], digital cellular service, code division multiple access, third generation). Shielding radii for this jammer are up to 40m.


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Electromagnetic field exposure-induced depression features could be alleviated by heat acclimation based on remodeling the gut microbiota

Luo X, Huang X, Luo Z, Wang Z, He G, Tan Y, Zhang B, Zhou H, Li P, Shen T, Yu X, Yang X. Electromagnetic field exposure-induced depression features could be alleviated by heat acclimation based on remodeling the gut microbiota. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2021 Nov 15;228:112980. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112980.

Highlights
• EMF exposure induced depression features.
• EMF cause gut microbiota and metabolites disturbance similar to depression model.
• HA alleviated depression caused by EMF.
• HA alleviated depression by gut microbiota, might be mechanism of cross-tolerance.

Abstract

Background: Electromagnetic pollution cannot be ignored. Long-term low-dose electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure can cause central nervous system dysfunction without effective prevention.

Materials/methods: Male C57BL/6J mice (6-8 weeks, 17-20 g) were used in this study. Depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors detected by behavioral experiments were compared among different treatments. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics were used to explore the relationship between EMF exposure and heat acclimation (HA) effects on gut microbes and serum metabolites.

Results: Both EMF and HA regulated the proportions of p_Firmicutes and p_Bacteroidota. EMF exposure caused the proportions of 6 kinds of bacteria, such as g_Butyricicoccus and g_Anaerotruncus, to change significantly (p < 0.05). HA restored the balance of gut microbes that was affected by EMF exposure and the proportion of probiotics (g_Lactobacillus) increased significantly (p < 0.01). Serum metabolite analysis suggested that HA alleviated the disturbance of serum metabolites (such as cholesterol and D-mannose) induced by EMF exposure. Both the metabolic KEGG pathways and PICRUSt functional analysis demonstrated that tryptophan metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis were involved.

Conclusions: EMF exposure not only led to depression-like neurobehavioral disorders, but also to gut microbiota imbalance. HA alleviated the depression features caused by EMF exposure. Based on the analysis of gut microbiota associated with serum metabolites, we speculated that gut microbiota might play a vital role in the cross-tolerance provided by HA.


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The effects of different herbals on the rat hippocampus exposed to electromagnetic field for one hour during the prenatal period

Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Süleyman Kaplan. The effects of different herbals on the rat hippocampus exposed to electromagnetic field for one hour during the prenatal period. J Chem Neuroanat. 2021 Nov 19;102043. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.102043.

Highlights
• 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure can cause adverse effects on the hippocampus.
• Garcinia kola, Momordica charantia, thymoquinone may reduce deleterious effects of electromagnetic field.
• It was revealed that the protective effect of Momordica charantia is stronger than other antioxidant substances used in the present study.

Note: Momordica charantia is commonly called bitter melon.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to highlight the possible effects on the hippocampus of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phones, and to investigate whether these potential effects can be reduced using various antioxidant substances. Twenty-seven female Wistar albino rats were divided into nine equal groups, each containing three pregnant rats aged 8-10 weeks and weighing 200-250 gr. The EMF groups were exposed to 900 Megahertz (MHz) EMF for 1hour (hr) a day for 21 days. No EMF exposure was applied to the Cont and also the groups given only Garcinia kola (GK), Momordica charantia (MC), and thymoquinone (TQ). The Sham group was kept in the polycarbonate EMF exposure system, but was not exposed to EMF. Four weeks after birth, rat pups were subjected to behavioural tests. Brain tissue samples were evaluated using histological, stereological, functional, and immunohistochemical methods. The numbers of pyramidal neurons in the rat cornu ammonis (CA) were determined using the optical fractionator method. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities in the blood samples were also evaluated. The analysis data indicated that total pyramidal neuron numbers were decreased significantly in the CA of the EMF (1hr) group (p<0.01). Our results also showed that the protective effect of MC was more potent than that of the other antioxidant substances (p<0.01). A 900MHz EMF can cause deleterious changes in the brain. It can also be suggested that GK, MC and TQ are capable of reducing these adverse effects.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34808256/

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Environmental factors and risks of cognitive impairment and dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Yong-Li Zhao, Yi Qu, Ya-Nan Ou, Ya-Ru Zhang, Lan Tan, Jin-Tai Yu. Environmental factors and risks of cognitive impairment and dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Res Rev. 2021 Oct 29;72:101504. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101504.

Highlights
• Air pollution, tobacco smoke and pesticides could elevate the risks of dementia.
• Exposure to electromagnetic fields was found positive associated with dementia.
• Solvents and aluminum were found hazard for dementia, while silicon might be benefit.
• Living in rural area and more deprived neighborhood were adverse for dementia.
• Residential greenness and social contacts were proposed as beneficial factors.

Abstract

Background: Dementia is a challenging neurodegenerative disease. This systematic review aimed to summarize natural, physical, and social environmental factors that are associated with age-related cognitive impairment and dementia.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsychINFO till January 11, 2021 for observational studies. The hazard ratio (HR), relative risk (RR), and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were aggregated using random-effects methods. The quality of evidence for each association was evaluated.

Results: Of the 48,399 publications identified, there were 185 suitable for review across 44 environmental factors. Meta-analyses were performed for 22 factors. With high-to-moderate quality of evidence, risks were suggested in exposure to PM2.5 (HR=1.24, 95%CI: 1.17-1.31), NO2 (HR=1.07, 95%CI: 1.02-1.12), aluminum (OR=1.35, 95%CI: 1.14-1.59), solvents (OR=1.14, 95%CI: 1.07-1.22), road proximity (OR=1.08, 95%CI: 1.04-1.12) and other air pollution, yet more frequent social contact (HR=0.82, 95%CI: 0.76-0.90) and more greenness (OR=0.97, 95%CI: 0.95-0.995) were protective. With low-to-very low quality, electromagnetic fields, pesticides, SO2, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and rural living were suggested risks, but more community cultural engagement might be protective. No significant associations were observed in exposure to PM10, NOx, noise, silicon, community group, and temperature. For the remaining 22 factors, only a descriptive analysis was undertaken as too few studies or lack of information.

Conclusions: This review highlights that air pollution, especially PM2.5 and NO2 play important role in the risk for age-related cognitive impairment and dementia.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34755643/

Excerpts

3.2.2. Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) 

From 27 studies, we found electromagnetic fields exposure was associated with dementia (OR=1.27, 95% CI: 1.13–1.43, I2 =76.7%, S- grade, Fig. 3) with low-quality evidence, and among them, 11 were cohort studies and 16 were case-control studies (Appendix Figure 1.7). The result was robust via sensitivity analysis (Appendix Figure 3.8). Moreover, 23 studies focused on the outcome of AD, and 4 focused on VaD. Subgroup analysis displayed a significant association between EMFs with AD, but not with VaD (Fig. 3). In addition, the correlation with AD was observed in both females (OR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.19–4.57, I2 =49.8%) and male (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.21–1.89, I2 =46.4%, Appendix Figure 1.7.4). EMFs Exposure was mostly from occupation according to job-exposure information, and living next to the power line in life was not linked to dementia or AD (Fig. 3).

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The ecology of electricity and electroreception

Sam J. England, Daniel Robert. The ecology of electricity and electroreception. Biological Reviews. 12 October 2021. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12804.

Abstract

Electricity, the interaction between electrically charged objects, is widely known to be fundamental to the functioning of living systems. However, this appreciation has largely been restricted to the scale of atoms, molecules, and cells. By contrast, the role of electricity at the ecological scale has historically been largely neglected, characterised by punctuated islands of research infrequently connected to one another. Recently, however, an understanding of the ubiquity of electrical forces within the natural environment has begun to grow, along with a realisation of the multitude of ecological interactions that these forces may influence. Herein, we provide the first comprehensive collation and synthesis of research in this emerging field of electric ecology. This includes assessments of the role electricity plays in the natural ecology of predator–prey interactions, pollination, and animal dispersal, among many others, as well as the impact of anthropogenic activity on these systems. A detailed introduction to the ecology and physiology of electroreception – the biological detection of ecologically relevant electric fields – is also provided. Further to this, we suggest avenues for future research that show particular promise, most notably those investigating the recently discovered sense of aerial electroreception.

Open access paper: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/brv.12804

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Assessment of Human Exposure (Including Interference to Implantable Devices) to Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field in Modern Microgrids, Power Systems and Electric Transports

Andrea Mariscotti. Assessment of Human Exposure (Including Interference to Implantable Devices) to Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field in Modern Microgrids, Power Systems and Electric Transports. Energies 2021. 14(20): 6789. doi:10.3390/en14206789.

Abstract

Electromagnetic field emissions of modern power systems have increased in complexity if the many power conversion forms by means of power electronics and static converters are considered. In addition, the installed electric power has grown in many everyday applications such as wireless charging of vehicles, home integrated photovoltaic systems, high-performance electrified transportation systems, and so on. Attention must then be shifted to include harmonics and commutation components on one side, as well as closer interaction with humans, that concretizes in impact on physiological functions and interference to implantable medical devices and hearing aids. The panorama is complex in that standards and regulations have also increased significantly or underwent extensive revisions in the last 10 years or so. For assessment, the straightforward application of the limits of exposure is hindered by measurement problems (time or frequency domain methods, positioning errors, impact of uncertainty) and complex scenarios of exposure (multiple sources, large field gradient, time-varying emissions). This work considers thus both the clarification of the principles of interaction for each affected system (including humans) and the discussion of the large set of related normative and technical documents, deriving a picture of requirements and constraints. The methods of assessment are discussed in a metrological perspective using a range of examples.


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On the Power Lines—Electromagnetic Shielding Using Magnetic Steel Laminates

Tatiana Damatopoulou, Spyros Angelopoulos, Christos Christodoulou, Ioannis Gonos, Evangelos Hristoforou and Antonios Kladas. On the Power Lines—Electromagnetic Shielding Using Magnetic Steel Laminates.Energies 2021, 14(21): 7215. 2 November 2021. doi:10.3390/en14217215

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Electrical Measurements Technologies)

Abstract

Protection against the electromagnetic fields around high-voltage transmission lines is an issue of great importance, especially in the case of buildings near power lines. Indeed, the developed fields can be harmful for the habitants and electrical/electronic devices, so the implementation of appropriate measures to address the above electromagnetic interference issue is necessary in order to ensure the safety of both human beings and equipment. Several practices have been proposed to reduce the electric and the magnetic fields around overhead and underground transmission lines (minimum distance, shielded cables, anechoic chamber etc.). In this context, the scope of the current paper is the use of highly permeable magnetic sheets for shielding purposes, along with the development of an appropriate procedure, based on finite element analysis (FEA) for the efficient design of passive shielding. The simulation results are compared with laboratory measurements in order to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methodology. The good agreement between the FEA outcomes and the experimental results confirms that the developed FEA tool can be trustfully used for the design of the shielding means in the case of overhead or underground power lines.


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Influence of Materials, Windows &Shielding Layers on Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Environment of Subway Vehicle & Human Exposure Research

Zhiyuan Wang, Weinan Liu. Influence of Materials, Windows and Shielding Layers on Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Environment of Subway Vehicle and Human Exposure Research. Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, 105:151-160, 2021. doi:10.2528/PIERM21080403.

Abstract

The numerous high-power devices and cables gathered around the subway vehicle will aggravate the deterioration of the electromagnetic environment, which may cause the train to fail to operate normally or threaten the health of passengers with a pacemaker or defibrillator. In order to study the distribution characteristics of low-frequency magnetic field of the subway in complex electromagnetic environment and the influence of various factors on human electromagnetic exposure, the magnetic flux density nephograms of the subway train with different vehicle body materials, with or without windows and with the shielding layer are calculated and analyzed. Specific energy absorption rate (SAR) values have been calculated in a standing voxel model from exposure to electromagnetic fields at 2.4 GHz, frequencies commonly used by Wi-Fi devices. The numerical results show that the average value of magnetic flux density in the stainless-steel carriage is less than that in the aluminum alloy carriage and the carbon fiber reinforce plastic (CFRP) carriage. Compared with the vehicle with windows, the average value of magnetic flux density in the vehicle without windows is less. The added shielding layer decreases the average value of magnetic flux density from 10.5 uT to 3 uT. The maximum value of magnetic flux density in the carriage under different factors is about 10 uT, which is far less than the magnetic flux density reference limit of 0.1 mT of the International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) standard. When the Wi-Fi device is closest to the human body, the highest Specific Absorption Ratio (SAR) value of human tissue is 0.00749 W/kg, which is far less than the electromagnetic exposure limit of 1.6 W/kg of IEEE standard.

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Effectiveness of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Protection from Magnetic Field Exposure During Pregnancy: An Experimental Rat Study

Ugurkan Erkayiran, Tufan Arslanca. Effectiveness of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Protection from Magnetic Field Exposure During Pregnancy: An Experimental Rat Study. Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Nov 2021.

OBJECTIVE: Magnetic fields (MFs) can have several negative effects on the human body. This study aimed to reveal the relationship of adenosine deaminase enzyme (ADA), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and fetal neural degeneration (FND) with the curative effect of omega-3 fatty acids.

STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant Wistar Albino rats (n=30) were separated into 3 groups: Group 1 (sham group), Group 2 (rats exposed to 20 microteslas [μT] for 1 h/day for 10 days), and Group 3 (rats exposed to 20 μT for 4 h/day for 10 days). Blood samples were taken on days 1, 10, and 17 to examine ADA and TSH. Neurodegeneration scores were ana-lyzed with microscopic examination.

RESULTS: FND was determined to be greater in the rats exposed to the long-term MFs as compared to short-term MFs (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in terms of ADA and TSH in the rats that received short- and long-term MF as compared to the sham group (p<0.05). The mean scores were higher in the short- and long-term MF groups than in the sham group (p<0.05). ADA activity was found to be higher and TSH was lower in the short- and long-term MF groups (p<0.05). With the use of omega-3, positive alterations in myelin degeneration were observed in the groups exposed to short- and long-term MF (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: While both ADA and TSH increased in both short- and long-term MF exposure, long-term MFs affected FND more than short-term exposure. Although using omega-3 showed a protective effect on the MF-induced FND, it was only protective against short-term exposure.


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Exposure to 10 Hz Pulsed Magnetic Fields Do Not Induce Cellular Senescence in Human Fetal Lung Fibroblasts

Sun Chuan, Huang Zheng, Qin Houbing, Zhang Jing, Wang Sanying, Xu Xiaogang, Ying Shibo, Mao Genxiang. Exposure to 10 Hz Pulsed Magnetic Fields Do Not Induce Cellular Senescence in Human Fetal Lung Fibroblasts. Frontiers in Public Health. 9:1657. 2021. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.761069.

Abstract

Rapid population aging has led to a global burden of late-life diseases. As the largest risk factor for a multitude of age-related diseases, aging is not only the result of genotype but also closely related to external factors. With the rapid expansion in the usage of electromagnetic fields (EMFs), the effect of EMFs on aging has also attracted attention. Cells are the basic unit of organs and body tissues, and cellular senescence plays an important role in the aging process. The effect of EMFs on cellular senescence has been investigated in a few studies, but the information is limited, and the results are inconsistent; thus, further investigation is required. In this study, we investigated the effect of 10 Hz pulsed magnetic fields (MFs) on cellular senescence in a 2BS cell line, isolated from human fetal lung fibroblasts, and found that intermittent (1 d on/1 d off) exposure to 10 Hz pulsed MFs at 1.0 mT for 2 weeks induced DNA damage, but no other significant phenotype of cellular senescence in 2BS cells.


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The Impact of Intraspecies Variability on Growth Rate and Cellular Metabolic Activity of Bacteria Exposed to Rotating Magnetic Field

Woroszyło M, Ciecholewska-Juśko D, Junka A, Pruss A, Kwiatkowski P, Wardach M, Fijałkowski K. The Impact of Intraspecies Variability on Growth Rate and Cellular Metabolic Activity of Bacteria Exposed to Rotating Magnetic Field. Pathogens. 2021 Nov 4;10(11):1427. doi: 10.3390/pathogens10111427.

Abstract

Majority of research on the influence of magnetic fields on microorganisms has been carried out with the use of different species or different groups of microorganisms, but not with the use of different strains belonging to one species. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of rotating magnetic fields (RMF) of 5 and 50 Hz on the growth and cellular metabolic activity of eight species of bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Bacillus cereus. However, contrary to the research conducted so far, each species was represented by at least four different strains. Moreover, an additional group of S. aureus belonging to a single clonal type but representing different biotypes was also included in the experiment. The results showed a varied influence of RMF on growth dynamics and cellular metabolic activity, diversified to the greatest extent in dependence on the bacterial strain exposed to the RMF and to a lesser extent in dependence on the frequency of the generated magnetic field. It was found that, with regard to the exposed strain of the same species, the effect exerted by the RMF may be positive (i.e., manifests as the increase in the growth rate or/and cellular metabolic activity) or negative (i.e., manifests as a reduction of both aforementioned features) or none. Even when one clonal type of S. aureus was used, the results of RMF exposure also varied (although the degree of differentiation was lower than for strains representing different clones). Therefore, the research has proven that, apart from the previously described factors related primarily to the physical parameters of the magnetic field, one of the key parameters affecting the final result of its influence is the bacterial intraspecies variability.