Wednesday, January 5, 2022

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since August 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below. The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 1,500 scientific papers. This 1,142-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:


Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.

Recent Papers

Health Safety Guidelines and 5G Wireless Radiation [Health Matters]

James C. Lin. Health Safety Guidelines and 5G Wireless Radiation [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine. 23(1):10-17. Jan. 2022, doi: 10.1109/MMM.2021.3117307.

Abstract

The rollout of 5G cellular communication technology is well underway worldwide. The advocates of 5G mobile technology hail it as a faster and more secure technology than its predecessor, 3G and 4G systems. The major enabling infrastructure uses millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and phased-array technology to achieve line-of-sight directivity, high data rates, and low latency. A central vulnerability or security threat is that it may allow spying on users. Nevertheless, this is a system architecture and technology or regulatory issue but not a biological effect or health safety matter.


My note: Like several past articles written by James C. Lin in IEEE Microwave Magazine, the abstract is biased so read the paper or the following excerpts.

Excerpts

Low-band 5G starts at roughly 400 MHz and uses existing or previous 3G or 4G frequencies or newly opened frequencies to operate; the latter, for example, may overlap with the existing 4G band. The 5G rollout began with midband, which includes popular frequencies between 3 and 4 GHz. However, primary 5G technological advances are associated with high-band 5G, which promises performance bandwidth as high as 20 GHz, and multiple-input, multiple-output strategies using 64–256 antennas at short distances and offering performances up to 10 times better than the current 4G networks."

"For health safety matters, it is not apparent whether the biological responses to high-band 5G radiations would be akin to earlier generations or low-band 5G radiations, given the distinctive characteristics of mm-wave and its interaction with the complex structure and composition of pertinent, superficial biological cells and tissues such as the cornea of the eye and nerve-rich human skin, the large, protective organ of the body."

"The two most widely promulgated RF health safety guidelines or standards have recently published revisions of their respective 1998 and 2005 versions [1], [2]. The updated International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and IEEE standards appear to cater to industry wishes; they are strongly linked to thermal effects associated with measurable temperature elevations. Also, the updates seem to have been synchronized to accommodate the 5G rollout."

"To date, there has not been a single reported epidemiological study that investigated mm-waves and their potential health effects.

Thus, although there are roughly 100 published laboratory investigations of all types, and the reported biological responses are inconsistent in their association between biological effects and mm-wave exposure. Indeed, the types of reported laboratory investigations are small, limited, and diverse, considering the wide, 5G, mm-wave frequency domain. The jury on biological effects or health impacts is still out on 5G mm-waves. Moreover, there is a lack of ongoing, controlled laboratory investigations...."

"If the entities responsible for safety recommendations believe what appears to be their position concerning experimental results from rats from the NIEHS/NTP that a whole-body temperature rise of 1 °C is  carcinogenic, then the safety factors of 50 adopted for the public or 10 for workers would be marginal for their stated purpose and practically meaningless from the perspective of “safety” protection (more so above 6 GHz)."

"As shown in Table 1, for mm-waves, the referenced local-tissue-temperature rise in the head, torso, and limbs of humans is 5 °C. This level of temperature rise would bring the tissue temperature from a normal value of 37 °C to a hyperthermic 42 °C. A 42 °C tissue temperature is known to be cytotoxic, with exponential cell-killing capacities. It is used as the basis for clinical cancer therapy in hyperthermia treatment for cancer protocols [14]–[16]. The recently updated safety recommendations provide a reduction factor of 10 for the public’s safety and a reduction factor of two in the case of workers. In this situation, the efficacy of these updated safety recommendations is borderline, and the updated recommendations are meaningless from the perspective of safety protection.

In summary, the safety recommendation updates were based primarily on limiting the tissue-heating potentials of RF radiation to elevate body temperatures. There are significant anomalies in the recently updated safety recommendations. Moreover, aside from the aforementioned anomalies, the existing scientific data are too limited—especially at mm-wavelengths—to make a reliable assessment or conclusion with any certainty. Some of the updated safety recommendations are marginal, questionable, and lack scientific justification from the perspective of safety protection."

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Health Effects of 5G Base Station Exposure: A Systematic Review


Tasneem Sofri, Hasliza A Rahim, Mohamedfareq Abdulmalek, Khatijahhusna Abd Rani, Mohd Hafizi Omar, Mohd Najib Mohd Yasin, Muzammil Jusoh, Ping Jack Soh. Health Effects of 5G Base Station Exposure: A Systematic Review. IEEE Access. Dec 30, 2021. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3139385.

Abstract

The Fifth Generation (5G) communication technology will deliver faster data speeds and support numerous new applications such as virtual and augmented reality. The additional need for a larger number of 5G base stations has sparked widespread public concerns about their possible negative health impacts. This review analyzes the latest research on electromagnetic exposure on humans, with particular attention to its effect on cognitive performance, well-being, physiological parameters, and Electroencephalography (EEG). While most of their results indicated no changes in cognitive function, physiological parameters, or overall well-being, the strength of the EEG alpha wave is noticed to vary depending on various aspects of cognitive functions. However, the available studies have not investigated the health effects resulting from exposure from the 5G mobile phone and base station antennas from 700 MHz to 30 GHz on the cognitive performance, well-being subjective symptoms, human physiological parameters, and EEG of adults. There is a need for such research regarding this current emerging technology. Such studies are significant in determining whether 5G technology is indeed safe for humans.

Conclusion

This work presents an analysis of exposure studies conducted using signals from 400 MHz to 1750 MHz (for 4G). From this analysis, the following conclusions are made:

• Most of the studies in literature using 2G/3G/4G showed no effects and no consistency in how exposure to these signals affected the cognitive, physiological parameters, well-being, and EEG of the volunteers.
• Most research on human cognition, physiological parameters, and well-being so far have focused on the impacts of GSM900/GSM1800/UMTS/4G MPs, GSM900/GSM1800/UMTS BSs, DECT, and Wi-Fi exposures.
• There is an absence of studies reporting the effects of 5G (700 MHz, 3.5 GHz, or 28 GHz) BS signals on adults in terms of cognitive performance, well-being, or physiological markers (heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature).

Figure 9 and 10 illustrated the possible flowchart and schematic diagram to study the effects of 5G BS exposure signals for sub-6 GHz and mmWave bands (of up to 30 GHz) to human subjects. Data from such a study will be useful in explicitly determining the significance signal exposure from 5G BS on human health, considering their much closer proximity to users.


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Wireless phone use in childhood and adolescence and neuroepithelial brain tumours: Results from the international MOBI-Kids study

My note: Conducting this type of research is a complex endeavor with a high risk of failure. Although the authors made an exemplary effort to salvage the study via supplemental substudies and post-hoc analyses, they were unsuccessful in overcoming the study's methodologic problems. Hence, in my professional opinion the results seem uninterpretable. See https://www.saferemr.com/2013/05/mobi-kids-childhood-brain-tumor-risk.html for background on this study.  

G. Castaño-Vinyals, S. Sadetzki, R. Vermeulen, F. Momoli, M. Kundi, F. Merletti, M. Maslanyj, C. Calderon, J. Wiart, A.-K. Lee, M. Taki, M. Sim, B. Armstrong, G. Benke, R. Schattner, H.-P. Hutter, D. Krewski, C. Mohipp, P. Ritvo, J. Spinelli, B. Lacour, T. Remen, K. Radon, T. Weinmann, E.Th. Petridou, M. Moschovi, A. Pourtsidis, K. Oikonomou, P. Kanavidis, E. Bouka, R. Dikshit, R. Nagrani, A. Chetrit, R. Bruchim, M. Maule, E. Migliore, G. Filippini, L. Miligi, S. Mattioli, N. Kojimahara, N. Yamaguchi, M. Ha, K. Choi, H. Kromhout, G. Goedhart, A. 't Mannetje, A. Eng, C.E. Langer, J. Alguacil, N. Aragonés, M. Morales-Suárez-Varela, F. Badia, A. Albert, G. Carretero, E. Cardis. Wireless phone use in childhood and adolescence and neuroepithelial brain tumours: Results from the international MOBI-
Kids study. Environment International,160, 2022, 107069, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.107069.

Abstract

In recent decades, the possibility that use of mobile communicating devices, particularly wireless (mobile and cordless) phones, may increase brain tumour risk, has been a concern, particularly given the considerable increase in their use by young people. MOBI-Kids, a 14-country (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain) case-control study, was conducted to evaluate whether wireless phone use (and particularly resulting exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF)) increases risk of brain tumours in young people. Between 2010 and 2015, the study recruited 899 people with brain tumours aged 10 to 24 years old and 1,910 controls (operated for appendicitis) matched to the cases on date of diagnosis, study region and age. Participation rates were 72% for cases and 54% for controls. The mean ages of cases and controls were 16.5 and 16.6 years, respectively; 57% were males. The vast majority of study participants were wireless phones users, even in the youngest age group, and the study included substantial numbers of long-term (over 10 years) users: 22% overall, 51% in the 20–24-year-olds. Most tumours were of the neuroepithelial type (NBT; n = 671), mainly glioma. The odds ratios (OR) of NBT appeared to decrease with increasing time since start of use of wireless phones, cumulative number of calls and cumulative call time, particularly in the 15–19 years old age group. A decreasing trend in ORs was also observed with increasing estimated cumulative RF specific energy and ELF induced current density at the location of the tumour. Further analyses suggest that the large number of ORs below 1 in this study is unlikely to represent an unknown causal preventive effect of mobile phone exposure: they can be at least partially explained by differential recall by proxies and prodromal symptoms affecting phone use before diagnosis of the cases. We cannot rule out, however, residual confounding from sources we did not measure. Overall, our study provides no evidence of a causal association between wireless phone use and brain tumours in young people. However, the sources of bias summarised above prevent us from ruling out a small increased risk.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021006942

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Very high radiofrequency radiation at Skeppsbron in Stockholm, Sweden from mobile phone base station antennas positioned close to pedestrians’ heads

Tarmo Koppel, Mikko Ahonen, Michael Carlberg, Lennart Hardell. Very high radiofrequency radiation at Skeppsbron in Stockholm, Sweden from mobile phone base station antennas positioned close to pedestrians’ heads. Environmental Research. Available online 4 January 2022, 112627 doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.112627.

Highlights

• Ambient radiofrequency radiation at Skeppsbron street, Stockholm, Sweden was measured.
• The area with highest average radiation was 12.1 V/m with maximum reading 31.6 V/m.
• Placement of mobile phone base stations at Skeppsbron represents poor radiofrequency infrastructure design yielding high exposure levels to the general public.

Abstract

In urban environment there is a constant increase of public exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations. With the placement of mobile phone base station antennas radiofrequency hotspots emerge. This study investigates an area at Skeppsbron street in Stockholm, Sweden with an aggregation of base station antennas placed at low level close to pedestrians' heads. Detailed spatial distribution measurements were performed with 1) a radiofrequency broadband analyzer and 2) a portable exposimeter. The results display a greatly uneven distribution of the radiofrequency field with hotspots. The highest spatial average across all quadrat cells was 12.1 V m⁻1 (388 mW m⁻2), whereas the maximum recorded reading from the entire area was 31.6 V m⁻1 (2648 mW m⁻2). Exposimeter measurements show that the majority of exposure is due to mobile phone downlink bands. Most dominant are 2600 and 2100 MHz bands used by 4G and 3G mobile phone services, respectively. The average radiofrequency radiation values from the earlier studies show that the level of ambient RF radiation exposure in Stockholm is increasing. This study concluded that mobile phone base station antennas at Skeppsbron, Stockholm are examples of poor radiofrequency infrastructure design which brings upon highly elevated exposure levels to popular seaside promenade and a busy traffic street.


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Trigger of a migraine headache among Thai adolescents smartphone users: a time series study

Wanna Chongchitpaisan, Phongtape Wiwatanadate, Surat Tanprawate, Assawin Narkpongphan, Nipapon Siripon. Trigger of a migraine headache among Thai adolescents smartphone users: a time series study. Environ Anal Health Toxicol. 2021 Mar;36(1):e2021006-0. doi: 10.5620/eaht.2021006.

Abstract

The study aims to investigate the effect of modern technology in the trigger of migraine headaches in high school students by using generalized estimating equation analysis. The prospective time series study was conducted in one hundred and forty-five smartphones using high school students in Chiang Mai Province who each completed a headache diary giving a total of 12,969 data entries. The smartphone output power was measured and recorded by a smartphone application. Smartphone use, sleep quality, anxiety, and depression also were assessed. Results revealed that the prevalence of repeated headache be 13.4% and migraine 16.9%. The migraine had the strongest association with handfree device use and internet use, followed by age and anxiety. Furthermore, the strongest effect of smartphone output power in triggering a migraine was found at ≤ 1.79×10-5 and 1.80-1.99×10-5 mW ranges. Meanwhile, Lag_6 of daily smartphone output power exposure produced the migraine effect in a reverse dose-response manner. The smartphone electromagnetic radiation was a primary migraine trigger. The study results led to the recommendation to avoid triggers by use of smartphone talking with hand-free devices to prevent a recurrent migraine.

Conclusions

SOP, which is smartphone electromagnetic radiation, has a non-linear correlation with migraine headaches which has been called a window effect response. The result has also found migraine response to a delayed effect of SOP in the form of reverse dose-response. The delayed effect response on repeated exposure can recover and re-balance itself after exposure to electromagnetic radiation. Additionally, smartphone electromagnetic radiation has effects that fit the criteria for triggers that induce migraines. Finally, younger student, internet use and talking without hand-free devices were risk factors of migraines. It is recommended that limited time for smartphone talking with hand-free device and older age starting using smartphone be suggested in order to prevent migraine attack.


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Answers and Questions: Forty Years in Bioelectromagnetics

Ben Greenebaum. Answers and Questions: Forty Years in Bioelectromagnetics. Bioelectromagnetics. 2021 Dec 2. doi: 10.1002/bem.22381.

Abstract

The work began in 1972 when three young assistant professors used a slime mold to see if electromagnetic fields would affect it. The fields did, though the effects were small and hard to tease out of the noise. The cell cycle was lengthened and there were changes in respiration. So, the next question was "how and why?" Further changes were seen using these and then other bacterial and eukaryotic cells in respiration, in ATP, in the protein replication chain, and so forth. Changes occurred even in cell extracts that lacked an intact plasma membrane. Nerve cells showed changes in leakage of neurotransmitters and in neurite outgrowth from excised ganglia. Based on some experiments with nerve cells, I also did some computer calculations, modeling the internal electric and magnetic fields and current densities in simplified representations of bone fractures and also of spinal cords in vertebrae. More recently, I have collaborated on some theoretical models of what fields might be doing at the cellular and molecular level, particularly with reference to the radical model. With each piece of research, my collaborators and I generally found a small piece of information about fields and biological systems; and each answer raised another set of questions, which is the way of science. Though bioelectromagnetic scientists have learned much and can say much at greater depth about what happens when an organism is exposed to a field, the fundamental question still remains: What exactly is going on here?


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What evidence exists on the impact of anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on animals and plants in the environment? A systematic map protocol

Ken Karipidis, Chris Brzozek, Chhavi Raj Bhatt, Sarah Loughran, Andrew Wood. What evidence exists on the impact of anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on animals and plants in the environment? A systematic map protocol. Environmental Evidence. 10(39). 21 December 2021.

Abstract

Background  Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), particularly from telecommunications sources, is one of the most common and fastest growing anthropogenic factors on the environment. In many countries, humans are protected from excessive RF EMF exposure by safety standards that are based on guidelines by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The ICNIRP guidelines are based on knowledge of how RF EMF affects the human body, however, there are currently no recognised international guidelines to specifically protect animals and plants. Whether the ICNIRP guidelines for humans is adequate to provide protection to the environment is a subject of active debate. This systematic map will collate all the available evidence on whether anthropogenic RF EMF has a negative effect on plants and animals in the environment. The map will also identify gaps in knowledge, recommend future research and inform environmental and radiation protection authorities.

Methods  The proposed systematic map will include peer-reviewed and grey literature published in English. The EMF—Portal, PubMed and Web of Science databases will be searched using a search string prepared by the review team and tested for comprehensiveness against a list of known relevant reviews. Once duplicates are removed, retrieved articles will be screened in three stages: title, abstract, and full text. Studies will be selected with a subject population of all plants and animals, with exposures to anthropogenic RF EMF (frequency range 100 kHz–300 GHz) compared to no or lower-level exposure, and for all outcomes related to the studied populations. Kappa statistic tests will be conducted at each stage to ensure consistency of decision-making regarding the predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Eligible studies will then proceed to the data extraction phase, which will extract meta-data such as bibliographic information, taxonomic information, RF EMF exposure data, outcome(s), sample size, etc. The extracted data will then be organised into a systematic map and the findings summarised by cross-tabulating key meta-data variables in heat maps, charts or other data visualization methods. The systematic map will identify gaps in knowledge, priorities for future research and potential subtopics for further analysis and/or systematic review.


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Can the Microwave Auditory Effect Be “Weaponized”?  


Foster Kenneth R., Garrett David C., Ziskin Marvin C. Can the Microwave Auditory Effect Be “Weaponized”? Frontiers in Public Health. 9:2142. 2021. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.788613.

No abstract.


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The potential adverse effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on the testes of prenatally exposed peripubertal male rats

Andrašková S, Holovská K, Ševčíková Z, Andrejčáková Z, Tóth Š, Martončíková M, Račeková E, Almášiová V. The potential adverse effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on the testes of prenatally exposed peripubertal male rats. Histol Histopathol. 2021 Dec 2:18402. doi: 10.14670/HH-18-402.

Abstract

In utero development of organs is easily influenced by many environmental factors. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of microwave radiation (MR) at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and a specific absorption rate of 1.73 W/kg on intrauterine development of testis. Pregnant albino rats were exposed to whole-body MR for 2 hours per day throughout the pregnancy. Male offspring (n=12, age 35 days) were not exposed to MR after birth. The study revealed that MR applied in utero induced apparent structural changes in the testes, such as irregular shape of seminiferous tubules, significant decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules (p<0.05) and in the height of the germinal epithelium (p<0.01), disorganisation of germ cells, desquamations of immature germ cells, formation of giant multinucleated cells, and significant (p<0.01) expansion of the interstitium. At the level of transmission electron microscopy, there were observed basement membrane irregularities in seminiferous tubules, vacuolation of the cytoplasm and adversely affected organelles in Sertoli cells, germ cells, Leydig cells, peritubular and endothelial cells. The tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells were often incomplete, and necrotizing germ cells were more numerous in experimental animals compared to controls. Enhanced necrotizations of germ cells proved by a Fluoro Jade C method, and declined germ cells proliferation confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen analysis, were detected in MR exposed animals. Our results revealed that the prenatal exposure to MR had an adverse effect on the postnatal testicular development in rats.


Excerpts

The exact cellular pathways mediating the adverse effect of RF-EMR on testicular development and future spermatogenesis are still under investigation and further studies are still required. Many authors suggested that the most likely mechanism of RF-EMR associated testicular tissue injury is oxidative damage (Valko et al., 2006; Höytö et al., 2008; Desai et al., 2009; Tök et al. 2014; Yakymenko et al. 2016). This is in close agreement with our observation of the impaired testicular structure, ultrastructure, and regression of proliferative capacity of spermatogenic elements, accompanied by enhanced degeneration. Given the chosen methodology and the calculated SAR value, we have assumed that the primary source of testicular tissue damage was the non-thermal effect of RF-EMR. However, due to the impossibility of monitoring the hot spot phenomenon in the developing testes of rat foetuses, we cannot exclude the thermal effect.

In conclusion, our data attest to the harmful impact of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on development of testes during the prenatal period which subsequently compromises the spermatogenic cycle and male reproductive function in the postnatal period of life. To preserve the steady reproductive health, it would be necessary to avoid or minimize exposure to RF-MR, especially in the most vulnerable period of intrauterine development of the individual.

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The Effects of Gum arabic, Curcumin (Curcuma longa) and Garcinia kola on the Rat Hippocampus after Electromagnetic Field Exposure

Abdalla Ahmed Eldaw Elamin, Omur Gulsum Deniz, Suleyman Kaplan. The Effects of Gum arabic, Curcumin (Curcuma longa) and Garcinia kola on the Rat Hippocampus after Electromagnetic Field Exposure: A Stereological and Histological Study. J Chem Neuroanat. 2021 Dec 13;102060. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.102060.

Abstract

The present study was designed to focus on the potential effects of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phones on hippocampal pyramidal neurons and to investigate the role of curcumin (Cur), Garcinia kola (GK) and Gum arabic (GA) in reducing these adverse effects. Fifty-four 12-week-old male Wistar albino rats were used. These were randomly divided into nine groups of six rats each. The control, Cur, GK and GA groups were not exposed to EMF, while the sham group was kept in the EMF exposure system without being exposed to EMF. The EMF+Cur, EMF+GK, EMF+GA and EMF groups were exposed to 900MHz EMF for one hour a day for 28 days. The number of the pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis (CA) of the hippocampus was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Histopathological changes were evaluated under light and electron microscopes. The activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes were also evaluated from serum samples. Significant levels of CAT and SOD activities were observed in the EMF group compared to the control group (p=0.000; p=0.001) respectively. Microscopic observations showed that dark-coloured nuclei with unclear neuron boundaries were frequently observed in the EMF group. Stereological data analysis revealed a significant decrease in the CA's total number of pyramidal neurons in the EMF group compared to the control and sham groups (p=0.000; p=0.000) respectively. Cur and GK were observed to provide significant protection in the EMF+Cur and EMF+GK groups compared to the EMF group (p=0.000; p=0.000) respectively. No significant difference was observed between the EMF+GA group and EMF group (p=0.989). Exposure to 900MHz EMF causes severe alterations in the number and structure of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Cur and GK exhibit a protective effect against these deleterious effects, but GA showed no protective effect.


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[Exposure of the scrotum to 4G cellphone radiofrequency radiation affects spermatogenesis and blood-testis barrier of adult male rats]


Qing Cheng, Gang Yu, Gang Wang, Zhi-Ming Bai. [Exposure of the scrotum to 4G cellphone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation affects the spermatogenesis and blood-testis barrier of adult male rats] [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2021 Aug;27(8):680-684.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the direct impact of exposure of the scrotum to 4G cellphone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the testis of adult rats.

Methods: We equally randomized 30 adult male SD rats into a control and an exposure group, the latter exposed to 4G cellphone RF-EMR 6 hours a day for 150 days. Then, we analyzed the changes in semen quality and seminiferous epithelia, and measured the levels antioxidant enzyme-peroxide and the expressions of blood-testis barrier proteins in the testis of the rats.

Results: Compared with the controls, the rats in the exposure group showed significantly decreased sperm concentration ([6.39 ± 0.82] vs [4.74 ± 0.87] ×107/ml, P < 0.05), viability (62.11 ± 8.82]% vs [41.44 ± 7.33]%, P < 0.05), motility ([55.71 ± 7.39] vs [36.22 ± 6.36]%, P < 0.05), the percentage of morphologically normal sperm ([84.89 ± 5.11]% vs [70.78 ± 8.11]%, P < 0.05) and Johnsen's score (8.38 ± 0.98 vs 6.11 ± 1.56, P < 0.05), increased Coentino's score (1.36 ± 0.21 vs 1.81 ± 0.34, P < 0.05) and MDA level (P < 0.05), reduced levels of SOD, GSH and CAT (P < 0.05), and down-regulated expressions of occludin, ZO-1, CAR and N-Cadherin (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Exposure of the scrotum to 4G cellphone RF-EMR directly causes injury of the testis, disorder of the blood-testis barrier, reduction of semen quality and consequently decline in the fertility of male rats.


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3.5-GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation promotes the development of Drosophila melanogaster

Yahong Wang, Zhihao Jiang, Lu Zhang, Ziyan Zhang, Yanyan Liao, Peng Cai. 3.5-GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation promotes the development of Drosophila melanogaster. Environ Pollut. 2021 Dec 8;294:118646. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118646.

Highlights

• Simulating the most representative 3.5 GHz RF-EMF band of 5G in China.
• We study the long-term effects of 3.5 GHz RF-EMF on flies' development.
• The microbial community may participate in the development under long-term RF-EMF.
• It provides a reference for the hidden health effects of RF-EMF.

Abstract

With the rapidly increasing popularity of 5G mobile technology, the effect of radiofrequency radiation on human health has caused public concern. This study explores the effects of a simulated 3.5 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMF) environment on the development and microbiome of flies under intensities of 0.1 W/m2, 1 W/m2 and 10 W/m2. We found that the pupation percentages in the first 3 days and eclosion rate in the first 2 days were increased under exposure to RF-EMF, and the mean development time was shortened. In a study on third-instar larvae, the expression levels of the heat shock protein genes hsp22, hsp26 and hsp70 and humoral immune system genes AttC, TotC and TotA were all significantly increased. In the oxidative stress system, DuoX gene expression was decreased, sod2 and cat gene expression levels were increased, and SOD and CAT enzyme activity also showed a significant increase. According to the 16S rDNA results, the diversity and species abundance of the microbial community decreased significantly, and according to the functional prediction analysis, the genera Acetobacter and Lactobacillus were significantly increased. In conclusion, 3.5 GHz RF-EMF may enhance thermal stress, oxidative stress and humoral immunity, cause changes in the microbial community, and regulate the insulin/TOR and ecdysteroid signalling pathways to promote fly development.


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Abnormal Expression of Connexin43 in Cardiac Injury Induced by S-Band and X-Band Microwave Exposure in Rats

Yin Y, Xu X, Gao Y, Wang J, Yao B, Zhao L, Wang H, Wang H, Dong J, Zhang J, Peng R. Abnormal Expression of Connexin43 in Cardiac Injury Induced by S-Band and X-Band Microwave Exposure in Rats. J Immunol Res. 2021 Dec 17;2021:3985697. doi: 10.1155/2021/3985697.

Abstract

Although the effects of microwave exposure on the heart have gradually become the focus of domestic and foreign scholars, the biological effects caused by different doses and different frequency bands of exposure are still unclear. In this study, we will investigate the damaging effect of S-band and X-band microwave composite exposure on cardiac structure and function, as well as the pathophysiological significance of Cx43 in cardiac conduction dysfunction after exposure. We used S- and X-band radiation sources with the average power density of 5 and 10 mW/cm2 to expose Wistar rats to single or composite exposure. At the 6th hour, on the 7th, 14th, and 28th days after exposure, ECG was used to detect the electrical conduction of the heart, and the myocardial enzyme was measured by the automatic biochemical analyzer. We selected the observation time points and groups with severe damage to observe the changes of myocardial structure and ultrastructure with an optical microscope and TEM; and to detect the expression and distribution of Cx43 by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. After exposure, the heart rate increased, the P wave amplitude decreased, and the R wave amplitude increased; the content of the myocardial enzyme in serum increased; the structure and ultrastructure of cardiac tissue were damaged. The damage was dose-dependent and frequency-dependent. The expression of Cx43 in myocardial tissue decreased, and distribution was abnormal. Taken together, these findings suggested that the mechanism of abnormal electrical conduction in the heart of rats by S- and X-band microwave exposure might be related to the decreased expression and disordered distribution of Cx43 after microwave exposure.


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Methodology of Studying Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on Organisms: Technical Aspects


Katerina Bartosova, Marek Neruda, Lukas Vojtech. Methodology of Studying Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on Organisms: Technical Aspects. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Nov 30;18(23):12642. doi: 10.3390/ijerph182312642

Abstract

The negative influence of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation on organisms, including humans, has been discussed widely in recent years. This paper deals with the methodology of examining possible harmful effects of mobile phone radiation, focusing on in vivo and in vitro laboratory methods of investigation and evaluation and their main problems and difficulties. Basic experimental parameters are summarized and discussed, and recent large studies are also mentioned. For the laboratory experiments, accurate setting and description of dosimetry are essential; therefore, we give recommendations for the technical parameters of the experiments, especially for a well-defined source of radiation by Software Defined Radio.

Excerpt

Moreover, we emphasize that the dosimetry should always be clearly set and observed in the laboratory tests. This includes using a radiofrequency radiation source where the frequency, time, and intensity of the radiation, including placement of the radiation source, can be precisely set and controlled. To comply with the above-mentioned criteria—precisely defined radiofrequency radiation on the one hand, and unpredictable changes of the signal on the other hand—we suggest using the Software Defined Radio (SDR) approach available for 2G, 3G [44,45], 4G, and 5G [46] instead of a signal vector generator or undefined cell phone. The SDR transceiver enables the generation of high-frequency multichannel/wideband power signals in repeatable scenarios (recorded signal or artificial signal), with respect to timing, modulation methods, waveform, transmission power, and its time changes, etc., of real mobile phone radio channel parameters and for different xG mobile generations, unlike a standard signal generator. In order to be able to repeat the experiments in a controlled manner, it is necessary to use a standardized antenna adapter for radiating high-frequency power, i.e., an antenna structure for near/far EM field. The SDR enables the creation of a new base transceiver station (2G), Node B (3G), eNode B (4G), or gNode B (5G), which directly communicates with mobile phones, i.e., it can generate a real unpredictable mobile phone signal (i.e., signal changing in an irregular, unpredictable way), as suggested by Panagopoulos [24]. In addition, the SDR also enables the creation of a mobile phone phantom, i.e., specific hardware solution, e.g., OsmocomBB [44], with a well-defined mobile phone phantom (antenna, controlled radiofrequency signal radiation setup, etc., in standardized measurement environment, i.e., measurement cell), which can facilitate the reproducibility of future experiments. All necessary parameters of individual mobile technologies, including time intervals, frequency, modulation, intensity, etc., can be precisely controlled. Using the SDR and standardized measurement cell could substantially help to avoid problems of the replication of studies. In addition, one of the advantages of this approach is the possibility of sharing a specific scenario between laboratories in order to ensure the repeatability of the radiation source.

Conclusions

The paper reviews laboratory methods studying the effects of radiofrequency radiation on organisms, focusing on technical aspects of the experiments. As can be concluded from many works, the effects of radiofrequency radiation can differ under different conditions and settings. Therefore, we emphasize that the methodology should be clearly and precisely set to ensure the results can be verified and reproduced. Very important is the choice of a suitable source of radiation, here we recommend the SDR, which can simulate a real mobile phone signal in a controlled and repeatable way. The influence of radiofrequency radiation is a multidisciplinary topic and includes many fields, such as medicine, biology, toxicology, physics, electrical and electronic engineering, telecommunication, and statistics. The future research requires close cooperation of scientists from all these fields. Following the given recommendations should increase the overall quality of the experiments and publications and give the possibility to compare, reproduce, and verify the results.


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Multi-hop D2D Communication in Cellular Networks to Minimize EMR

Avirup Das, Nabanita Das, Abhirup Das Barman. Multi-hop D2D Communication in Cellular Networks to Minimize EMR. IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking. 30 December 2021. doi: 10.1109/TGCN.2021.3139286.

Abstract

With the advent of IoT, and the growing demand of infotainment, the number of data sources transmitting at high data rates for long duration is increasing rapidly. It results an ever increasing level of associated Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) in our surroundings. The transmission powers from the near-field sources like mobile phones along with the duration of sessions are the crucial factors to accurately assess the harmful effects of EMR exposure from these devices. In order to limit and balance the EMR exposure from these sources, this paper, proposes short-range multi-hop packet forwarding technique with cognitive channel allocation for newer technologies of LTE. Theoretical analysis presented here, establishes bounds on the permissible channels and matching data rates to be used by the nodes to balance the duration of transmission maintaining the safe limit of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). Based on this strategy, algorithm is developed for multi-hop packet routing with channel selection using cognitive radio. Extensive simulation studies on 5G New Radio (NR) band show significant improvement in energy efficiency with nearly balanced transmission duration and SAR reducing the near-field heating effect throughout the network.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9666462

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Effect of Magnetic Fields during Pregnancy on Fetal Growth and Preterm Labor: A Review Article

Zahra Khojastehfard, Somayeh Ghahremani, Maryam Sabaghian, Samaneh Ghalebizadeh, Zoleykha Asgarlou, Soheil Mohammadi Yazdi, Mahla Salarfard. Effect of Magnetic Fields during Pregnancy on Fetal Growth and Preterm Labor: A Review Article. Intl J Pediatrics. 10.22038/ijp.2020.48094.3874

Abstract

Background  Low birth weight is one of the most important health indicators in evaluating pregnancy care worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the effect of cell phones used in pregnancy on fetal growth and preterm labor.

Materials and Methods  The search process included screening the relevant articles on electronic databases of Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Medline to analyze the association of maternal exposure to magnetic fields with fetal growth, birth weight, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and preterm labor.

Results  In the first study, the duration of pregnancy was shorter for mothers using cell phones for more than one hour per day than those use shorter than one hour. In the second study, the intermediate use of cell phones by mothers indicated an increased risk of preterm birth. In the third study, the birth weight were lower in excessive cell phone users than normal status. In the fourth study, low, medium, and high cell phone exposure during the six months before conception had no effect on low birth weight, preterm birth, and SGA.In the fifth study, a negative correlation was observed between magnetic fields expose during pregnancy and the birth week, birth weight, and birth length of the newborn. In the sixth study, the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth, and SGA was close to null. In the seventh study, dental radiography during pregnancy was associated with low birth weight, specifically with term low birth weight.

Conclusion  In general, there are contradictory findings on the impact of cell phone exposure during pregnancy. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size and recall bias.

Open access paper: https://ijp.mums.ac.ir/article_15508_d1291b56392c9b107f6f008380ca99d1.pdf

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Motor neuron disease risk and magnetic field exposures

Tom Sorahan, Linda Nichols. Motor neuron disease risk and magnetic field exposures. Occup Med (Lond). 2021 Dec 23; kqab180. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqab180.

Abstract

Background: Many studies have investigated magnetic field exposure and the risks of motor neuron disease (MND). Meta-analyses have found positive associations but a causal relationship has not been established.

Aims: To investigate the risks of MND and occupational exposure to magnetic fields in a large UK cohort.

Methods: Mortality of 37 986 employees of the former Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales was investigated for the period 1987-2018. Employees were first employed in the period 1942-82 and were still in employment on the 1 November, 1987. Detailed calculations enabled estimates to be made of magnetic field exposures. Observed deaths were compared with expected numbers based on mortality rates for the general population of England and Wales and Poisson regression was used to calculate rate ratios (relative risks) for categories of lifetime, lagged (distant) and lugged (recent) magnetic field exposure.

Results: Mortality from MND in the total cohort was similar to national rates (observed 69, expected 71.3, SMR 97, 95% CI 76-122). There were no statistically significant trends of risks increasing with lifetime, recent or distant magnetic field exposure, although positive associations were observed for some categories of recent exposure.

Conclusions: The study did not find that the cohort had elevated risks of MND as a consequence of occupational lifetime exposure to magnetic fields, although a possible role for recent exposures could usefully be investigated in other datasets.

Funding: This work was supported by the Energy Networks Association (ENA). [The Energy Networks Association is the industry body funded by UK gas and electricity transmission and distribution licence holders.]


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Influence of Geomagnetic Disturbances at Different Times of Day on Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

Viacheslav V Krylov. Influence of Geomagnetic Disturbances at Different Times of Day on Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio). Clocks Sleep. 2021 Nov 29;3(4):624-632. doi: 10.3390/clockssleep3040045.

Abstract

The influence of magnetic fields and natural geomagnetic storms on biological circadian rhythms are actively studied. This study reveals an impact of local natural perturbations in the geomagnetic field that occurred at different times of the day on circadian patterns of locomotor activity of zebrafish. A decrease in zebrafish swimming speed was observed during the geomagnetic disturbances before or after the fluctuations of diurnal geomagnetic variation. However, if the geomagnetic perturbations coincided with the fluctuations of diurnal geomagnetic variation, the decrease in zebrafish swimming speed was insignificant. This result suggests that the biological effects of geomagnetic disturbances may depend on synchronization with the diurnal geomagnetic variation. It implies that the previously published correlations between geomagnetic activity and medical or biological parameters could result from a disruption in circadian biorhythms.