Monday, July 29, 2019

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August, 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below.

The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 750 scientific papers. This 511-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:


Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.

Recent Papers

Headache, tinnitus and hearing loss in the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS) in Sweden and Finland

Auvinen A, Feychting M, Ahlbom A, Hillert L, Elliott P, Schüz J, Kromhout H, Toledano MB, Johansen C, Poulsen AH, Vermeulen R, Heinävaara S, Kojo K, Tettamanti G, COSMOS Study Group. Headache, tinnitus and hearing loss in the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS) in Sweden and Finland. Int J Epidemiol. 2019 Jul 13. pii: dyz127. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyz127.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Mobile phone use and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from it have been associated with symptoms in some studies, but the studies have shortcomings and their findings are inconsistent. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the association between amount of mobile phone use at baseline and frequency of headache, tinnitus or hearing loss at 4-year follow-up.

METHODS: The participants had mobile phone subscriptions with major mobile phone network operators in Sweden (n = 21 049) and Finland (n = 3120), gave consent for obtaining their mobile phone call data from operator records at baseline, and filled in both baseline and follow-up questionnaires on symptoms, potential confounders and further characteristics of their mobile phone use.

RESULTS: The participants with the highest decile of recorded call-time (average call-time >276 min per week) at baseline showed a weak, suggestive increased frequency of weekly headaches at 4-year follow-up (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.95-1.34). There was no obvious gradient of weekly headache with increasing call-time (P trend 0.06). The association of headache with call-time was stronger for the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) network than older Global System for Mobile Telecommunications (GSM) technology, despite the latter involving higher exposure to RF-EMF. Tinnitus and hearing loss showed no association with call-time.

CONCLUSIONS: People using mobile phones most extensively for making or receiving calls at baseline reported weekly headaches slightly more frequently at follow-up than other users, but this finding largely disappeared after adjustment for confounders and was not related to call-time in GSM with higher RF-EMF exposure. Tinnitus and hearing loss were not associated with amount of call-time.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31302690

In conclusion, we found a small increase in weekly headache at 4-year follow-up among those in the highest decile of amount of call-time but free of weekly headache at baseline, but it largely disappeared after adjustment for confounders. There was no clear gradient in occurrence of weekly headache with amount of call-time. Any association between call-time and weekly headaches was limited to call-time in the third-generation UMTS network and was not found for the older GSM system characterized by higher RF-EMF exposure levels. This suggests that other factors related to the amount of mobile phone use (e.g. lifestyle, when and how the phone is used) may explain the weak association, rather than an effect of RF-EMF. We observed no association in our prospective study with occurrence of tinnitus or hearing loss.

My note: An alternative explanation is that UMTS is more biologically active than GSM even though the power density is lower. Also, it's no surprise that the association between the exposure and the health outcome largely disappears after adjustment for confounders because some of the confounders were on the causal pathway.


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A survey on electromagnetic risk assessment and evaluation mechanism for future wireless communication systems

Jamshed MA, Heliot F, Brown T. A survey on electromagnetic risk assessment and evaluation mechanism for future wireless communication systems. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology. May 20, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/JERM.2019.2917766

Abstract

The accurate measurement of electromagnetic exposure and its application is expected to become more and more important in future wireless communication systems, given the explosion in both the number of wireless devices and equipments radiating electromagnetic-fields(EMF)and the growing concerns in the general public linked to it. Indeed, the next generation of wireless systems aims at providing a higher data rate,better quality of service(QoS), and lower latency to users by increasing the number of access points,i.e.densification, which in turn will increase EMF exposure. Similarly, the multiplication of future connected devices,e.g. internet of things(IoT)devices, will also contribute to an increase in EMF exposure. This paper provides a detailed survey relating to the potential health hazards linked with EMF exposure and the different metrics that are currently used for evaluating,limiting and mitigating the effects of this type of exposure on the general public. This paper also reviews the possible impacts of new wireless technologies on EMF exposure and proposes some novel research directions for updating the EMF exposure evaluation framework and addressing these impacts in future wireless communication systems. For instance, the impact of mmWave or massive-MIMO/beamforming on EMF exposure has yet to be fully understood and included in the exposure evaluation framework.

Conclusions

A thorough survey on exposure risk assessment, evaluation, limitation and mitigation for current and future wireless devices and equipments has been provided in this paper. From the human health point of view, it seems that the possibility of brain tumor is still the main cause of concerns related to the extensive use of wireless devices, even though the effects of EMF exposure is now being investigated in new parts of the body (e.g. eyes). Meanwhile, with the advent of 5G, more efforts are now been made to understand the thermal and non-thermal effects of mmWave exposure on the human body. When it comes to the evaluation of EMF exposure, we have presented the most common evaluation frameworks and metrics that are utilized in wireless communications to measure the exposure. We have also explained how new more generic metrics have been defined by combining existing metrics to better reflect the exposure of large geographical areas and have argued that a generic metric for measuring the individual exposure would also be of interest. We have also reviewed the existing exposure guidelines and have explained how they can be updated for better reflecting the true nature of EMF exposure, i.e. by better taking into account the duration of exposure. Finally, we have provided some views on how key 5G enabling technologies such as densification, massive MIMO and mmWave will impact the EMF exposure in the near future; for instance, the dense deployment of small cells and IoT devices is very likely to increase the overall ambient exposure. We also believe that there could be some technical opportunities in 5G to increase the exposure awareness of wireless system users and to let them decide if they want to reduce it at the cost of, for instance, a lower QoS.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8718293

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Statistical approach for human electromagnetic exposure assessment in future wireless ATTO-cell networks

Shikhantsov S, Thielens A, Vermeeren G, Demeester P, Martens L, Torfs G, Joseph W. Statistical approach for human electromagnetic exposure assessment in future wireless ATTO-cell networks. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2019 May 1;183(3):326-331. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncy120.

Abstract

In this article, we study human electromagnetic exposure to the radiation of an ultra dense network of nodes integrated in a floor denoted as ATTO-cell floor, or ATTO-floor. ATTO-cells are a prospective 5G wireless networking technology, in which humans are exposed by several interfering sources. To numerically estimate this exposure we propose a statistical approach based on a set of finite difference time domain simulations. It accounts for variations of antenna phases and makes use of a large number of exposure evaluations, based on a relatively low number of required simulations. The exposure was expressed in peak-spatial 10-g SAR average (psSAR10g). The results show an average exposure level of ~4.9 mW/kg and reaching 7.6 mW/kg in 5% of cases. The maximum psSAR10g value found in the studied numerical setup equals around 21.2 mW/kg. Influence of the simulated ATTO-floor size on the resulting exposure was examined. All obtained exposure levels are far below 4 W/kg ICNIRP basic restriction for general public in limbs (and 20 W/kg basic restriction for occupational exposure), which makes ATTO-floor a potential low-exposure 5 G candidate.


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Monitoring electromagnetic radiation emissions in buildings and developing strategies for improved indoor environmental quality.

Weldu YW, Mannan M, Al-Ghamdi SG. Monitoring electromagnetic radiation emissions in buildings and developing strategies for improved indoor environmental quality.
Health Phys. 2019 Jul 5. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001112.

Abstract

Electronic devices have become ubiquitous in daily life, but they emit electromagnetic radiation, which may have negative health impacts at excessive levels. Little is known regarding the impact of radiation emissions on building occupants or strategies for reducing its intensity. This study applied a novel approach using system analysis to quantify radiation exposure in building spaces, examine building material responses to radiation propagation, and investigate risks to human health in the country of Qatar. Radiation intensity levels varied based on the location and type of building space. Different types of construction materials showed varied responses to electromagnetic field wave propagation. Drywall exhibited the best blocking effect, whereas glass and lumber walls exhibited poor blocking effects. The field strengths quantified in this study are less than the corresponding reference values specified by some jurisdictions, but they are still significantly higher than the safety levels defined in many other countries, which could result in significant health risks. The key strategies for improving indoor environmental quality include the use of shielding materials, spatial design, reduction of exposure time, increased exposure distance, and complete avoidance of exposure in sensitive areas.


Conclusions

Emission intensity levels varied significantly based on locations and types of building spaces. Office building spaces exhibited relatively low electromagnetic emission intensity, and hospital building spaces exhibited relatively high power density values. The high electromagnetic emission intensities measured in surveyed green residential buildings highlight the importance of novel strategies for reducing radiation propagation. EMF intensity is greater at locations near radiation sources. Different types of building construction respond variably to EMF wave propagation. Certain materials, such as drywall, ceramic-faced lumber, tile-faced drywall, and plain or masonry-faced concrete, effectively shield EMF propagation, whereas glass and plain lumber have poor shielding effects. Drywall exhibited the best shielding effect among all compared building materials. Additionally, the magnitudes of the transmission coefficients for magnetic fields were higher than the corresponding power densities for all building wall materials. Infants, children, senior citizens, and patients all have relatively weak immune systems that are susceptible to radiation exposure. Therefore, it is important to design sensitive spaces using drywall and ceramic- or masonry-faced concrete walls.

... The exposure intensities measured in this study exceeded the safety limits defined by Switzerland, raising Table 4. significant concerns regarding adverse health effects.

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Mobile phone antenna-matching study with different finger positions on an inhomogeneous human model

Jeladze V, Nozadze T, Petoev-Darsavelidze I, Partsvania B.  Mobile phone antenna-matching study with different finger positions on an inhomogeneous human model. Electromagn Biol Med. 2019 Jul 13:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2019.1641722.

Abstract

The human head and hand being in the near-field zone of a mobile phone antenna can drastically influence the antenna matching with free space. The goal of the presented research is to study this phenomenon on an inhomogeneous human model for different relative positions and distances of hand and fingers when using a mobile phone. The only safety criteria commonly used to estimate RF exposure impact on humans is the specific absorption rate (SAR). Its limits are determined by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) in the USA and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) in Europe. The maximal values of SAR for a mobile handset are determined for each model by the manufacturer. In this paper, it is shown that the peak values provided by the manufacturers and their understanding may need refinement. It is almost impossible to consider all parameters, such as the dependence of SAR on antenna communication matching, with a variety of shapes and forms and other details during physical measurements or numerical estimation. The premise for such assumptions is based on the analysis of S11 dependency on the exposure scenario and the fact that the Automatic Gain Control (AGC) increases power when the signal strength at the base station drops.


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Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is an Environmentally-Induced Disability that Requires Immediate Attention

Havas M. Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is an Environmentally-Induced Disability that Requires Immediate Attention. Review Article. J Sci Discov. 3(1):jsd18020; DOI:10.24262/jsd.3.1.18020. 2019. 

Abstract

A growing number of countries are beginning to acknowledge that electrohypersensitivity (EHS) exists and a few countries have classified it as a disability or a functional impairment attributable to the environment. Epidemiological studies and in vivo experiments show that exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from extremely low to microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) at exposure intensities far below the maximum limits in international guidelines increases anxiety, depression, and physiological stress and impairs cognitive functions that include concentration, memory and learning. Furthermore, exposure to NIR contributes to neurodegenerative diseases including dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Exposure of the fetus to NIR (mobile phone) affects the neonatal heart and can lead to emotional and behavioral problems in human offspring. Similar exposures in laboratory studies report impaired cognitive performance, neuronal losses and pathological changes in the brain of rat offspring. The scientific and medical communities have repeatedly sent out urgent warnings, in the form of appeals, declarations and testimonies, that exposure to NIR needs to be reduced from a public health perspective. These warnings have been largely ignored. With continued development of wireless technology and the imminent roll out of new and densified technologies (e.g., 5G technology, satellite constellations, repeaters, wearables, Internet of Things), society will pay an enormous price for disregarding these warnings. It is long overdue for those responsible for public health, the health of children and health policy to take these warnings seriously and to provide a refuge for those afflicted by EHS. EHS is real, it is exacerbated by exposure to NIR, it is increasing among the population and when severe it becomes a disability. Action is long overdue to minimize exposure to NIR and to provide a safe environment that all can enjoy.


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Ecological momentary assessment study of exposure to RF EMF and non-specific physical symptoms with self-declared electrosensitives

Bolte JFB, Clahsen S, Vercruijsse W, Houtveen JH, Schipper CMA, van Kamp I, Bogers R. Ecological momentary assessment study of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms with self-declared electrosensitives. Environ Int. 2019 Jul 6;131:104948. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.104948.

Highlights
• No correlation of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and health effects at group level
• Significant within person correlation EMF and non specific physical symptoms
• Time above a level of exposure and rate of change show correlations; TWA doesn't.

Abstract

The main objective of the study is to determine if non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) in people with self-declared sensitivity to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) can be explained (across subjects) by exposure to RF EMF. Furthermore, we pioneered whether analysis at the individual level or at the group level may lead to different conclusions. By our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study exploring the data at the individual level. A group of 57 participants was equipped with a measurement set for five consecutive days. The measurement set consisted of a body worn exposimeter measuring the radiofrequency electromagnetic field in twelve frequency bands used for communication, a GPS logger, and an electronic diary giving cues at random intervals within a two to three hour interval. At every cue, a questionnaire on the most important health complaint and nine NSPS had to be filled out. We analysed the (time-lagged) associations between RF-EMF exposure in the included frequency bands and the total number of NSPS and self-rated severity of the most important health complaint. The manifestation of NSPS was studied during two different time lags - 0-1 h, and 1-4 h - after exposure and for different exposure metrics of RF EMF. The exposure was characterised by exposure metrics describing the central tendency and the intermittency of the signal, i.e. the time-weighted average exposure, the time above an exposure level or the rate of change metric. At group level, there was no statistically significant and relevant (fixed effect) association between the measured personal exposure to RF EMF and NSPS. At individual level, after correction for multiple testing and confounding, we found significant within-person associations between WiFi (the self-declared most important source) exposure metrics and the total NSPS score and severity of the most important complaint in one participant. However, it cannot be ruled out that this association is explained by residual confounding due to imperfect control for location or activities. Therefore, the outcomes have to be regarded very prudently. The significant associations were found for the short and the long time lag, but not always concurrently, so both provide complementary information. We also conclude that analyses at the individual level can lead to different findings when compared to an analysis at group level.


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Transcranial Electrical and Magnetic Stimulation for Addiction Medicine: Consensus paper on state of the science

Ekhtiari H, Tavakoli H, Addolorato G, Baeken C, Bonci A, et al. Transcranial Electrical and Magnetic Stimulation (tES and TMS) for Addiction Medicine: A consensus paper on the present state of the science and the road ahead. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019 Jul 1. pii: S0149-7634(19)30307-0. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.06.007.

Abstract

There is growing interest in non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) as a novel treatment option for substance-use disorders (SUDs). Recent momentum stems from a foundation of preclinical neuroscience demonstrating links between neural circuits and drug consuming behavior, as well as recent FDA-approval of NIBS treatments for mental health disorders that share overlapping pathology with SUDs. As with any emerging field, enthusiasm must be tempered by reason; lessons learned from the past should be prudently applied to future therapies. Here, an international ensemble of experts provides an overview of the state of transcranial-electrical (tES) and transcranial-magnetic (TMS) stimulation applied in SUDs. This consensus paper provides a systematic literature review on published data - emphasizing the heterogeneity of methods and outcome measures while suggesting strategies to help bridge knowledge gaps. The goal of this effort is to provide the community with guidelines for best practices in tES/TMS SUD research. We hope this will accelerate the speed at which the community translates basic neuroscience into advanced neuromodulation tools for clinical practice in addiction medicine.


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Impact of exposure of diabetic rats to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phone antenna on hepatic oxidative stress

Ismaiil LA, Joumaa WH, Moustafa ME. The impact of exposure of diabetic rats to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phone antenna on hepatic oxidative stress. Electromagn Biol Med. 2019 Jul 13:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2019.1641722.

Abstract

The excessive exposure of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from mobile phones or their base stations antenna may influence oxidative stress and development of diabetic complications. Here, we investigated the effects of exposing type 2 diabetic rats to EMR of 900 MHz emitted from GSM mobile phone antenna for 24 hours/day over a period of 28 days on hyperglycemia and hepatic oxidative stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (12 rats/group): control rats, normal rats exposed to EMR, T2DM rats generated by nicotinamide/streptozotocin administration, and T2DM rats exposed to EMR. Our results showed that the exposure of T2DM rats to EMR nonsignificantly reduced the hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia compared to unexposed T2DM rats. The exposure of T2DM rats to EMR for 28 days increased the hepatic levels of MDA and Nrf-2 as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase but decreased phosphorylated Akt-2 (pAkt-2) as compared to unexposed T2DM rats. Therefore, the decrease in the hepatic pAkt-2 in T2DM rats after the exposure to EMR may result in elevated level of hepatic MDA, even though the level of Nrf-2 and the activities of SOD and catalase were increased.

Abbreviations: BGL: blood glucose level; EMR: electromagnetic radiation; GSM: global system for mobile communication; H2O2: hydrogen peroxide; LSD: least significance difference; MDA:malondialdehyde; Nrf-2: nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor 2; PI3K: phosphoinositide-3-kinase; pAkt-2: phosphorylated Akt-2; Akt-2: protein kinase; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SEM: standard error of the mean; STZ: streptozotocin; SOD: superoxide dismutase ; O2-: superoxide radical; CT: threshold cycle; T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus.


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Reaction of circulatory system to stress and electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones - 24-hour monitoring of ECG and blood pressure

Szyjkowska A, Gadzicka E, Szymczak W, Bortkiewicz A. [The reaction of the circulatory system to stress and electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones - 24-h monitoring of ECG and blood pressure].  [Article in Polish]. Med Pr. 2019 Jun 27. pii: 102360. doi: 10.13075/mp.5893.0080.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have shown cardiovascular effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by mobile phones (e.g., prolonged QTc interval and abnormal blood pressure [BP] values). Also, stress may have an impact on the cardiovascular function. However, there are practically no data regarding the joint effect of exposure to stress and EMF, with both factors pertaining, e.g., to employees of mobile network operators.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of 208 subjects who had taken part in survey research, 55 workers agreed to undergo resting ECG, 24-h ECG and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Their health condition, occupational and life-stress levels and EMF exposure were also assessed.

RESULTS: Among the workers using mobile phones for more than 60 min daily, the systolic BP values in office measurement and at night-time in ABPM were significantly higher than among the workers spending less time talking on mobile phones (p = 0.04 and p = 0.036, respectively). The workers with the highest level of occupational stress showed significantly higher systolic 24-h BP (p = 0.007) and at day-time (p = 0.002), both during work (p = 0.010) and after work (p = 0.005), and higher diastolic BP values at day-time (p = 0.028). Cardiovascular response was strongly gender-related: males showed more BP abnormalities while females displayed more impairments in ECG records. The heart rate from 24 h was significantly correlated with the level of occupational stress, after adjusting for gender, life-stress and EMF.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained thus far have indicated the need to conduct in-depth studies on the impact of stress and EMF emitted by mobile phones on the health effects, in order to clarify the observed gender-related differences in cardiovascular response to the combined exposure to stress and EMF


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Alteration of testicular regulatory and functional molecules following long-time exposure to 900 MHz RFW emitted from BTS

Azimzadeh M, Jelodar G. Alteration of testicular regulatory and functional molecules following long-time exposure to 900 MHz RFW emitted from BTS. Andrologia. 2019 Jul 26:e13372. doi: 10.1111/and.13372.

Abstract

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in testosterone and some of the functional and regulatory molecules of testis such as P450scc, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and nerve growth factor (NGF) following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency (RF). Thirty adult male Sprague Dawley rats (190 ± 20 g BW) were randomly classified in three equal groups, control (sham, without any exposure), short-time exposure (2 hr) (STE) and long-time exposure (4 hr) (LTE). The exposure was performed for 30 consecutive days. The testosterone level in both exposed groups was significantly less than control (p < .05). Level of TNF-α in both exposed groups was significantly greater than control (p < .05). IL-1α and NGF levels in LTE were significantly higher than the STE and control groups (p < .05). Level of IL-1β in LTE was significantly higher than control (p < .05). Expression of both P450scc and StAR mRNA was significantly down-regulated in both exposed groups compared to control (p < .05). Our results showed that RFW can affect testis and reproductive function through changes in factors, which are important during steroidogenesis, and also through changes in inflammatory factors, which regulate Leydig cell functions.


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Non-Ionizing Radiation Created by Mobile Phone Progresses Endometrial Hyperplasia: An Experimental Rat Study

Fadiloglu E, Tapisiz OL, Unsal M, Fadiloglu S, Celik B, Mollamahmutoglu L. Non-Ionizing Radiation Created by Mobile Phone Progresses Endometrial Hyperplasia: An Experimental Rat Study. Arch Med Res. 2019 Feb;50(2):36-43. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2019.05.010.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Non-ionizing radiation is related with many pathologies.

AIM: Determine association between non-ionizing radiation and endometrial hyperplasia.

METHODS: Fifty oopherectomized Wistar albino rats were administered Estradiol hemihydrate (4 mg/kg) to induce hyperplasia, and were exposed to 1800 MHz radiation created by a mobile phone and a signal generator working as base station. This study was carried out with 5 groups in two phases. The study groups were. Control group without any exposure; group receiving estrogen in first phase of the study; group receiving estrogen in both phases; group receiving estrogen in the first phase and exposed to non-ionizing radiation during second phase and group taking estrogen in both phases and exposed to non-ionizing radiation during the second phase. Following both phases, uterine horns were excised and evaluated based on glandular density (GD), epithelial cell height (ECH), and luminal epithelial cell height (LECH).

RESULTS: Estrogen increased all parameters during both phases (LECH, GD, and ECH values were 12,2 vs. 16,5 (p = 0.001), 34 vs. 47 (p <0.001), and 201 vs. 376.6 (p = 0.001), respectively during the first phase; LECH, GD and ECH values were 13,2 vs. 20,3 (p <0.001), 35.5 vs. 65,5 (p <0.001), 219.9 vs. 419.6 (p <0.001), respectively, during the second phase).Non-ionizing radiation increased all values without estrogen exposure (LECH, GD and ECH values were 13,2 vs. 17,2 (p = 0,074), 35,5 vs. 59 (p = 0.074), and 219 vs. 318.3 (p <0.001), respectively) or with estrogen exposure (LECH, GD, and ECH, values were 20,3 vs. 22,8 (p = 0,168), 65,5 vs. 77 (p = 0,058), and 419,6 vs. 541,6 (p = 0.004), respectively).

CONCLUSION: Non-ionizing radiation progressed endometrial hyperplasia in an experimental rat model with/without estrogen exposure.


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Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on neuronal differentiation and mitochondrial function in SH-SY5Y cells

von Niederhäusern N, Ducray A, Zielinski J, Murbach M, Mevissen M. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on neuronal differentiation and mitochondrial function in SH-SY5Y cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2019 Jul 24:104609. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2019.104609.

Abstract

Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has dramatically increased in the last decades with expanding use of mobile phones worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of RF-EMF on neuronal differentiation and underlying signaling pathways involved in neuronal differentiation, neurodegeneration, and mitochondrial function. Differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells was performed using all-trans retinoic acid or staurosporine to obtain cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells at 935 MHz, 4 W/kg for 24 h did not alter the neuronal phenotypes quantitatively. Markers of the signaling pathways investigated, namely the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk) 1 and 2 (p-Erk1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β) and Wnt/β-catenin were not significantly affected by RF-EMF compared to sham. RF-EMF-impaired mitochondrial respiration in cells under glucose deprivation, but glutathione levels and mitochondrial fission and fusion markers were not altered. These findings indicate that RF-EMF might lead to an impairment of mitochondrial function that is only manifest at maximal respiration and additional stressors such as glucose deprivation. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of RF-EMF on mitochondrial function in detail because mitochondrial impairment is closely related to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.


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Protective Effects of Zinc on 2.45 GHz Electromagnetic Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in HEK293 Cells

Özsobacı NP, Ergün DD, Tunçdemir M, Özçelik D. Protective Effects of Zinc on 2.45 GHz Electromagnetic Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in HEK293 Cells. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2019 Jul 17. doi: 10.1007/s12011-019-01811-6.

Abstract
Several epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) can be harmful to human health. The purpose of this study was to examine oxidative parameters and apoptosis induced by EMR in human kidney embryonic cells (HEK293) and to investigate whether zinc (Zn) has protective effect on EMR-induced apoptosis in HEK293 cells. For our experiment, HEK293 cells were divided into four main groups, control, EMR, 50 μM Zn + EMR, and 100 μM Zn + EMR. HEK293 cells of EMR groups were exposed to 2.45 GHz EMR for 1 h. In Zn groups, HEK293 cells were incubated with different concentrations of Zn for 48 h before EMR exposure. Oxidative stress parameters were determined by spectrophotometric method; bcl-2 and caspase-3 were assessed immunohistochemically and TUNEL method was performed for apoptotic activity. EMR group had higher malondialdehyde (MDA) level and lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity compared with control group. In Zn-applied groups, MDA was decreased and SOD activity was increased compared with EMR group. The number of the apoptotic cells and caspase-3 immunopositive cells at EMR group was increased significantly compared with the control group, whereas bcl-2 was decreased. Besides, Zn-treated groups showed a significant reduction in the number of apoptotic cells and caspase-3 from that of EMR group, whereas there was an increase in bcl-2 immunopositivity. Our findings show that EMR caused oxidative stress and apoptotic activation in HEK293 cells. Zn seems to have protective effects on the EMR by increasing SOD activity and bcl-2 immunopositivity, decreasing lipid peroxidation and caspas-3 immunopositivity.


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Untargeted metabolomics unveil alterations of biomembranes permeability in human HaCaT keratinocytes upon 60 GHz millimeter-wave exposure

Le Pogam P, Le Page Y, Habauzit D, Doué M, Zhadobov M, Sauleau R, Le Dréan Y, Rondeau D. Untargeted metabolomics unveil alterations of biomembranes permeability in human HaCaT keratinocytes upon 60 GHz millimeter-wave exposure. Sci Rep. 2019 Jun 27;9(1):9343. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-45662-6.

Abstract

A joint metabolomic and lipidomic workflow is used to account for a potential effect of millimeter waves (MMW) around 60 GHz on biological tissues. For this purpose, HaCaT human keratinocytes were exposed at 60.4 GHz with an incident power density of 20 mW/cm², this value corresponding to the upper local exposure limit for general public in the context of a wide scale deployment of MMW technologies and devices. After a 24h-exposure, endo- and extracellular extracts were recovered to be submitted to an integrative UPLC-Q-Exactive metabolomic and lipidomic workflow. R-XCMS data processing and subsequent statistical treatment led to emphasize a limited number of altered features in lipidomic sequences and in intracellular metabolomic analyses, whatever the ionization mode (i.e 0 to 6 dysregulated features). Conversely, important dysregulations could be reported in extracellular metabolomic profiles with 111 and 99 frames being altered upon MMW exposure in positive and negative polarities, respectively. This unexpected extent of modifications can hardly stem from the mild changes that could be reported throughout transcriptomics studies, leading us to hypothesize that MMW might alter the permeability of cell membranes, as reported elsewhere.


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CeO2NPs relieve radiofrequency radiation, improve testosterone synthesis, and clock gene expression in Leydig cells by enhancing antioxidation

Qin F, Shen T, Cao H, Qian J, Zou D, Ye M, Pei H. Int J Nanomedicine. CeO2NPs relieve radiofrequency radiation, improve testosterone synthesis, and clock gene expression in Leydig cells by enhancing antioxidation. 2019 Jun 24;14:4601-4611. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S206561.

Abstract

Introduction: The ratio of Ce3+/Ce4+ in their structure confers unique functions on cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) containing rare earth elements in scavenging free radicals and protecting against oxidative damage. The potential of CeO2NPs to protect testosterone synthesis in primary mouse Leydig cells during exposure to 1,800 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation was examined in vitro.

Methods: Leydig cells were treated with different concentrations of CeO2NPs to identify the optimum concentration for cell proliferation. The cells were pretreated with the optimum dose of CeO2NPs for 24 hrs and then exposed to 1,800 MHz RF at a power density of 200.27 µW/cm2 (specific absorption rate (SAR), 0.116 W/kg) for 1 hr, 2 hrs, or 4 hrs. The medium was used to measure the testosterone concentration. The cells were collected to determine the antioxidant indices (catalase [CAT], malondialdehyde [MDA], and total antioxidant capacity [T-AOC]), and the mRNA expression of the testosterone synthase genes (Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd-3β) and clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, and Rorα).

Results: Our preliminary result showed that 128 μg/mL CeO2NPs was the optimum dose for cell proliferation. Cells exposed to RF alone showed reduced levels of testosterone, T-AOC, and CAT activities, increased MDA content, and the downregulated genes expression of Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd-3β, Clock, Bmal1, and Rorα. Pretreatment of the cells with 128 μg/mL CeO2NPs for 24 hrs followed by RF exposure significantly increased testosterone synthesis, upregulated the expression of the testosterone synthase and clock genes, and increased the resistance to oxidative damage in Leydig cells compared with those in cells exposed to RF alone.

Conclusion: Exposure to 1,800 MHz RF had adverse effects on testosterone synthesis, antioxidant levels, and clock gene expression in primary Leydig cells. Pretreatment with CeO2NPs prevented the adverse effects on testosterone synthesis induced by RF exposure by regulating their antioxidant capacity and clock gene expression in vitro. Further studies of the mechanism underlying the protective function of CeO2NPs against RF in the male reproductive system are required.


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Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in Honey Bees Caused by EMF Radiation

Santhosh Kumar S. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in Honey Bees Caused by EMF Radiation. Bioinformation. 2018 Dec 21;14(9):421-424. doi: 10.6026/97320630014521.

Abstract

Honey bees are one of the treasures in the world. An increase of waveform communication leads to good information exchange of mankind. In the biological view, it causes a lot of side effects and lifestyle changes in other living organisms. The drastic changes are causing the natural imbalance in the ecosystem and become a global issue. There are significant reasons for bee colony collapse disorder (CCD) like pesticides, disease and climate change. Recent studies reveal that a cell phone tower and mobile phone handset are also causing side effects to honey bees due to radiation emission. Most of the researchers concentrated on biological and behavioral changes in a honey bee due to radiation effects. For that, the real-time radiation levels have experimented but the different technical perspectives such as radiation emission levels, handset radiation emission measures and multi-sources of radiation are needed to be considered during research. This study aimed to provide possible research extensions of colony collapse disorder caused by cell tower and mobile handsets.


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The potential for impact of man-made super low and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on sleep


Ohayon MM, Stolc V, Freund FT, Milesi C, Sullivan SS. The potential for impact of man-made super low and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on sleep. Sleep Med Rev. 2019 Jun 8;47:28-38. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2019.06.001.

Abstract

An ever-growing number of electromagnetic (EM) emission sources elicits health concerns, particularly stemming from the ubiquitous low to extremely low frequency fields from power lines and appliances, and the radiofrequency fields emitted from telecommunication devices. In this article we review the state of knowledge regarding possible impacts of electromagnetic fields on melatonin secretion and on sleep structure and the electroencephalogram of humans. Most of the studies on the effects of melatonin on humans have been conducted in the presence of EM fields, focusing on the effects of occupational or residential exposures. While some of the earlier studies indicated that EM fields may have a suppressive effect on melatonin, the results cannot be generalized because of the large variability in exposure conditions and other factors that may influence melatonin. For instance, exposure to radiofrequency EM fields on sleep architecture show little or no effect. However, a number of studies show that pulsating radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, such as those emitted from cellular phones, can alter brain physiology, increasing the electroencephalogram power in selective bands when administered immediately prior to or during sleep. Additional research is necessary that would include older populations and evaluate the interactions of EM fields in different frequency ranges to examine their effects on sleep in humans.


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Effect of Long-term Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Proinflammatory Cytokine and Hematological Parameters

Bagheri Hosseinabadi M, Khanjani N, Samaei E, Nazarkhani F. Effect of Long-term Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Proinflammatory Cytokine and Hematological Parameters. Int J Radiat Biol. 2019 Jul 22:1-23. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2019.1642542.

Abstract

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on proinflammatory cytokines and hematological parameters, among the employees of a power plant, which are one of the most important occupational groups exposed to ELF-EMFs extensively.

Materials and methods: The studied population included 112 employees of a power plant as the exposed group and 138 unexposed employees who were enrolled based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The magnetic flux density and the strength of the electric field were determined by spot measurements and according to the IEEE C95.3.1 standard. Proinflammatory cytokines including serum interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); and hematologic parameters of all subjects were measured.

Results: The mean level of IL-1β and IL-6, white blood cell count (WBC) and red blood cell count (RBC), lymphocyte percentage (Lym%), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelet count (PLT) and procalcitonin (PCT) were significantly more in the exposed group, than the unexposed group. The mean serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β and some of the hematological parameters including WBC, lymphocyte, RBC and haematocrit were higher in technicians which had the highest level of exposure to magnetic fields compared to other groups and these relations were linear.

Conclusions: Long-term exposure to ELF-EMFs probably affects immune responses, by stimulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines, and increasing some hematological parameters.


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Evaluating short-term exposure to Wi-Fi signals on students' reaction time, short-term memory and reasoning ability

Hosseini MA, Hosseini A, Jarideh S, Argasi H, Shekoohi-Shooli F, Zamani A, Taeb S, Haghani M. Evaluating short-term exposure to Wi-Fi signals on students' reaction time, short-term memory and reasoning ability. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2019 Jun 28. pii: ncz162. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncz162.

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of short-term exposure to Wi-Fi signals on the cognitive functions of the mind. After obtaining permission from the local Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and approval by the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT2017041233398N1), 45 male and female students from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences volunteered to participate in this study. They were exposed to Wi-Fi signals in two sham and exposure sessions, each for 2 hours. After completion, they took part in reaction time, short-term memory, and reasoning ability tests. After scoring, the data were analysed by SPSS software. In addition, the electric field strength and power density were calculated. The results showed no statistically significant differences between the mean scores of reaction time, short-term memory, and reasoning ability in sham and exposure. Also, the obtained values from the electric field strength and power density (E = 4.1 Vm-1, P = 0.446 Wm-2) were lower than that of threshold values by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Our results can greatly reduce concerns regarding the effects of short-term exposure to Wi-Fi waves on cognitive functions.


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Residential distance from high-voltage overhead power lines and risk of Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease: population-based case-control study

Gervasi F, Murtas R, Decarli A, Giampiero Russo A. Residential distance from high-voltage overhead power lines and risk of Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease: a population-based case-control study in a metropolitan area of Northern Italy. Int J Epidemiol. 2019 Jul 6. pii: dyz139. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyz139.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The association between the extremely low-frequency magnetic field generated by overhead power lines and neurodegenerative disease is still a matter of debate.

METHODS: A population-based case-control study was carried out on the residents in the Milan metropolitan area between 2011 and 2016 to evaluate the possible association between exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields generated by high-voltage overhead power lines and Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease. A statistical analysis was performed on cases and controls matched by sex, year of birth and municipality of residence (with a case to controls ratio of 1 : 4) using conditional logistic regression models adjusted for socio-economic deprivation and distance from the major road network as potential confounders.

RESULTS: Odds ratios for residents <50 m from the source of exposure compared with residents at ≥600 m turned out to be 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.30) for Alzheimer's dementia and 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.92-1.30) for Parkinson's disease.

CONCLUSIONS: The finding of a weak association between exposure to the extremely low-frequency magnetic field and neurodegenerative diseases suggests the continuation of research on this topic. Moreover, the low consistency between the results of the already existing studies emphasises the importance of increasingly refined study designs.
The results of this study do not disprove the hypothesis that the ELF-MF generated by high-voltage overhead power lines can increase the risk of Alzheimer's dementia and, to a lesser extent, Parkinson's disease. The repeated suggestions regarding the existence of an association between ELF-MF and neurodegenerative diseases, both for residential exposures and for occupational exposures, constitute an incentive to continue the evaluation through the planning of specific studies. The lack of univocal and definitive results emphasizes, however, the need to adopt, for this specific field of investigation, increasingly rigorous experimental designs, with particular reference to the selection of study subjects, the quantification of exposure and the definition of confounders.


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Effect of 50-Hz Magnetic Fields on Serum IL-1β and IL-23 and Expression of BLIMP-1, XBP-1, and IRF-4

Molaei S, Alahgholi-Hajibehzad M, Gholamian-Hamadan M, Zaerieghane Z, Zamani A. Effect of 50-Hz Magnetic Fields on Serum IL-1β and IL-23 and Expression of BLIMP-1, XBP-1, and IRF-4. Inflammation. 2019 Jul 8. doi: 10.1007/s10753-019-01042-w.

Abstract

Investigations demonstrated that magnetic fields (MFs) change cytokine production and expression of some immune system genes. This alteration can affect the immune system function and may lead to some diseases. Therefore, this study investigated two important inflammatory cytokines, i.e., IL-1β and IL-23 at two phases of pre- and post-immunization of the immune system. In addition, the expressions of three important genes in the humoral immunity, i.e., B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1), X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), and interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF-4) were evaluated at post-immunization phase. Eighty adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups and a control. The experimental groups were exposed to 50-Hz MFs with magnetic flux densities of 1, 100, 500, and 2000 μT, 2 h/day for 2 months. The animals were injected by human serum albumin (100 μg/rat) on days 31, 44, and 58 of exposure. The cytokine levels in serum were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the expression of genes was evaluated with reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Serum IL-1β was decreased at pre-immunization phase after exposure to 1 and 100 μT of 50-Hz MFs. In contrast, serum IL-23 was increased at post-immunization phase in 100 μT group. No change was observed in serum IL-1β and IL-23 in each group at pre-immunization phase compared with post-immunization. Furthermore, exposure to 100 μT downregulated expression of BLIMP-1, XBP-1, and IRF-4. In conclusion, exposure to 50-Hz MFs may decrease inflammation at short time and increase it at longer time exposures. In addition, 50-Hz MF exposure may decrease the humoral immune responses. It seems that 50-Hz MFs cause more alteration in immune system function at lower densities (100 μT).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31286334

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Methyl and methylene vibrations response in amino acids of typical proteins in water solution under high-frequency electromagnetic field

Calabrò E, Magazù S. Methyl and methylene vibrations response in amino acids of typical proteins in water solution under high-frequency electromagnetic field. Electromagn Biol Med. 2019 Jul 11:1-8. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2019.1641720.

Abstract
The aim of this paper was to study the response of methyl (CH3) and methylene (CH2) vibration bands in amino acids of some typical proteins diluted in bidistilled water solution after exposure to a high-frequency electromagnetic fields using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Hemoglobin in H2O solution and bovine serum albumin and myoglobin diluted in different D2O solutions were exposed for 4 h to a power density of 0.95 W/m2 at the frequency of 1750 MHz, emitted by operational mobile phones Nokia model 105 and Samsung model GT-E1270, in order to study the response of stretching vibrations of CH3 and CH2 that are in amino acids of those proteins. The main result was that CH3 stretching bands increased significantly in myoglobin in D2O solution because this protein is represented by a single protein chain so that the torque induced by the applied field is larger than that induced on the other two proteins. Otherwise, CH2 stretching vibrations decreased in intensity significantly for all exposed proteins. This result can be explained as well, assuming that, given a fixed volume, a decrease of population of CH2 occurred after exposure because of the alignment of proteins α-helices along the direction of the applied electromagnetic field.


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Effects of long-term exposure to an extremely low frequency magnetic field (15 µT) on selected blood coagulation variables in OF1 mice


Vallejo D, Hidalgo MA, Hernández JM. Effects of long-term exposure to an extremely low frequency magnetic field (15 µT) on selected blood coagulation variables in OF1 mice. Electromagn Biol Med. 2019 Jul 13:1-8. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2019.1641719.

Abstract

The long-term exposure of OF1 mice to an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF; 50 Hz, 15 µT [rms]) has been associated with the appearance of leukaemia. Neoplasms are usually accompanied by changes in haemostatic processes but reports on changes in blood coagulation following exposure to an ELF-MF are scarce and rather fragmentary. The aim of the present work was to determine whether any global or partial coagulation variables are modified after such long-term exposure. A parental generation of six week-old OF1 mice was exposed to an artificial ELF-MF for 14 weeks. Mating was then allowed, and the resulting filial generation raised until the age of 31-35 weeks within the same ELF-MF. Control animals were subjected only to the magnetic field of the Earth. Whole blood samples were extracted from the anesthetised filial generation of mice by cardiac puncture. White blood cells (WBC) were counted, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) determined, and plasma fibrinogen, reptilase time (RT), and factor VIII activity examined. The similarity between the results for the present control animals and those recorded in the literature for human blood render OF1 mice a suitable study model. The differences in the studied coagulation variables were largely owed simply to sex. However, the females showed a very significant shortening of the PT time associated with ELF-MF exposure. Exposure also caused significant increases in the female APTT and RT values, and in general reduced the differences between the sexes.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31303067

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On the magnetosensitivity of lipid peroxidation: two- versus three-radical dynamics

Sampson C, Keens RH , Kattnig DR. On the magnetosensitivity of lipid peroxidation: two- versus three-radical dynamics. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2019 Jun 26;21(25): 13526-13538. doi: 10.1039/c9cp01746a.

Abstract

We present a theoretical analysis of the putative magnetosensitivity of lipid peroxidation. We focus on the widely accepted radical pair mechanism (RPM) and a recently suggested idea based on spin dynamics induced in three-radical systems by the mutual electron-electron dipolar coupling (D3M). We show that, contrary to claims in the literature, lipid peroxides, the dominant chain carriers of the autoxidation process, have associated non-zero hyperfine coupling interactions. This suggests that their recombination could, in principle, be magnetosensitive due to the RPM. While the RPM indeed goes a long way to explaining magnetosensitivity in these systems, we show that the simultaneous interaction of three peroxyl radicals via the D3M can achieve larger magnetic field effects (MFE), even if the third radical is remote from the recombining radical pair. For randomly oriented three-radical systems, the D3M induces a low-field effect comparable to that of the RPM. The mechanism furthermore immunizes the spin dynamics to the presence of large exchange coupling interactions in the recombining radical pair, thereby permitting much larger MFE at magnetic field intensities comparable to the geomagnetic field than would be expected for the RPM. Based on these characteristics, we suggest that the D3M could be particularly relevant for MFE at low fields, provided that the local radical concentration is sufficient to allow for three-spin radical correlations. Eventually, our observations suggest that MFEs could intricately depend on radical concentration and larger effects could ensue under conditions of oxidative stress.