Monday, May 2, 2022

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since August 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below. The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 1,500 scientific papers. This 1,258-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:

Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.

The roles of intensity, exposure duration, and modulation on the biological effects of radiofrequency radiation and exposure guidelines

Henry Lai, B. Blake Levitt.  The roles of intensity, exposure duration, and modulation on the biological effects of radiofrequency radiation and exposure guidelines. Electromagn Biol Med. 2022 Apr 19:1-26. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2022.2065683.


In this paper, we review the literature on three important exposure metrics that are inadequately represented in most major radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure guidelines today: intensity, exposure duration, and signal modulation. Exposure intensity produces unpredictable effects as demonstrated by nonlinear effects. This is most likely caused by the biological system’s ability to adjust and compensate but could lead to eventual biomic breakdown after prolonged exposure. A review of 112 low-intensity studies reveals that biological effects of RFR could occur at a median specific absorption rate of 0.0165 W/kg. Intensity and exposure duration interact since the dose of energy absorbed is the product of intensity and time. The result is that RFR behaves like a biological “stressor” capable of affecting numerous living systems. In addition to intensity and duration, man-made RFR is generally modulated to allow information to be encrypted. The effects of modulation on biological functions are not well understood. Four types of modulation outcomes are discussed. In addition, it is invalid to make direct comparisons between thermal energy and radiofrequency electromagnetic energy. Research data indicate that electromagnetic energy is more biologically potent in causing effects than thermal changes. The two likely function through different mechanisms. As such, any current RFR exposure guidelines based on acute continuous-wave exposure are inadequate for health protection.


"Over the last 25–30 years, significant information has been published that in other regulated areas would have resulted in re-examination and adjustments to allowable exposure limits. This has not been the case with these two groups [the FCC and ICNIRP] which adhere to a model based on obsolete scientific evidence, especially in light of the new 5G network that uses higher frequencies and novel modulation forms that have never been used before in broad civilian telecommunications and which are poorly studied."

"RFR effects have been observed at low intensities (< 0.4 W/kg) – a list of which is included in Supplement 1 – far below the guidelines. This points to both the nonlinearity of how living systems couple with nonionizing radiation as well as the inadequacy of acute thresholds. The studies encompass many different biological effects to myriad systems, including: apoptosis induction, adrenal gland activity, blood–brain barrier permeability, brain transmitter levels, calcium concentration in heart muscle, calcium efflux, calcium movement in cells, cell growth, cognitive functions, cellular damage in liver, decreased cell proliferation, embryonic development, endocrine changes, enolose activity, genetic effects, hippocampal neuronal damage, immunological functions, kidney development, memory functions, latency of muscular contraction, membrane chemistry, nerve cell damage, metabolic changes, neural electrical activity, oxidative stress, plant growth, prion level, protein changes, renal injury, serum testosterone concentration, heat-shock protein induction, testis morphology, testosterone synthesis, thymidine incorporation, and ultrastructural alteration in cell cytoplasm. In fact, there are not many physiological functions in humans, animals, or plants that are not affected by low-level RFR."

"As reflected in Supplement 1, SARs at which effects were observed were available from 112 studies. Of these, 75 (67%) were in vivo exposure studies with whole body/organ SARs available. The other 37 (33%) studies were in vitro experiments.... The level at which biological effects occur represents data from in vivo and in vitro and acute and chronic/repeated-exposure experiments. There is a very wide range of effects seen. With an exposure that induces a SAR of 0.0165 W/kg, and using a ten-fold protection, the SAR would be 0.00165 W/kg (i.e., 1.65 mW/kg). For rate of energy absorption in body organs, 0.00165 W/kg is far below the maximum level allowed in the guidelines (whether over 1 or 10 gm of tissue as per FCC/ICNIRP allowances). Given the large body of work as illustrated in Supplement 1, the SAR at, or below, 4 W/kg as a safe threshold is insupportable."

"The duration of exposure is another important factor in biological effects. Other than demarcations for whole body exposures averaged over 30 minutes and local body areas averaged over 6 minutes, neither FCC nor ICNIRP address duration, especially pertaining to long-term and low-level RFR exposures. These are prevalent in both near-field exposures to people with WiFi routers, for example, as well as cell phones, and far-field exposures from infrastructure that have created chronic rising ambient background levels (Levitt et al. 2021a). The guidelines are written only for short-term acute durations.... What we do know is that the supposition that all exposures are the same above and below the SAR threshold set by FCC/ICNIRP is fundamentally flawed in light of the most current research. One feasible and logical solution to such uncertainties regarding duration as an exposure factor would be to adopt an SAR level commensurate with the studies summarized in Supplement 1 at no higher than 0.00165 W/kg, no matter the exposure conditions."

"It is generally believed that modulated RFR is more biologically active than continuous-wave (CW) radiation, i.e., the carrier-wave. To understand the biological and possible hazardous health effects of RFR, it is therefore important to understand modulation effects. Below we discuss what is known about modulation from the research literature (mostly from 1990 to date) and examine the claim that modulation makes RFR more biologically significant...There is research showing no significant biological effects of CW-RFR (Table 1a) but there are also studies that reported CW-RFR effects too (Table 1b). The reason why CW-RFR produced effects in some studies but not others is unknown. Both types of studies (with “effect” and “no effect” outcomes) involved many different biological endpoints, exposure intensities, and duration of exposure – with no discernible differences. A possible explanation is that different tissue types respond differently to CW-RFR. But that just adds another level of inquiry. One of the most puzzling observations is when CW caused an effect but modulation did not (e.g., Kubinyi et al. 1996; Luukkonen et al. 2009). In some studies, a modulated field produced an effect that was not produced by CW. These observations may indicate that the CW carrier-wave itself and modulation act on different mechanisms.... Differences in responses between CW and modulated fields of the same frequency and incident power density provide strong proof that non-thermal effects occur since the two conditions should produce the same amount of heating.... Some studies reported that different frequencies of modulation caused different biological responses .... CW and modulated fields can cause the same effects but with different degrees of biological activity and intensity of reactions. In most instances, a modulated field was found to be more potent than CW versus only one study in which the opposite was reported (Persson et al. 1997).... To add to the complexities described above, effects with modulated fields have also been shown to depend on exposure duration.... there are many studies that used intermittent exposure (e.g., 10 min ON/10 min OFF) instead of continuous exposure with the supposition that intermittent exposure is more biologically active. But not much data showed this to be true.... There are many studies using pulsed fields (i.e., mobile phone signals are pulsed), but there are not many studies that compared pulsed and CW fields of the same SAR in the same study. However, there are reports that effects only occurred with a pulsed field but not CW.... there are many studies showing effects of RFR on the hippocampus..."

"Oxidative changes and stress have been reported in many papers on exposure to electromagnetic fields (Lai 2020; Yakymenko et al. 2016). These are the most consistent cellular responses to RFR exposure. Mechanisms have been proposed to account for oxidative effects that may involve the low-frequency component of modulation (e.g., see Barnes and Greenebaum 2015; Castello et al. 2021). ... But there is not enough data to conclude that modulation effects are caused by oxidative processes. In fact some effects of CW exposure alone also found changes in free radical mechanisms."

"It is important to point out as significant proof of non-thermal RFR effects that CW and modulated-waves of the same frequency and incident power density can/and do produce different effects. The bottom line is that certainty is elusive regarding precise effects in all circumstances. What is clear is that both modulation and continuous-wave RFR are biologically active and both should be considered in exposure guidelines. In situations where enough evidence exists to warrant specific caution, such as with pulsed fields used in cell phones and phased modulation with 5G, particular attention should be paid to include modulation in the guidelines beyond the suppositions of safety contained within the safety allowances. Peak exposures must also be factored in and not just the averaged values which only hide their significance."

"It is apparent that the biological outcome of changing the intensity and duration of RFR exposure is basically unpredictable. This is mainly due to the complex nature of the biological system studied. Intensity and duration can interact and produce different response patterns as shown in the literature reviewed above.

It is also apparent that how RFR modulation affects biological functions is difficult to quantify. Observed effects are multi-variant and involve many factors such as intensity, carrier frequencies and modulation, the modulation waveform itself, exposure duration, and properties of the exposed object. Not enough research data are presently available to provide an explanation or prediction of modulation effects under all circumstances. It may also turn out that modulation is of little major health concern or conversely that it is the only factor that matters – evidence is thus far too contradictory regarding modulation’s ability to consistently enhance the biological effects of carrier-waves. Then again, with most modulation forms the carrier-wave is completely altered. All of this awaits proper investigation with comparison studies. In the meantime, there are legitimate reasons for concern, given the contradictions in the literature.

In general, anthropogenic RFR – with highly unusual waveform characteristics and intensities that do not exist in the natural world – is new to the environment and thus has not been a factor in the evolution of species. Living organisms evolved over millions of years in the presence of static and extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. These fields play critical roles in their survival, e.g., in migration, food foraging, and reproduction, etc. (see Levitt et al. 2021b). Living organisms are extremely sensitive to the presence of these environmental fields and thus, they can easily be disturbed by man-made EMF. RFR probably acts upon and modifies these primordial EMFs and affects biological functions. Interactions of static/ELF EMF and RFR are basically not well studied, not to mention the mechanisms of involvement of RFR modulations. The interactions are inevitably complex. Such interaction studies would provide answers to wildlife effects.

Regarding the perennial thermal- versus non-thermal- effects criticism inherent in human RFR exposure guidelines, it must be said that the underlying mechanisms of effects should not be a matter of concern in setting of exposure guidelines as is common today. What is important is the level at which energy absorption causes an effect. One such powerful proof – among so very many others – of non-thermal effects is evidenced in the fact that CW and modulated-waves of the same frequency and incident power density can produce different effects, as seen in the modulation section of this paper and Table 2."

"When effects continue to be observed over a long period of time that go against prevailing beliefs, even when mechanisms remain imperfectly understood, the appropriate course of regulatory action is to examine the underlying basis upon which an original premise was formed. When proven incomplete or invalid by new information, the change in a regulatory course is not only justified but is imperative. Disproven or incomplete deductions of how RFR affects living cells and tissues, as well as suppositions of safety for exposed individuals and the environment are insupportable given the wealth of studies to draw from today that have filled in many gaps. We need to more responsibly address the increasing near- and far-field RFR exposures of contemporary life with an eye toward 5G technology’s unique characteristics. A new conceptual framework is called for."


Estimation of RF and ELF dose by anatomical location in the brain from wireless phones in the MOBI-Kids study

Carolina Calderón, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Myron Maslanyj, Joe Wiart, Ae-Kyoung Lee, Masao Taki, Kanako Wake, Alex Abert, Francesc Badia, Abdelhamid Hadjem, Hans Kromhout, Patricia de Llobet, Nadège Varsier, Emmanuelle Conil, Hyung-Do Choi, Malcolm R. Sim, Elisabeth Cardis. Estimation of RF and ELF dose by anatomical location in the brain from wireless phones in the MOBI-Kids study. Environment International. 163. 2022. 107189. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2022.107189.

• Epidemiological studies on mobile phone radiation typically rely on phone use history.
• MOBI-Kids is the first study to estimate RF and ELF dose from wireless phones.
• RF and ELF doses vary by age, phone model, communication system and amount of use.
• Communication system and location in the brain are key determinants of dose.
• Duration and number of calls are likely to be crude proxies of dose.

Wireless phones (both mobile and cordless) emit not only radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) but also extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields, both of which should be considered in epidemiological studies of the possible adverse health effects of use of such devices. This paper describes a unique algorithm, developed for the multinational case-control MOBI-Kids study, that estimates the cumulative specific energy (CSE) and the cumulative induced current density (CICD) in the brain from RF and ELF fields, respectively, for each subject in the study (aged 10–24 years old). Factors such as age, tumour location, self-reported phone models and usage patterns (laterality, call frequency/duration and hands-free use) were considered, as was the prevalence of different communication systems over time. Median CSE and CICD were substantially higher in GSM than 3G systems and varied considerably with location in the brain. Agreement between RF CSE and mobile phone use variables was moderate to null, depending on the communication system. Agreement between mobile phone use variables and ELF CICD was higher overall but also strongly dependent on communication system. Despite ELF dose distribution across the brain being more diffuse than that of RF, high correlation was observed between RF and ELF dose. The algorithm was used to systematically estimate the localised RF and ELF doses in the brain from wireless phones, which were found to be strongly dependent on location and communication system. Analysis of cartographies showed high correlation across phone models and across ages, however diagonal agreement between these cartographies suggest these factors do affect dose distribution to some level. Overall, duration and number of calls may not be adequate proxies of dose, particularly as communication systems available for voice calls tend to become more complex with time.


This paper describes the algorithm constructed to assess the localised RF and ELF dose arising from the use of mobile (cellular) and DECT (cordless) phones in the MOBI-Kids study. The algorithm was based on information on phone use provided by study subjects, on information from operators on prevalence of communication systems as a function of time, on RF and ELF modelling performed as part of the exposure assessment work package (which considered morphological changes due to age), and on validation studies performed within the overall study. ELF and RF dose diminished rapidly with increasing depth, demonstrating location in the brain is an important variable in dose estimation. The agreement between CSE and phone use variables varied by communication system; it was highest for GSM and close to 0 for UMTS and CDMA. Higher agreement was observed between CICD and phone use variables, but agreement was still close to 0 for 3G systems. Analysis of cartographies showed high correlation across phone models and across ages, however diagonal agreement between these cartographies suggest these factors do affect dose distribution to some level and should thus be ideally considered. Overall, the results highlight the importance of considering the effect of communication system and anatomical location in estimating dose and suggests phone use is becoming a poorer exposure proxy as communication systems available for voice calls tend to become more complex with time


Effects of mobile phone use on semen parameters: a cross-sectional study of 1634 men in China

Shanshan Zhang, Fengyi Mo, Yali Chang, Shufang Wu, Qing Ma, Fan Jin, Lanfeng Xing. Effects of mobile phone use on semen parameters: a cross-sectional study of 1634 men in China. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2022 Apr 19. doi: 10.1071/RD21234.


Mobile phones play an irreplaceable role in modern people's lives. However, the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phones has also caused increasing concern. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phones on semen parameters in 1634 men who underwent semen examination at the Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China. Analysis of variance and multivariate linear regression were used to explore differences among different groups. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed significant associations among different groups of daily mobile phone use time and daily duration of phone calls in the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa (P=0.004 and P=0.007), rapid progressively motile spermatozoa (P=0.012 and P=0.006) and total motile spermatozoa (P=0.004 and P=0.046). After adjustments for the confounding effects of age and body mass index by multiple linear regression, the results showed that the daily duration of mobile phone use had a negative effect on sperm motility. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between daily phone call duration and sperm motility. Therefore, the daily duration of mobile phone use may negatively affect sperm motility and impair male fertility.


Our results suggest that the average daily cell phone use duration may affect sperm motility to some extent, leading to a decrease in sperm motility. Therefore, we recommend that men of reproductive age avoid prolonged durations of using mobile phones. In addition, more well-designed cross-sectional investigations and mechanistic studies are needed in the future to clarify the effects of RF-EMR produced by mobile phones on male semen quality.


Effect of Duration of Mobile Phone Use on the Salivary Flow and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Saliva and Salivary Immunoglobulin A Level

Bansal D, Chhaparwal Y, Pai KM, Kumar M, Vineetha R, Chhaparwal S, Kamath S, Kamath A. Effect of Duration of Mobile Phone Use on the Salivary Flow and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Saliva and Salivary Immunoglobulin A Level: A Cross-sectional Study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2022 Apr 8;12(2):260-265. doi: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_361_21.


Introduction: The objective of this study was to observe the effects of the duration of handheld mobile phone usage on the salivary flow, salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) level, and salivary markers for oxidative stress.

Materials and methods: Eighty-one students were categorized into three groups based on their duration of mobile phone usage after age- and gender-matching. Students were grouped as: mobile phone usage <20 min/day (Group A), mobile phone usage 20-60 min/day (Group B), and mobile phone usage >60 min/day (Group C). Saliva was collected to evaluate salivary flow rate, salivary IgA level, and salivary markers for oxidative stress.

Results: The salivary flow rate showed no statistically significant difference between the three groups (P = 0.180). There was no statistically significant difference in the salivary IgA between the three groups (P = 0.237). There was a statistically significant difference in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level between the three groups (P = 0.042). On pair comparison between the groups, group B and group C had a statistically significant difference (P = 0.019) in the MDA level. There was no statistically significant difference in the salivary thiol level between the three groups (P = 0.237).

Conclusion: The duration of handheld mobile phone usage did not show any significant effects on the salivary flow rate, salivary IgA, and thiol levels. There was an increase in the salivary MDA concentration in subjects using handheld mobile phones for a longer duration, indicating higher oxidative stress in salivary glands exposed to mobile phone radiofrequency electromagnetic waves for a longer duration.


Role of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi on some miRNA and fatty acids composition in brain

Suleyman Dasdag, Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag, Mehmet Bashan, Veysi Kizmaz, Nurten Erdal, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Mehmet Tughan Kiziltug, Korkut Yegin. Role of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi on some miRNA and faty acids composition in brain. Electromagn Biol Med. 2022 Apr 17;1-12. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2022.2065682.


The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi exposure, which is continuously used in the internet connection by mobile phones, computers and other wireless equipment, on microRNA and membrane and depot fatty acid composition of brain cells. Sixteen Wistar Albino rats were divided equally into two groups such as sham and exposure. The rats in the experimental group (n = 8) were exposed to 2.4 GHz RFR emitted from a Wi-Fi generator for 24 h/day for one year. The animals in the control group (n = 8) were kept under the same conditions as the experimental group, but the Wi-Fi generator was turned off. At the end of the study, rats were sacrificed and brains were removed to analyze miRNA expression and membrane and depot fatty acids of brain cells. We analyzed the situation of ten different miRNA expressions and nineteen fatty acid patterns in this study. We observed that long-term and excessive exposure of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation increased rno-miR-181a-5p, phosphatidylserine (PS) and triacylglycerol (TAG) in the brain. In conclusion, 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi exposure has the potential to alter rno-miR-181a-5p expression and the fatty acid percentage of some membrane lipids such as phospholipid (PL), phosphatidylserine (PS) and triacylglycerol (TAG), which are depot fats in the brain. However, the uncontrolled use of RFRs, whose use and diversity have reached incredible levels with each passing day and which are increasing in the future, may be paving the way for many diseases that we cannot connect with today.


Evidence Base on the Potential Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency Radiation

Grimes DR. Radiofrequency Radiation and Cancer: A Review. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Mar 1;8(3):456-461. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.5964. Erratum in: JAMA Oncol. 2022 Apr 21;: PMID: 34882171.


Importance: Concerns over radiofrequency radiation (RFR) and carcinogenesis have long existed, and the advent of 5G mobile technology has seen a deluge of claims asserting that the new standard and RFR in general may be carcinogenic. For clinicians and researchers in the field, it is critical to address patient concerns on the topic and to be familiar with the existent evidence base.

Observations: This review considers potential biophysical mechanisms of cancer induction, elucidating mechanisms of electromagnetically induced DNA damage and placing RFR in appropriate context on the electromagnetic spectrum. The existent epidemiological evidence in humans and laboratory animals to date on the topic is also reviewed and discussed.

Conclusions and relevance: The evidence from these combined strands strongly indicates that claims of an RFR-cancer link are not supported by the current evidence base. Much of the research to date, however, has been undermined by methodological shortcomings, and there is a need for higher-quality future research endeavors. Finally, the role of fringe science and unsubstantiated claims in patient and public perception on this topic is highly relevant and must be carefully considered.

Critical responses:

Carpenter DO, Hardell L, Sage C. Evidence Base on the Potential Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency Radiation. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Apr 21. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.0928.

Jooyan N, Mortazavi SM. Evidence Base on the Potential Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency Radiation. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Apr 21. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.0931.

Naidenko OV. Evidence Base on the Potential Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency Radiation. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Apr 21. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.0925.

Moskowitz JM. Why did JAMA Oncology publish a paper written by a Telecom industry spokesperson? Electromagnetic Radiation Safety. 2022 Jan 21.

EHT. Wireless Industry Spokesperson Pens Article on Wireless Health Effects for Top Academic Journal. Environmental Health Trust. 2022 Jan 18.

Author's response to criticism:

Grimes DR. Evidence Base on the Potential Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency Radiation-Reply. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Apr 21. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.0934.


The Microwave Auditory Effect

James C. Lin. The Microwave Auditory Effect. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology. 6(1):16-28. March 2022. doi: 10.1109/JERM.2021.3062826.


The microwave auditory effect has been widely recognized as one of the most interesting and significant biological phenomena from microwave exposure. The hearing of pulsed microwaves is a unique exception to sound waves encountered in human auditory perception. The hearing of microwave pulses involves electromagnetic waves. This paper reviews the research in humans and animals leading to scientific documentations that absorption of a single microwave pulse impinging on the head may be perceived as an acoustic zip, click, or knocking sound. A train of microwave pulses may be sensed as buzz, chirp, or tune by humans. It describes neurophysiological, psychophysical, and behavioral observations from laboratory studies involving humans and animals. Mechanistic studies show that the microwave pulse, upon absorption by tissues in the head, launches a pressure wave that travels by bone conduction to the inner ear, where it activates the cochlear receptors via the same process involved for normal sound hearing. Depending on the impinging microwave pulse powers, the level of induced sound pressure could be considerably above the threshold of auditory perception to cause tissue injury. The microwave auditory effects and associated pressures could potentially render damage to brain tissue to cause lethal or nonlethal injuries.


The effect of mobile phone use at night on the sleep of pre-adolescent, early adolescent, and late adolescent children: A study of 252,195 Australian children

Valentina Salcedo Correa, Stephanie Centofanti, Jillian Dorrian, Andrew Wicking, Peter Wicking, Kurt Lushington. The effect of mobile phone use at night on the sleep of pre-adolescent (8-11 year), early adolescent (12-14 year) and late adolescent (15-18 year) children: A study of 252,195 Australian children. Sleep Health. 2022 Apr 8;S2352-7218(22)00015-8. doi: 10.1016/j.sleh.2022.02.004.


Objectives: To examine whether the association previously reported between mobile phone use at night and poor sleep in adolescents also generalizes to pre-adolescent children.

Design: Cross sectional.

Participants: Survey completed by 84,915 pre-adolescent (8-11 years), 99,680 early adolescent (12-14 years) and 67,600 late adolescent Australian children (15-18 years).

Measurement: Children were asked how frequently they obtained 8 hours of sleep on most nights and if they used their mobile phone at night to send and receive messages between 10 PM and 6 AM. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between mobile phone use at night and sleeping 8h or more on most nights with gender, socioeconomic status and year of study (2014-2018) as covariates.

Results: For all age cohorts including pre-adolescent children, mobile phone use at night was associated with lower odds of obtaining 8 hours of sleep on most nights.

Conclusion: The present findings confirm that the association between mobile phone use at night and poor sleep previously reported in adolescent children also generalises to pre-adolescent children. Given the increased uptake of smartphone devices in ever younger children the findings point to the need to provide parents, schools and communities with resources to promote child sleep hygiene and media use at bedtime.


Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure of adolescents in the Greater London area and the association with restrictions on permitted use of mobile communication technologies at school and at home

Claudia Schmutz, Alexandra Bürgler, Narain Ashta, Jana Soenksen, Yasmin Bou Karim, Chen Shen, Rachel B. Smith, Rosemary H. Jenkins, Michael O. Mireku, Julian Mutz, Mikaël J.A. Maes, Rosi Hirst, Irene Chang, Charlotte Fleming, Aamirah Mussa, Daphna Kesary, Darren Addison, Myron Maslanyj, Mireille B. Toledano, Martin Röösli, Marloes Eeftens. Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure of adolescents in the Greater London area and the association with restrictions on permitted use of mobile communication technologies at school and at home. Environmental Research. 2022. 113252. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2022.113252.


Personal measurements of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been used in several studies to characterise personal exposure in daily life, but such data are limitedly available for adolescents, and not yet for the United Kingdom (UK). In this study, we aimed to characterise personal exposure to RF-EMF in adolescents and to study the association between exposure and rules applied at school and at home to restrict wireless communication use, likely implemented to reduce other effects of mobile technology (e.g. distraction). We measured exposure to RF-EMF for 16 common frequency bands (87.5 MHz–3.5 GHz), using portable measurement devices (ExpoM-RF), in a subsample of adolescents participating in the cohort Study of Cognition, Adolescents and Mobile Phones (SCAMP) from Greater London (UK) (n = 188). School and home rules were assessed by questionnaire and concerned the school's availability of WiFi and mobile phone policy, and parental restrictions on permitted mobile phone use. Adolescents recorded their activities in real time using a diary app on a study smartphone, while characterizing their personal RF-EMF exposure in daily life, during different activities and times of the day. Data analysis was done for 148 adolescents from 29 schools who recorded RF-EMF data for a median duration of 47 h. The majority (74%) of adolescents spent part of their time at school during the measurement period. Median total RF-EMF exposure was 40 μW/m2 at home, 94 μW/m2 at school, and 100 μW/m2 overall. In general, restrictions at school or at home made little difference for adolescents’ measured exposure to RF-EMF, except for uplink exposure from mobile phones while at school, which was found to be significantly lower for adolescents attending schools not permitting phone use at all, compared to adolescents attending schools allowing mobile phone use during breaks. This difference was not statistically significant for total personal exposure. Total exposure to RF-EMF in adolescents living in Greater London tended to be higher compared to exposure levels reported in other European countries. This study suggests that school policies and parental restrictions are not associated with a lower RF-EMF exposure in adolescents.


Assessment of varied mobile network topologies on human exposure, mobile communication quality and sustainability

Margot Deruyck, German Castellanos, Wout Joseph, Luc Martens, Sven Kuehn, Niels Kuster. Assessment of varied mobile network topologies on human exposure, mobile communication quality and sustainability. Final Report of Project CRR-954. Zurich, Switzerland, IT'IS Foundation. Sep 21, 2021.

Executive Summary

In October 2020, the Swiss Federal Office of Communications (OFCOM) mandated the IT’IS Foundation to evaluate various 5G network topologies regarding human exposure, mobile communication quality, and sustainability to address the questions posed by the political Motion Häberli-Koller (19.4043) dated July 30, 2020. The study was conducted jointly with the IMEC WAVES group of the Department of Information Technology of Ghent University, Belgium, and it supplements an earlier project performed by IT’IS for the Swiss Federal Office for the environment in 2019 [1].

Statement of work Prior to the study, OFCOM specified a number of endpoints in the statement of work (SoW), each of which is addressed below. The study was conducted using a mobile network planning tool developed by the IMEC WAVES group that was adapted to the specifics of the mobile network and regulatory situation in Switzerland. Using this tool, we simulated a variety of mobile networks to address the study endpoints specified by OFCOM. The simulations included 4G and 5G networks in rural, suburban, and urban environments with usage requirements extrapolated to the year 2030. We analyzed the effects of separate operators compared to a unified network, the separation of indoor and outdoor networks, and different data rates and networks optimized for low downlink exposure. Human exposure to the electromagnetic field from the mobile communication system is expressed as the exposure ratio, the induced 6-minute time-averaged electromagnetic field level divided by the safety limits in percent, separately for the uplink (exposure to a user’s own mobile device) and downlink (exposure to the base station network). All mobile networks were realized to comply with an approximation to the current precautionary limits imposed by the Swiss Ordinance for Protection against Non-Ionizing Radiation, i.e., the effect of an increase of the precautionary limits was not studied.

Note that for all of the following statements, in general, the user’s own mobile device (uplink) exposure ratio contributed to the user’s total exposure on average with a minimum tenfold higher level than the downlink (base station) exposure. Therefore, for any active mobile device user, a reduction of the downlink exposure will always remain insignificant in terms of the overall exposure.

Which network structures are possible based on the technologies available today (4G, 5G, Wireless Local Area Network WLAN, etc.), and what influence do they have on the spatial distribution of radiation exposure of the population? In the present study, network infrastructures based on the 4G and 5G communication technologies were simulated. The use of WLAN as a supplementary link for indoor reception was not considered in the simulation models as 4G and 5G provide better spectral efficiency technology and output power control than WLAN. Therefore, the use of WLAN in terms of network quality and exposure reduction is not considered beneficial. Other reasons such as network separation and costs may favor the use of WLAN.

Our results show that the transition from 4G to 5G will reduce human exposure in most simulated scenarios while offering a tenfold capacity.

A unified mobile network results in downlink exposure ratios similar to that of the largest user base in Switzerland; however, the unified network can serve twice as many users. Network unification would improve the uplink exposure compared to the uplink exposure in the networks of the second and third largest user base in Switzerland. A unified network would also reduce the number of required base station locations between -13% and -50% (depending on technology and environment).

In particular, the frequently propagated approaches of the "St. Gallen model", the separation of indoor and outdoor coverage are to be analyzed in depth. We analyzed the coverage of indoor and outdoor locations as well as indoor and outdoor exposure. Our results show that a complete separation of indoor and outdoor coverage will lead to lower (factor o 4) downlink exposure outdoors and uncovered indoor locations on average. Indoor downlink exposure is not affected by the separation of indoor and outdoor coverage. Uplink exposure remained in the same range for separate indoor and outdoor networks despite additional building attenuation. We found a trend towards lower uplink exposure (factor of 4) of the 5G technology compared to 4G. This effect is likely related to the use of the MaMIMO (Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output) capabilities in 5G.

In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of using adaptive antennas, also with regard to the data rate and spatial distribution of radiation exposure, should be shown.
The 5G network employing adaptive antenna systems is well suited to reduce human exposure while increasing the network capacity by a factor of 10. Especially, in less densely populated environments, adaptive antennas improve the exposure ratio. In the rural environment, the exposure ratio is reduced by a factor of two, while in the urban and suburban environments the average exposure is not affected by the use of adaptive antennas. We found a clear trend towards lower uplink and downlink exposure ratios for the 5G networks using adaptive antennas compared to 4G networks not using adaptive antenna technology.

What influence do the various network structures have on the quality of mobile communication coverage in Switzerland?
All networks in the study were planned with a user coverage of at least 95% such that a lack of coverage was compensated by additional base station sites. Our results show that coverage with 5G speeds compared to 4G speeds requires on average three times as many base stations. The coverage of only outdoor locations would primarily reduce the need for base stations in urban environments and only for 4G. 5G will result in a base station densification for outdoor coverage that is already suited for indoor coverage in many locations. Where insufficient, e.g., in large buildings, the full coverage can be obtained by supplementary 5G indoor base stations.

What influence do the various network structures have on the expansion of mobile communications networks in Switzerland (number of antenna systems)?
The transition from a 4G to a 5G network with a tenfold data bandwidth requires, on average, three times more base stations in our network optimization simulations. Base station count is increased by 60% (4G) and 14% (5G) if indoor locations are also covered by the mobile network in the urban environment. The reduction decreases to 20% (4G) and 6% (5G) for the suburban environment and vanishes in the rural environment. Extending the data rate capacity by an additional factor of ten for 5% of the users resulted in only a few additional base station locations but in higher human exposure.

The study also demonstrated that future 5G networks can be realized without an increase of precautionary limits. The number of base stations is mostly driven by the data requirements and not by the exposure limits.

What influence does the number of mobile communication networks have on the radiation exposure of the population or would a single network lead to less radiation exposure than three separate networks? Our results show that a unification of the mobile network infrastructure does not change human exposure considerably compared to multiple operators. However, a unification of the network infrastructure could lead to a smaller number of required base station sites (-13% to -50% depending on the environment and communication system). Due to the user limitation per base station for 5G adaptive antennas, the possible site reduction is greater for 4G (-30% to -50%) than for 5G (-13% to -30%).

What does an ideal network structure look like in order to minimize radiation exposure for the population and at the same time ensure a good quality of cell phone coverage? To minimize human exposure to electromagnetic fields, network planning should always take into account both uplink and downlink exposure. For active users, the uplink exposure is tenfold higher than the downlink exposure. Our results also show that consideration of downlink-only exposure in the planning stage will not reduce the exposure for non-users (members of the society without their own mobile device). A network for minimizing the combined uplink and downlink exposure employs 5G technology and has a dense base station infrastructure, supplemented locally, such as in large buildings, by indoor base stations. Another important outcome is that the 5G base station density is mainly driven by the coverage requirements, i.e., lower base station count under higher limits is not expected. The same rationale leads to the conclusion that relaxed precautionary limits likely increase the uplink exposure, i.e., the overall exposure.

Although the frequencies above 6 GHz are not yet available in Switzerland, the study should also include the future use of these frequencies (millimeter waves, in Switzerland probably in the 24.25-27.5 GHz range). At present, the use of millimeter-wave technologies in Switzerland cannot be predicted. Therefore, we did not include millimeter waves in our mobile network simulation model. Based on initial roll-outs internationally, the current main application of 5G millimeter links is for the last mile. The last mile application (fixed wireless access) is not strictly limited to mobile communication. Here, wireless point-to-point links would replace copper or fiber links. Based on the point-to-point nature, human exposure to last-mile links is unlikely.

Recently, the first mobile devices (US models of Apple iPhone 12, Samsung S21) with millimeter-wave communication capabilities were placed on the market. This development is driven by the unavailability of the 3.5 GHz band in the United States (US) and the attempt to offload the majority of the data volume over millimeter waves. There is still very little use of millimeter-wave communications in the US [2]. Due to shadowing effects of the human body [3] and the highly directive beam-forming in this frequency range, it can be assumed that the usage of millimeter waves for mobile applications will also mostly be limited to line-of-sight situations. This may lower human exposure due to the highly directive and adaptive nature of the communication links required for signal quality reasons.

Study limitations Even though the study includes the most currently advanced simulations on user exposure as a function of network topology, several assumptions were made due to the limitations of the tools and to missing information, which are described in detail in the Methods Section (Section 4). The impact of these assumptions on the results is discussed in detail in Section 6 of this report.

Remaining Knowledge Gaps In the course of this study, we identified future work and research needs to fill the remaining knowledge gaps. As soon as a possible application of millimeter waves emerges in Switzerland, its influence on human exposure should be analyzed. In the present study, we applied harmonized, yet simplified models to analyze indoor exposure to mobile networks. To lower the uncertainties on exposure in indoor scenarios, additional indoor modeling would help to substantiate our results. They could further be strengthened by validation measurements in the up- and downlinks of real 4G and 5G networks in Switzerland. Other areas of future research include the extension of the networks with distributed MaMIMO, mixed technology networks as well as more realistic assignment and weighting of user and base station 


To the knowledge of the authors, this study is currently the most advanced study on user exposure as a function of network topology. In order to perform the study using the developed tools and available information, several assumptions were made and described in detail in the Methods Section (Section 4). The impact of these assumptions on the results are as follows:

• The use of simplified models for the propagation and environments (buildings, etc.) may not exactly represent the propagation environment present in the real mobile network environments.
• The chosen coverage goal of 95% of the users in all the study environments at any user location might be higher in some environments than in real networks.
• The selected configurations for the modeling of mobile networks may be different in the actual network implementation.
• A global 5 V/m downlink exposure limit and a 6 minute average of the exposure were applied to map the regulatory boundaries. This means that not all details of the current regulatory requirement with respect to mobile communication exposure could be modeled 1:1 in the simulation tool.
• Even though the precautionary limits were only approximated, the results imply that the networks can be realized under the current regulation.
• The results were based on average usage, yet due to the dominating effect of the uplink exposure, exposure ratios are strongly dependent on personal mobile device usage which was not studied in detail here.
• Base station locations in the extended set were assigned by the optimization algorithm irrespective of the actual building feasibility.
• Currently, there is relatively limited knowledge about the actual deployment and development of 5G in Switzerland.
• Only frequency ranges currently licensed for mobile communication use in Switzerland were included, i.e., millimeter-wave communication links (5G NR FR2) were neglected in the network planning.
• The statistical-based modeling of exposure and limited environmental details and resolution statements on the absolute levels of exposure have a higher level of uncertainty than relative comparisons between scenarios.
• Other sources of exposure than from the simulated mobile communication networks were not included.
• It was assumed that other mobile communication services, e.g., 2G, 3G, were not present in the analyzed scenarios.
• The currently discussed relaxation of the precautionary limits was not studied in detail; however, the simulations indicate that the 5G base station density is mainly driven by the coverage requirements, i.e., lower base station count under higher limits is not expected. Furthermore, [1] relaxed limits likely increase the uplink exposure, i.e., the overall exposure.

Open access report:


SAR and thermal distribution of pregnant woman and child inside elevator cabin

Ioanna Karatsi, Sofia Bakogianni, Stavros Koulouridis. (2022). SAR and thermal distribution of pregnant woman and child inside elevator cabin. International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 1-14. doi:10.1017/S1759078722000253.


A detailed dosimetry study of electromagnetic absorption and temperature rise under real scenarios is delivered when a mobile phone is used inside an elevator cabin. Numerically accurate human models of a 7th month pregnant woman and a 5-year-old female child are utilized as the exposed subjects. The female child acts as the phone user. The mobile phone is modeled in three talk positions (parallel, tilt, and cheek) operating at 1000 MHz and 1800 MHz. From the obtained numerical results for the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature rise induced by the mobile radiofrequency (RF) radiation, it is found that the child's RF exposure is significantly affected by the phone position and less affected by the relevant position of the human models. The exact opposite case applies for the pregnant woman model and its fetus. Almost all numerical investigations are carried out inside a metallic elevator cabin.

Open access paper:


Exposure to RF Electromagnetic Fields in the Connected Vehicle: Survey of Existing and Forthcoming Scenarios

G. Tognola, M. Bonato, M. Benini, S. Aerts, S. Gallucci, E. Chiaramello, S. Fiocchi, M. Parazzini, B. Masini, W. Joseph, J. Wiart, P. Ravazzani. Exposure to RF Electromagnetic Fields in the Connected Vehicle: Survey of Existing and Forthcoming Scenarios. IEEE Access, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3170035.


Future vehicles will be increasingly connected to enable new applications and improve safety, traffic efficiency and comfort, through the use of several wireless access technologies, ranging from vehicle-to-everything (V2X) connectivity to automotive radar sensing and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies for intra-car wireless sensor networks. These technologies span the radiofrequency (RF) range, from a few hundred MHz as in intra-car network of sensors to hundreds of GHz as in automotive radars used for in-vehicle occupant detection and advanced driver assistance systems. Vehicle occupants and road users in the vicinity of the connected vehicle are thus daily immersed in a multi-source and multi-band electromagnetic field (EMF) generated by such technologies. This paper is the first comprehensive and specific survey about EMF exposure generated by the whole ensemble of connectivity technologies in cars. For each technology we describe the main characteristics, relevant standards, the application domain, and the typical deployment in modern cars. We then extensively characterize the EMF exposure scenarios resulting from such technologies by resuming and comparing the outcomes from past studies on the exposure in the car. Results from past studies suggested that in no case EMF exposure was above the safe limits for the general population. Finally, open challenges for a more realistic characterization of the EMF exposure scenario in the connected car are discussed.


Design and manufacture of electromagnetic absorber composed of boric acid-incorporated wastepaper composites

ALİ İHSAN KAYA, AHMET ÇİFCİ, FİLİZ KIRDIOĞULLARI, MESUD KAHRİMAN, OSMAN ÇEREZCI. Design and manufacture of electromagnetic absorber composed of boric acid-incorporated wastepaper composites. Turk J Elec Eng & Comp Sci. 2022. 30: 839-854. doi:10.3906/elk-2106-21.


With the effect of technological advances, the use of electrical and electronic devices has increased dramatically in recent years. Wireless technologies and related applications are mostly preferred for the communication of these devices with each other. Thus, people are easily exposed to electromagnetic waves in daily life. The extensive global use of these devices raises the question of their possible biological effects on human health. Also, electromagnetic waves influence the functioning of a nearby device. In this study, an electromagnetic absorber based on boric acid (5, 10, 20, and 30 wt%) added wastepaper was developed. Copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) were also used as mineral additives for comparison. Three different kinds of wastepaper namely, office paper, newsprint, and cardboard paper were selected for the experimental study. The effect of varying boric acid contents on the electromagnetic absorption of the boards manufactured was evaluated and compared to Cu (30 wt%) and Al (30 wt%) added boards. The results show that newsprint has better absorption effectiveness than office and cardboard paper and absorption up to 40 dB was achieved. The absorption effectiveness of Al, Cu, and boric acid added boards was achieved at approximately 40, 30, and 20 dB, respectively. As a result, the electromagnetic absorption effectiveness of boric acid added the board is acceptable levels. Also, apart from the use of boric acid as a powder, it has been determined that the application of the surface as a layer is effective in absorption.


Cell Responsiveness to Physical Energies: Paving the Way to Decipher a Morphogenetic Code

Ricardo Tassinari, Claudia Cavallini, Elena Olivi, Federica Facchin, Valentina Taglioli, Chiara Zannini, Martina Marcuzzi, Carlo Ventura. 2022. Cell Responsiveness to Physical Energies: Paving the Way to Decipher a Morphogenetic Code. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23(6):3157. doi: 10.3390/ijms23063157.


We discuss emerging views on the complexity of signals controlling the onset of biological shapes and functions, from the nanoarchitectonics arising from supramolecular interactions, to the cellular/multicellular tissue level, and up to the unfolding of complex anatomy. We highlight the fundamental role of physical forces in cellular decisions, stressing the intriguing similarities in early morphogenesis, tissue regeneration, and oncogenic drift. Compelling evidence is presented, showing that biological patterns are strongly embedded in the vibrational nature of the physical energies that permeate the entire universe. We describe biological dynamics as informational processes at which physics and chemistry converge, with nanomechanical motions, and electromagnetic waves, including light, forming an ensemble of vibrations, acting as a sort of control software for molecular patterning. Biomolecular recognition is approached within the establishment of coherent synchronizations among signaling players, whose physical nature can be equated to oscillators tending to the coherent synchronization of their vibrational modes. Cytoskeletal elements are now emerging as senders and receivers of physical signals, “shaping” biological identity from the cellular to the tissue/organ levels. We finally discuss the perspective of exploiting the diffusive features of physical energies to afford in situ stem/somatic cell reprogramming, and tissue regeneration, without stem cell transplantation.


An International Collaborative Animal Study of the Carcinogenicity of Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation: Considerations for Preparation of a Global Project

Ahn YH, Imaida K, Kim YB, Han KH, Pack JK, Kim N, Jeon SB, Lee AK, Choi HD, Wang J, Kawabe M, Kim HS. An International Collaborative Animal Study of the Carcinogenicity of Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation: Considerations for Preparation of a Global Project. Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 Apr 27. doi: 10.1002/bem.22407


Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) was classified as a "possible" human carcinogen in 2011, which caused great public concern. A carcinogenicity study by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found Code Division Multiple Access-and Global System for Mobile Communications-modulated mobile phone RFR to be carcinogenic to the brain and heart of male rats. As part of an investigation of mobile phone carcinogenesis, and to verify the NTP study results, a 5-year collaborative animal project was started in Korea and Japan in 2019. An international animal study of this type has two prerequisites: use of the same study protocol and the same RF-exposure system. This article discusses our experience in the design of this global study on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs).


Transcriptomic and Long-Term Behavioral Deficits Associated with Developmental 3.5 GHz Radiofrequency Radiation Exposures in Zebrafish

Subham Dasgupta, Connor Leong, Michael T Simonich, Lisa Truong, Huaping Liu, Robyn L Tanguay. Transcriptomic and Long-Term Behavioral Deficits Associated with Developmental 3.5 GHz Radiofrequency Radiation Exposures in Zebrafish. Environ Sci Technol Lett. 2022 Apr 12;9(4):327-332. doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.2c00037.


The rapid deployment of the fifth-generation (5G) spectrum by the telecommunication industry is intended to promote better connectivity and data integration among various industries. However, concerns among the public about the safety and health effects of radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) emitted from the newer-generation cell phone frequencies remain, partly due to the lack of robust scientific data. Previously, we used developmental zebrafish to model the bioactivity of 3.5 GHz RFR, a frequency used by 5G-enabled cell phones, in a novel RFR exposure chamber. With RFR exposures from 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 48 hpf, we observed that, despite no teratogenic effects, embryos showed subtle hypoactivity in a startle response behavior assay, suggesting abnormal sensorimotor behavior. This study builds upon the previous one by investigating the transcriptomic basis of RFR-associated behavior effects and their persistence into adulthood. Using mRNA sequencing, we found a modest transcriptomic disruption at 48 hpf, with 28 differentially expressed genes. KEGG pathway analysis showed that biochemical pathways related to metabolism were significantly perturbed. Embryos were grown to adulthood, and then a battery of behavioral assays suggested subtle but significant abnormal responses in RFR-exposed fish across the different assays evaluated that suggest potential long-term behavioral effects. Overall, our study suggests the impacts of RFRs on the developing brain, behavior, and the metabolome should be further explored.


Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields at 27 GHz on Sperm Quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis

Roberta Pecoraro, Santi C. Pavone, Elena M. Scalisi, Carmen Sica, Sara Ignoto, Martina Contino, Antonio Salvaggio, Dimitra Marmara, Gino Sorbello, Loreto Di Donato, Maria V. Brundo. 2022. Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields at 27 GHz on Sperm Quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 10(4):521. doi: 10.3390/jmse10040521


Recently, an increasing use of wireless internet technologies has been demonstrated. The devices which use these technologies emit in new spectral regions an electromagnetic radiation (EMF) which could interact with the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effect of electromagnetic fields at 27 GHz on sperm quality in Mytilus galloprovincialis. Sperm samples were collected from sexually mature males of M. galloprovincialis and placed in seawater. Once we evaluated the number and quality of spermatozoa, sperm cells were exposed to electromagnetic fields radiated by a pyramidal horn antenna. The effect of exposure was evaluated after 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 min by a light microscope and using an Eosin test. Ten replications were performed for each time series, and statistical analysis was carried out by t-test. Sperm motility decreased after 10 min of exposure, and after 30 min most of the spermatozoa were immobile and not vital. This study provides useful data on the potential ecological impact of the high-band 5G on animal fertility, the effect of which is currently under investigation.


This study indicates that electromagnetic fields at 27 GHz can affect the sperm quality in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The significative decrease observed in sperm motility after only 10 min of exposure represents a crucial factor to be considered because it can threaten the reproductivity of the species. This study provides useful data on the potential impact of high frequency EMFs on aquatic animals and cells, which is currently poorly investigated. Future research could benefit from specific investigations into the impact of 5G to better monitor the effects on animal organisms and to fill the gap currently known about the interactions with artificial sources of electromagnetic fields.


Stereological Study on the Effect of Carnosine on Purkinje Cells in the Cerebellum of Rats Exposed to 900 MHz Electromagnetic Field

Arslan A, Acer N, Kesici H, Sonmez MF, Ertekin T, Gultekin M, Dagdelen U, Saracoglu OG. Stereological Study on the Effect of Carnosine on Purkinje Cells in the Cerebellum of Rats Exposed to 900 MHz Electromagnetic Field. Turk Neurosurg. 2021 Aug 28. doi: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.35313-21.2.


Aim: Electromagnetic fields have been known to reduce the number of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum, whereas carnosine has been known to protect them. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of carnosine on Purkinje neurons in rats exposed to a 900 Mhz electromagnetic field.

Material and methods: This study evaluated 24 rats divided into the following three different groups: a control group, a group exposed to the electromagnetic field, and a group that was injected with carnosine while being exposed to the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field group was exposed to a 900 Mhz electromagnetic field for an hour daily over 28 days. Thereafter, stereological analysis was performed histologically on cerebellar sections, and the number of Purkinje cells were counted.

Results: The electromagnetic field group had remarkably fewer Purkinje cell compared to control. The electromagnetic field group plus 20 mg of carnosine had significantly more total Purkinje cells compared to the electromagnetic field group (p 0.05).

Conclusion: The present study showed that electromagnetic field exposure decreases the number of Purkinje cell, whereas carnosine protected the cerebellum from neural damage induced by electromagnetic field exposure.


In Vivo Functional Ultrasound (fUS) Real-Time Imaging and Dosimetry of Mice Brain Under Radiofrequency Exposure

Rosa Orlacchio, Yann Percherancier, Florence Poulletier De Gannes, Annabelle Hurtier, Isabelle Lagroye, Philippe Leveque, Delia Arnaud-Cormos. In Vivo Functional Ultrasound (fUS) Real-Time Imaging and Dosimetry of Mice Brain Under Radiofrequency Exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 Apr 29. doi: 10.1002/bem.22403.


This study aims to analyze in real-time the potential modifications induced by low-level continuous-wave and Global System for Mobile Communications radiofrequency (RF) exposure at 1.8 GHz on brain activation in anesthetized mice. A specific in vivo experimental setup consisting of a dipole antenna for the local exposure of the brain was fully characterized. A unique neuroimaging technique based on a functional ultrasound (fUS) probe was used to observe the areas of mice brain activation simultaneously to the RF exposure with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution (~100 μm, 1 ms) following manual whisker stimulation using a brush. Numerical and experimental dosimetry was carried out to characterize the exposure and to guarantee the validity of the biological results. Our results show that the fUS probe can be efficiently used during in vivo exposure without interference with the dipole. In addition, we conclude that exposure to brain-averaged specific absorption rate levels of 2 and 6 W/kg does not introduce significant changes in the time course of the evoked fUS response in the left barrel field cortex. The proposed technique represents a valuable instrument for providing new insights into the possible effects induced on brain activation under RF exposure. For the first time, brain activity under mobile phone exposure was evaluated in vivo with fUS imaging, paving the way for more realistic exposure configurations, i.e. awake mice and new signals such as the 5 G networks.


Neurological effects of static and extremely-low frequency electromagnetic fields (Review)

Henry Lai. Neurological effects of static and extremely-low frequency electromagnetic fields. Electromagn Biol Med. 2022 Apr 15:1-21. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2022.2064489.


This is a review of studies on the neurological effects of static/extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). The review is mainly on research carried out in the last two decades. There are studies that showed effects on various neurotransmitters, including NMDA, serotonin, dopamine, endogenous opioids, etc. Each of these transmitters plays different critical roles on behavior and brain functions. Studies on behavioral effects of static/ELF EMF bear out these connections. Static/ELF EMF-induced behavioral and pathological effects, such as locomotor activity, memory and learning deficits, and neurological diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, Huntinton’s diseases and atropical lateral scleroses, etc.) are discussed. Static/ELF EMF exposure has also been shown to have beneficial effects on functional deficits and progression of some neurological diseases. These fields provide a non-invasive treatment or treatment-adjuvant for these detrimental neurological conditions. Results suggest that free radicals, both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitric species could be involved. Depending on the conditions of exposure, either harmful or beneficial effects could result. It is important to carry out further investigation to identify these conditions. However, caution should be taken to extrapolate the experimental data to human exposure, since higher field intensities than environmental levels were used in most laboratory research.


Effects of Moderate to High Static Magnetic Fields on Reproduction (Review)

Chao Song, Biao Yu, Junjun Wang, Yiming Zhu, Xin Zhang. Effects of Moderate to High Static Magnetic Fields on Reproduction. Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 Apr 29. doi: 10.1002/bem.22404. 


With the wide application of magnetic resonance imaging in hospitals and permanent magnets in household items, people have increased exposure to various types of static magnetic fields (SMFs) with moderate and high intensities, which has caused a considerable amount of public concern. Studies have shown that some aspects of gametogenesis and early embryonic development can be significantly affected by SMFs, while others have shown no effects. This review summarizes the experimental results of moderate to high-intensity SMFs (1 mT-16.7 T) on the reproductive development of different model animals, and we find that the effects of SMFs are variable depending on experimental conditions. In general, the effects of inhomogeneous SMFs seem to be more significant compared to that of homogeneous SMFs, which is likely due to magnetic forces generated by the magnetic field gradient. Moreover, some electromagnetic fields may have induced bioeffects because of nonnegligible gradient and heat effect, which are much reduced in superconducting magnets. We hope this review can provide a starting point for more in-depth analysis of various SMFs on reproduction, which is indispensable for evaluating the safety and potential applications of SMFs on living organisms in the future.


LF-EMF Compound Block Type Signal Activates Human Neutrophilic Granulocytes In Vivo

Jan J M Cuppen, Cristian Gradinaru, Bregje E Raap-van Sleuwen, Anna C E de Wit, Ton A A J van der Vegt, Huub F J Savelkoul. LF-EMF Compound Block Type Signal Activates Human Neutrophilic Granulocytes In Vivo. Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 Apr 28. doi: 10.1002/bem.22406.


This research aims to demonstrate in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design study that a nominal 5 μT low-frequency electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) signal for 30 min activates neutrophils in vivo in humans. Granularity of neutrophils was measured in blood samples of healthy human volunteers (n = 32) taken before and after exposure for both the exposure and control sessions. A significant decrease in the granularity, indicative of neutrophil activation, was observed both in the exposure measurements and the exposure minus control measurements. Earlier EMF publications show immune function increase in isolated cells and more effective immune responses in animals with infections. This result, therefore, supports the thesis that the exposure can activate the innate immune system in humans, speed up the innate immune response, and may have potential beneficial effects in infectious disease.


Exposure to Magnetic Fields Changes the Behavioral Pattern in Honeybees under Laboratory Conditions

Paweł Migdał, Ewelina Berbeć, Paweł Bieńkowski, Mateusz Plotnik, Agnieszka Murawska, Krzysztof Latarowski. Exposure to Magnetic Fields Changes the Behavioral Pattern in Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) under Laboratory Conditions. Animals (Basel). 2022 Mar 29;12(7):855. doi: 10.3390/ani12070855.


Earth's magnetic field (MF) plays an important role for many species, including the honeybee, in navigation. Nowadays, much larger alternating fields are emitted by miscellaneous electric infrastructure components, such as transformers and power lines, and the environment is therefore polluted by an anthropogenic electromagnetic field, though little is known regarding its impact on living organisms. The behavior of animals is the first and easiest way to establish the impact of stress. It shows if the animal can detect the exposure and react to it. To investigate this, one-day-old bees were exposed to a 50 Hz magnetic field of induction at 1 mT and 1.7 mT for 10 min, 1 h, and 3 h under laboratory conditions. All groups exposed to the magnetic field showed differences in behavioral patterns. What is more, they presented a behavior absent in the control: loss of balance. There were differences, both in the ratio of behaviors and in the number of bouts-exposed bees more often changed behavior. Occurrence of differences is an indication of the reaction of the honeybee organism to the magnetic field. Loss of balance is a disturbing symptom, and behavior changes indicate a disturbance of the honeybee by the electromagnetic field.


Exposure to the electromagnetic field alters the transcriptomic profile in the porcine endometrium during the peri-implantation period

Kozlowska W, Drzewiecka EM, Paukszto L, Zmijewska A, Wydorski PJ, Jastrzebski JP, Franczak A. Exposure to the electromagnetic field alters the transcriptomic profile in the porcine endometrium during the peri-implantation period. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2021 Dec;72(6). doi: 10.26402/jpp.2021.6.04.


A low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) is an environmental pollutant that may influence female reproduction. This research was undertaken to test the hypothesis that EMF causes alterations in the transcriptomic profile of the endometrium. This study investigated the in vitro effects of EMF treatment (50 Hz, 2 h) on global transcriptome alterations in the endometrium isolated from pigs during the peri-implantation period. The control endometrium was not treated with EMF. The EMF treatment altered the expression of 1561 transcriptionally active regions (TARs) in the endometrium. In the group of 461 evaluated DEGs, 156 were up-regulated (34%), 305 were down-regulated (66%) and 341 (74%) had known biological functions. A total of 210 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with changes in expression profiles, and 146 predicted RNA editing sites were also evaluated. Exposure to EMF changes the expression of genes encoding proteins that are involved in proliferation and metabolism in endometrial tissue. These results provide useful inputs for further research into the impact of EMF on molecular changes in the uterus during the peri-implantation period and, consequently, pregnancy outcome.


Electromagnetic field exposure alters in vitro estrogen biosynthesis and its release by the porcine endometrium in the peri-implantation period

Wiktoria Kozlowska, Ewa Monika Drzewiecka, Agata Zmijewska, Anita Franczak. Electromagnetic field exposure alters in vitro estrogen biosynthesis and its release by the porcine endometrium in the peri-implantation period. Reprod Biol. 2022 Apr 26;22(2):100642. doi: 10.1016/j.repbio.2022.100642.


The electromagnetic field (EMF) is an environmental risk factor that may impair living organisms. This study aims to determine the functional effects of EMF exposure at 50 and 120 Hz for 2 or 4 h on estrogen synthesis and release in the endometrium. Endometrial slices were isolated from pigs (n = 5) during the peri-implantation period. To check whether progesterone (P4) exerts any protective effects against EMF, selected EMF-treated slices were also treated with P4. CYP19A3 mRNA transcript abundance was higher in slices exposed to EMF (50 Hz, 4 h) and treated with P4. HSD17B4 mRNA transcript abundance was higher in slices exposed to EMF (50 and 120 Hz, 2 h) without P4 treatment. Both EMF (50 Hz, 2 h) and EMF (50 and 120 Hz, 4 h) increased HSD17B4 mRNA transcript abundance in the presence of P4; EMF (120 Hz, 2 h, and 50 Hz, 4 h) decreased cytochrome P-450arom protein abundance in tissue slices not treated with P4. Under exposure to EMF at 120 Hz (2 h), the abundance of hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase decreased in P4-treated slices and increased in slices not treated with P4 (4 h). Progesterone treatment decreased the release of estradiol-17β (E2) in endometrial slices exposed to EMF at 50 Hz (2 h), whereas in slices not treated with P4, EMF (120 Hz, 2 h) increased estrone (E1) release compared to control (without EMF). The EMF could disrupt the synthesis and release of E1 and E2 by the porcine endometrium during the peri-implantation period.


Searching for unity in diversity of animal magnetoreception: From biology to quantum mechanics and back

Can Xie. Searching for unity in diversity of animal magnetoreception: From biology to quantum mechanics and back. Innovation (N Y). 2022 Mar 11;3(3):100229. doi: 10.1016/j.xinn.2022.100229.


How animals sense the geomagnetic field remains a mystery today. A remarkable diversity has been revealed in animal magnetoreception and several sophisticated models have been put forward in the past few decades, but none have been commonly accepted yet. Cryptochrome (Cry) has been proposed in both the radical pair model and the MagR/Cry-based biocompass model. How exactly it participates in magnetic sensing is an ongoing discussion. Here we wish to suggest an intermolecular electron transport (ET) pathway conserved in evolution in the MagR/Cry complex, in which electrons travel stepwise along a flavin-tryptophan chain as described in the classic radical pair model, and further extends to iron-sulfur clusters in MagR via a series of stepping-stone amino acids as an ET bridge. The hypothesis we presented here may provide a solution to unite different models, and a feasible explanation for the intrinsic magnetic features of MagR, as well as a mechanism for signaling in animal magnetoreception, which are of considerable interest in both biology and physics.


Individual variability in space use near power lines by a long-lived territorial raptor

Marques AT, Palma L, Lourenço R, Cangarato R, Leitão A, Mascarenhas M, Tavares JT, Tomé R, Moreira F, Beja P. Individual variability in space use near power lines by a long-lived territorial raptor. Ecol Evol. 2022 Apr 7;12(4):e8811. doi: 10.1002/ece3.8811.


Evaluating species responses to anthropogenic infrastructures and other habitat changes is often used to assess environmental impacts and to guide conservation actions. However, such studies are generally carried out at the population level, disregarding inter-individual variability. Here, we investigate population- and individual-level responses toward power lines of a territorial raptor, the Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata. We used GPS-PTT tracking data of 17 adult eagles to model space use as a function of distance to transmission and distribution lines, while accounting for other habitat features known to affect this species. At population level, eagles increased the intensity of space use in the proximity of power lines (up to 1,000 m), suggesting an attraction effect. At individual level, some eagles shared the general population attraction pattern, while others showed reduced intensity of space use in the proximity of power lines. These differential responses were unrelated to the sex of individuals, but were affected by the characteristics of the power grid, with a tendency for apparent attraction to be associated with individuals occupying home ranges with a denser network of transmission lines and transmission pylons. However, the study could not rule out the operation of other potentially influential factors, such as individual idiosyncrasies, the spatial distribution of prey availability, and the availability of natural perches and nesting sites. Overall, these results suggest that power lines may drive different behaviors and have differential impacts across individuals, with those attracted to the proximity of power lines potentially facing increased risk of mortality through electrocution and collision, and those avoiding power lines being potentially subject to exclusion effects. More generally, our results reinforce the need to understand individual variability when assessing and mitigating impacts of anthropogenic infrastructures.