Wednesday, September 9, 2020

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below.

The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 900 scientific papers. This 712-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:

Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.

Recent Papers

5G Wireless Deployment and Health Risks: Time for a Medical Discussion

Priyanka Bandara, Tracy Chandler, Robin Kelly, Julie McCredden, Murray May, Steve Weller, Don Maisch, Susan Pockett, Victor Leach, Richard Cullen, Damian Wojcik. 5G Wireless Deployment and Health Risks: Time for a Medical Discussion in Australia and New Zealand. ACNEM Journal. 39(1). July 2020.

No abstract.


"There is an urgent need for clinicians and medical scientists in the Australia-New Zealand region to engage in an objective discussion around the potential health impacts of the fifth generation (5G) wireless technology currently being deployed.  The statements of assurance by the industry and government parties that dominate the media in our region are at odds  with the warnings of hundreds of scientists actively engaged in research on biological/health effects of anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation/fields (EMR/EMF). (1)  There have been worldwide public protests as well as appeals by professionals and the general public (2) that have compelled many cities in Europe to declare moratoria on 5G deployment and to begin investigations.  In contrast, there is no medically-oriented professional discussion on this public health topic in Australia and New Zealand, where 5G deployment is being expedited.  5G is untested for safety on humans and other species and the limited existing evidence raises major concerns that need to be addressed.  The vast body of research literature on biological/health effects of  ‘wireless radiation’ (radiofrequency EMR) (3,4) indicates a range of health-related issues associated with different types of wireless technologies (1G-4G, WiFi, Bluetooth, Radar, radio/TV transmission, scanning and surveillance systems).  These are used in a wide range of personal devices in common use (mobile/cordless phones, computers, baby monitors, games consoles etc) without users being aware of the health risks.  Furthermore, serious safety concerns arise from the extra complexity of 5G as follows:

• 5G carrier waves use a much broader part of the microwave spectrum including waves with wavelengths in the millimetre range (hence called ‘millimetre waves’) which will be used in the second phase of 5G).  Until now, millimetre waves have had limited applications such as radar, point-to-point communications links and non-lethal military weapons. (5)
• Extremely complex modulation patterns involving numerous frequencies form novel exposures.
• Beam formation characteristics can produce hotspots of high unknown intensities.
• A vast number of antenna arrays will add millions of microwave transmitters globally in addition to the existing RF transmitters thereby greatly increasing human exposure. This includes 5G small cell antennas to be erected every 200-250 metres on street fixtures, such as power poles and bus shelters, many of which will be only metres from homes with the homeowners having absolutely no say in where the antennas will be located.

This massive leap in human exposure to RF-EMR from 5G is occurring in a setting where the existing scientific evidence overwhelmingly indicates biological interference, (3,4) therefore suggesting the need to urgently reduce exposure...."

"As for the new 5G technology, it is concerning that leading experts in the technical field (6) have reported the possibility of damaging thermal spikes under the current exposure guidelines (from beam forming 5G millimetre waves that transfer data with short bursts of high energy) and some animals and children may be at an increased risk due to smaller body size.  Even working within the entirely thermally-based current regulatory process, they pointed out 5G millimetre waves “may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines”. (6)  Microwave experts from the US Air Force have reported on  ‘Brillouin Precursors’ created by sharp transients at the leading and trailing edges of pulses of mm waves, when beam forming fast millimetre waves create moving charges in the body which penetrate deeper than explained in the conventional models, and have the potential to cause tissue damage. (7)  In fact, concerns about moving charges affecting deep tissue are associated with other forms of pulsed RF radiation currently used for wireless communications.  This may be one factor explaining why the pulsed radiation used in wireless communication technologies is more biologically active than continuous RF radiation. (8)  Such effects of high energy 5G mm waves could have potentially devastating consequences for species with small body size and also creatures that have innate sensitivity to EMF, which include birds and bees that use nature’s EMFs for navigation. (9)  Unfortunately, non-thermal effects and chronic exposure effects are not addressed in the current guidelines. (10)"

"Our investigation into the scientific literature has found RF-EMR to be a potent inducer of oxidative stress even at so-called “low-intensity” exposures (which are in fact billions of times higher than in nature (26)) such as those from commonly used wireless devices.  An analysis (22) of 242 publications (experimental studies) which had investigated endpoints related to oxidative stress - biomarkers of oxidative damage such as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (indicating oxidative DNA damage) and/or altered antioxidant levels - revealed that 216 studies (89%) had reported such findings (Fig. 1).  This evidence base on RF-associated oxidative stress from 26 countries (only one study from Australia and none from New Zealand) is relatively new and mostly post 2010, i.e. after the WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RF-EMR as a Group 2B possible carcinogen.  Moreover, 180 studies out of the 242 (74.7%) were in vivo studies (including several human studies) which presents strong evidence.

"Proponents of 5G often dismiss concerns about health risks claiming that 5G microwaves will minimally penetrate the skin and therefore any effects are limited to minor skin heating (and they acknowledge that there is some uncertainty around heating effects on the eyes).  The medical community understands that skin is the largest organ of the human body and a key part of the neuro-immune and neuro-endocrine systems.  Natural UVA and UVB (also so-called non-ionizing radiation) that penetrate the skin less than 5G millimetre waves have profound effects on health and wellbeing of humans. Therefore, artificial 5G waves must be subjected to rigorous safety testing."

"Unfortunately, the questionable conduct of regulatory agencies such as ARPANSA and WHO’s international EMF Project (43) with conflicts of interest due to funding links to the wireless industry (44) remains to be investigated.  More open questioning and protests are appearing in Europe and North America where there is some level of engagement on the part of government bodies in response to warnings of adverse health effects of anthropogenic EMF/EMR by expert medical bodies such as EUROPAEM and AAEM (31,32) (despite industry opposition)."


5G Communication Technology and Coronavirus Disease [Health Matters]

James C. Lin. 5G Communication Technology and Coronavirus Disease [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine, 21(9):16-19. Sep 2020.

No abstract


"The fact is that there is no link between the COVID-19 virus and 5G cell phone technology or 5G base-station communication towers. These are totally different constructs; they are not even close. None of the conspiracy theories that try to link 5G and the coronavirus make any sense scientifically."

"For biological matters, it is not obvious whether the biological responses to high-band 5G radiation will be akin to earlier generations or low-band 5G radiations, given the distinctive characteristics of mm-wave [millimeter wave] and its interaction with the complex structure and composition of pertinent biological tissues."

"It is important to note that the recent NTP and Ramazzini RF exposure studies presented similar findings in terms of heart schwannomas and brain gliomas. Thus, two relatively well-conducted RF exposure studies employing the same strain of rats showed consistent results in significantly increased cancer risks. More recently, an advisory group for the IARC has recommended including reevaluation of the carcinogenicity of human exposure to RF radiation, with high priority, in their monograph series [7]."

"... the 5G frequency domain is divided into low, mid, and high bands. The operating frequencies at low and mid bands can overlap with the current 4G band at 6 GHz or below. Thus, the biological effects of RF radiation at these lower frequency bands are likely to be comparable to 2, 3, or 4G. However, the scenarios of high-band 5G—especially for 24–60 GHz in the mm-wave region for high-capacity, short-range wireless data communications—are relatively recent arrivals and pose considerable challenge to health risk assessment. There is a paucity of data on permittivity and coupling, such as reflection, transmission, and induced energy deposition, in biological tissues in the mm-wave frequency band."

"Induced energy deposition increases with mm-wave frequency. However, at the highest frequencies, the energy deposition in the deeper regions inside the skin is lower because of the reduced penetration depth at these frequencies [11]."

"A recently published review [13] included 45 in vivo studies conducted using laboratory animals and other biological preparations and 53 in vitro studies involving primary cells and cultured cell lines.... This industry-supported review noted that, aside from the wide frequency ranges, the studies were diverse both in subjects and in the end points investigated. Biological effects were observed to occur both in vivo and in vitro for different biological endpoints studied. Indeed, the percentage of positive responses at nonthermal levels in most frequency groups was as high as 70%."

"While many of these investigations with mm-wave exposures reported biological responses, there is inconsistency in the dependence of biological effects and mm-wave intensity used for exposure. Also, the reported in vitro and in vivo laboratory investigations are modest in number and diverse in subject matter, considering the wide 5G/mmwave frequency domain. The jury on the biological effect or health impact is still out on 5G. Moreover, there is a lack of ongoing controlled laboratory investigations. Simply put, the existing scientific data are too limited for any reliable assessment or conclusion with certainty."

Physiological effects of millimeter-waves on skin and skin cells: an overview of the to-date published studies

Dariusz Leszczynski. Physiological effects of millimeter-waves on skin and skin cells: an overview of the to-date published studies. Reviews on Environmental Health. DOI: Published online: 24 Aug 2020.


The currently ongoing deployment of the fifth generation of the wireless communication technology, the 5G technology, has reignited the health debate around the new kind of radiation that will be used/emitted by the 5G devices and networks – the millimeter-waves. The new aspect of the 5G technology, that is of concern to some of the future users, is that both, antennas and devices will be continuously in a very close proximity of the users’ bodies. Skin is the only organ of the human body, besides the eyes, that will be directly exposed to the mm-waves of the 5G technology. However, the whole scientific evidence on the possible effects of millimeter-waves on skin and skin cells, currently consists of only some 99 studies. This clearly indicates that the scientific evidence concerning the possible effects of millimeter-waves on humans is insufficient to devise science-based exposure limits and to develop science-based human health policies. The sufficient research has not been done and, therefore, precautionary measures should be considered for the deployment of the 5G, before the sufficient number of quality research studies will be executed and health risk, or lack of it, scientifically established.


Therefore, the recently published guidelines by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) [103], stating that the ICNIRP proposed mm-waves radiation exposure limits are protecting users form health effects of mm-waves are only an assumption that is not sufficiently based on scientific evidence because the research on effects of mm-waves on skin has not been performed. This is why any claims, including ICNIRP’s, that the current safety limits protect all users, no matter of their age or their health status, have no sufficient scientific basis. The safety limits that are suggested to protect from health effects of mm-waves are based on scientifically unsupported assumptions as seen from the evidence presented in Tables 1– 4.


Implications of Incident Power Density Limits on Power and EIRP Levels of 5G Millimeter-Wave User Equipment

Wang He, Bo Xu, Yuanqing Yao, Davide Colombi, Zhinong Ying, Sailing He. Implications of Incident Power Density Limits on Power and EIRP Levels of 5G Millimeter-Wave User Equipment IEEE Access. 10 Aug 2020. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3015231.


User equipment (UE) is required to comply with the relevant radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure limits, which are of relevance to establish the maximum permissible transmitted power and the maximum equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP). Recently, international RF EMF exposure guidelines, such as those published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) as well as by the IEEE, have been updated. In this paper, the implications of the revised incident power density limits are investigated in terms of maximum permissible transmitted power and the maximum EIRP for devices operating in close proximity of the user. A similar analysis is conducted according to the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulation on RF exposure. EMF compliance of UE is studied by means of numerical modelling of patch antenna arrays of different array sizes taking into consideration possible beam-steering operations, at frequencies ranging from 10 GHz to 100 GHz. The results are compared with the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) requirements on the total radiated power (TRP) and EIRP levels. The present implications of the incident power density limits for 5G millimeter-wave UE will give valuable insights to mobile equipment manufacturers, network operators, and standardization bodies.

Factors Affecting Risk Perception of Electromagnetic Waves From 5G Network Base Stations

Tae Hwan Koh, Jae Wook Choi, Myungsoon Seo, Hyung‐Do Choi, KyungHee Kim. Factors Affecting Risk Perception of Electromagnetic Waves From 5G Network Base Stations. Bioelectromagnetics. 31 August 2020.

Grant sponsor: ICT R&D program of MSIT/IITP (A Study on Public Health and Safety in a Complex EMF Environment); grant number: 2019‐0‐00102.


The coverage of the fifth‐generation network has increased steadily since the network was introduced in 2019. However, public protests around the globe against the construction of 5G network base stations have continued to occur for fear that electromagnetic (EM) waves emitted from the stations would cause adverse health effects. To identify factors that have contributed to such increased risk perception, we conducted a cross‐sectional study using data obtained from a survey that assessed Korean adults’ risk perception of EM wave‐related objects. We found that female gender, high level of perceived exposure to EM waves, evaluation of public policies as ineffective, and high level of objective knowledge on EM waves were associated with increased risk perception. Furthermore, we found that higher ratings on a few risk characteristics such as “personal knowledge,” “seriousness of the risk to future generations,” “dreadfulness,” and “severity of consequences” were also associated with increased risk perception as well.

Open access paper:


Prospective study of nocebo effects related to symptoms of idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF)

Anne-Kathrin Bräscher, Stefan M Schulz, Omer Van den Bergh, Michael Witthöft. Prospective study of nocebo effects related to symptoms of idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF). Environ Res. 2020 Aug 7;110019. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110019.

• The etiology of idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) is unknown.
• Negative information on health effects of sham WiFi radiation induced nocebo effects.
• During sham WiFi exposure somatosensation and electrodermal activity were increased.
• Interoceptive accuracy moderated the nocebo effect, depending on stimulus intensity.
•The nocebo effect was still detectable one week after its induction.

The exact causes of Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF, i.e., experience of somatic symptoms attributed to low-level electromagnetic fields) are still unknown. Psychological causation such as nocebo effects seem plausible. This study aimed to experimentally induce a nocebo effect for somatic symptom perception and examined whether it was reproducible after one week. We also examined whether these effects were associated with increased sympathetic activity and whether interoceptive accuracy (IAcc) moderated these relationships. Participants were recruited from the general population and instructed that electromagnetic exposure can enhance somatosensory perception. They participated twice in a cued exposure experiment with tactile stimulation and sham WiFi exposure in 50% of trials. The two sessions were scheduled one week apart (session 1: N = 65, session 2: N = 63). Before session 1, participants watched either a 6-minute film on adverse health effects of EMF or a neutral film on trade of mobile phones. IAcc was assessed with the heartbeat detection paradigm. Electrodermal activity served as a measure of sympathetic activation. Evidence for a nocebo effect (i.e., increased self-reported intensity and aversiveness and electrodermal activity) during sham WiFi exposure was observed in both sessions. IAcc moderated the nocebo effect, depending on stimulus intensity. Contrary to previous findings, no difference emerged between the health-related EMF and the neutral films. Based on negative instructions, somatic perception and physiological responding can be altered. This is consistent with the assumption that IEI-EMF could be due to nocebo effects, suggesting an important role for psychological interventions.


Heart rate variability in healthy young adults exposed to global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900-MHz radiofrequency signal from mobile phones

Jasmina Wallace, Soafara Andrianome, Rania Ghosn, Erwan Stephan Blanchard, Frederic Telliez, Brahim Selmaoui. Heart rate variability in healthy young adults exposed to global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900-MHz radiofrequency signal from mobile phones. Environ Res. 2020 Aug 23;191:110097. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110097.


Given the large number of mobile phone users and the increasing exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) worldwide, we aimed to study the effect of RF-EMF related to mobile phones on heart rate variability (HRV). Twenty-six healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions with a double-blind, randomized and counter-balanced crossover design. During each session, participants were exposed for 26 min to a sham or real 900 MHz RF-EMF, generated by a commercial dual-band Global System for Mobile technology (GSM) mobile phone. We recorded an electrocardiogram at rest during the exposure. We evaluated HRV by time- and frequency-domain analysis. Evaluation of time-domain HRV parameters revealed a statistically significant increase of the standard deviation of interbeat intervals (SDNN) during the real exposure. Other time-domain parameters were not affected. Analysis in the frequency-domain demonstrated that total spectral power and low-frequency band (LF) absolute power were significantly increased during exposure (p = .046 and p = .043, respectively). However, other parameters were not affected. In conclusion, it seems that most HRV parameters were not affected by GSM signal exposure in our study. The weak effect observed on HRV frequency-domain is likely to represent a random occurrence rather than a real effect.


Effects of mobile phone radiation on buccal mucosal cells: A systematic review

M. P Revanth, S Aparna, Parangimalai Diwakar Madankumar. Effects of mobile phone radiation on buccal mucosal cells: A systematic review.  Electromagn Biol Med. 2020 Jul 24;1-9. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2020.1793168.


The worldwide increased use of mobile phone in recent years has raised many questions on whether their use is safe to user who is exposed to electromagnetic radiation. The aim of the review is to find out the effect of mobile phone emitted radiations on buccal mucosal cells. To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using PubMed, Trip database, Cochrane, Google Scholar and EBSCO host database. The search was focused on the effect of mobile phone radiation on buccal cells. Among the literature available in English, the screening of the related titles and abstracts was done, and only those articles were selected for full-text reading that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The initial literature search resulted in 23 articles out of which only 7 articles fulfilled the criteria were included in this systematic review. The studies showed that mobile phone-emitted radiations have adverse effects on buccal mucosal cells such as the formation of micronuclei and broken egg which was considered as bio-markers of genotoxicity.


Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation on Gene Expression: A Study of Gene Expressions of Human Keratinocytes From Different Origins

Catherine Martin, Frederic Percevault, Kate Ryder, Etiam Sani, Jean-Christophe Le Cun, Maxim Zhadobov , Ronan Sauleau, Yves Le Dréan, Denis Habauzit. Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation on Gene Expression: A Study of Gene Expressions of Human Keratinocytes From Different Origins. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Aug 19. doi: 10.1002/bem.22287.

No abstract


Delayed-Onset multiphasic demyelinating lesions after high dose radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure: A multiple sclerosis (MS) mimic

Sophia M Raefsky, Amit Chaudhari, Michael Y Sy. Delayed-Onset multiphasic demyelinating lesions after high dose radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure: A multiple sclerosis (MS) micmic. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Jun 20;45:102318. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2020.102318.

No abstract

"Our patient is a 46-year-old Caucasian engineer with no significant past medical history. In 2011, he was exposed to prolonged high levels of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) radiation during a technical malfunction at a cell phone tower. Unfortunately, a radiation monitor was not worn during the incident but company guidelines suggested that only 6 min of exposure was safe. In contrast, the patient remained directly in front of 15 active transmitters for at least 2 h. Immediately post exposure, he suffered cutaneous burns to his face, neck, and back, and developed eye, joint, muscle and stomach pain....

In summary, this case illustrates that high levels RF-EMF exposure can either increase risk for development of MS or induce a condition that mimics the presentation of multiple sclerosis both clinically and radiologically. Thus extreme RF-EMF radiation should be kept in the differential diagnosis when taking a thorough neurological history."


Brain EM Exposure for Voice Calls of Mobile Phones in Wireless Communication Environment of Seoul, Korea

Ae-Kyoung Lee ; Hyung-Do Choi. Brain EM Exposure for Voice Calls of Mobile Phones in Wireless Communication Environment of Seoul, Korea. IEEE Access. DOI:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3020831.01 September 2020.


The aim of this paper is to present the measurement results of the transmitted (Tx) power levels of mobile phones in currently operating wireless communication networks in Seoul in 2015 and 2017 and the calculation results of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the brain for voice calls while holding a mobile phone against the user’s ear when operating at the measured mean power level. The Tx power levels of mobile phones using Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 2000, Wide CDMA (WCDMA), and Long-Term Evolution (LTE) networks were compared for the three main mobile network operators in South Korea. The actual mean Tx power level was less than 0.5% of the maximum power for the CDMA2000 and WCDMA networks. In the LTE networks, however, an extremely wide gap in Tx power was observed between the operators; two of the operators showed a mean power of less than 0.1% of the maximum, whereas the other showed mean powers of the three bands within the range of 0.8%–20% of the maximum power. The measurement results suggest that the SAR in the user’s brain is strongly dependent on the year the phone was used, the user-subscribed mobile operator, and the proportion of time connected to the network/technology. The maximum 1-g peak spatial-average SAR (psSAR) level at the mean Tx power in an LTE network was 4.8 mW/kg (for a child head model). A maximum gap of 25 dB in the psSAR was observed between all networks considered.


Review of Safety and Exposure Limits of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging (WEVC) Applications

Erdem Asa, Mostak Mohammad, Omer C. Onar, Jason Pries, Veda Galigekere, Gui-Jia Su. Review of Safety and Exposure Limits of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging (WEVC) Applications. 2020 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference & Expo (ITEC). 23-26 June 2020doi: 10.1109/ITEC48692.2020.9161597.


This study reviews the exposure limits and safety of intermediate frequency (IF) electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions for wireless electric vehicle charging (WEVC) applications. A review of the electromagnetic field exposure limits identified in international guidelines are presented. An overview of the electromagnetic field shielding technologies is provided including recommended geometries, materials, and performances of the methods available in the literature. Available laboratory results of EMF emissions are summarized considering several wireless power transfer studies in different power levels. Possible EMF reduction techniques are discussed with shielding practices and ORNL case studies. Also, living object detection (LOD) and foreign object detection (FOD) methods are reviewed from a safety aspect.


This study reviews and compiles the EMF emission limitations identified in international guidelines and standards including IEEE, ICNIRP, ACGIH, and SAE. EMF emissions can be substantial particularly at high-power transfer levels and misaligned conditions and should be reduced below the limits identified in the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines which are more conservative and thought to be safer. This study also provides a review of the shielding methods and presents two case studies from ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) experiences and practices on EMF shielding. EMF  exposure levels and shielding methodologies for high-power and dynamic wireless power transfer applications should be analyzed in future studies with possible standards development activities.


Framing Effects in Risk Communication Messages - Hazard Identification vs. Risk Assessment

F Freudenstein, R J Croft, P M Wiedemann, A Verrender, C Böhmert, S P Loughran. Framing Effects in Risk Communication Messages - Hazard Identification vs. Risk Assessment. Environ Res. 2020 Aug 2;109934. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109934.


The way in which risk communication messages are framed can influence recipients' risk perceptions. Despite this, there is a limited understanding of how framing is responsible for influencing risk perception. One particularly important element may be whether a risk communication message is framed as a completed 'risk assessment' (specifying a magnitude of risk to the public as a function of the exposure level), or as a 'hazard identification' (a statement regarding whether an environmental agent could in principle cause detrimental health effects in humans, without addressing whether such effects may occur in practice). The current study aimed to investigate for the first time whether framing a risk communication message regarding 'mobile phones and health' as a hazard identification or as a risk assessment affects the reader's risk perception. Using an online survey, participants were separated into three groups and shown either an original press release from the International Agency for Research on Cancer regarding mobile phones and cancer (Group 1), or the press release with additional text modules intended to frame the press release as either a risk assessment (Group 2) or a hazard identification (Group 3). The experimental manipulation was successful in that framing the message as a hazard identification reduced the number of people that believed the press release was a risk assessment, whereas framing it as a risk assessment was not able to increase the number of people who thought that it was a risk assessment. However, no differences in risk perception were found between the groups. In an attempt to ascertain the reason for this lack of framing effect on the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields risk perception measures, it was found that pre-existing interpretations of risk and hazard strongly predicted risk perception, regardless of experimental group. Participants who believed that the International Agency for Research on Cancer conducted a hazard identification perceived lower risks and were less convinced that radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure from mobile phones increases cancer risks. The results of the study demonstrate the importance of understanding the distinction between a hazard identification and a risk assessment, and suggest that radiofrequency electromagnetic field risk communication needs to develop means for empowering the public to differentiate between hazards and risks.


Exposure to Electromagnetic Field during Gestation Adversely Affects the Electrophysiological Properties of Purkinje Cells in Rat Offspring

Haghani M, Pouladvand V , Mortazavi S M J, Razavinasab M, Bayat M, Shabani M. Exposure to Electromagnetic Field during Gestation Adversely Affects the Electrophysiological Properties of Purkinje Cells in Rat Offspring. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2020 Aug 1;10(4):433-440. doi: 10.31661/jbpe.v0i0.560.


Background: Prenatal adverse effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure on nervous system are an issue of major concern.

Objective: Thus, in this study we evaluated the membrane current flow properties of Purkinje neurons after maternal exposure to 900 MHz pulsed RF-EMF.

Material and methods: In this experimental study, during all days of pregnancy, rats in the EMF-exposed group were exposed to 900 MHz pulsed-EMF radiation for 6 h per day. The effects of RF-EMF exposure on the electrophysiological properties of the Purkinje cerebellum neurons from male pups were evaluated by whole-cell patch clamp recordings in current and voltage clamp modes. In voltage-clamp experiments, the holding potential was -60mV, and a depolarizing voltage step (1000 ms duration) was applied from -60 to +50 mV in 10 mV increments at 2s intervals.

Results: The exposure group demonstrated reduced spontaneous firing associated with upward and rightward shift in I/V curve compared to the control rats. Moreover, the peak amplitude of the current for the exposure pups also revealed a significant decrement. The reversal potential was +40 mV and +20 mV for the control and RF-EMF groups, respectively and showed significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusion: The decrease in ion's conductance could be attributed to the observed decrease in the voltage onset of the inward current, peak amplitude and voltage shift.

Open access paper:


Hepatic injury induced by radio frequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices in Wistar rats

H M Fahmy, F F Mohammed. Hepatic injury induced by radio frequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices in Wistar rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2020 Aug 7;960327120946470. doi: 10.1177/0960327120946470.


In this study, the impact of standard 2.45 GHz radio frequency source (averaged whole-body specific absorption rate 0.01 W kg-1 24 h-1 daily for 40 consecutive days) on the liver of Wistar female rats was investigated. The rats were randomly divided into control and Wi-Fi-exposed groups. At the end of the exposure, liver samples were dissected from rats. Rats' livers were inspected through the evaluation of some oxidative stress parameters and the evaluation of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase levels as well as through the molecular investigation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Histopathological examination in addition to ultrastructure examination was also performed. The present data revealed that Wi-Fi exposure leads to severe oxidative stress in the rat liver. Furthermore, Wi-Fi exposure resulted in deleterious effects in the liver function and alters its molecular structure. Moreover, severe histological and ultrastructural alterations are reported in the hepatic tissues points to hepatotoxic effects induced by Wi-Fi exposure. In conclusion, care must be taken when using Wi-Fi emitting devices due to their severe impact on the liver. Public awareness of the need to decrease exposure time and increase the distance from Wi-Fi exposure sources must be raised wherever possible.


Behavioral changes and gene profile alterations after chronic 1,950-MHz radiofrequency exposure: An observation in C57BL/6 mice

Ye Ji Jeong, Yeonghoon Son, Hyung-Do Choi, Nam Kim, Yun-Sil Lee, Young-Gyu Ko, Hae-June Lee. Behavioral changes and gene profile alterations after chronic 1,950-MHz radiofrequency exposure: An observation in C57BL/6 mice. Brain Behav. 2020 Aug 28;e01815. doi: 10.1002/brb3.1815.


Introduction: Due to public concerns about deleterious biological consequences of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), the potential effects of RF-EMF on the central nervous system have received wide consideration.

Methods: Here, two groups of C57BL/6 mice, aged 2 and 12 months, were exposed to 1,950-MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate of 5.0 W/kg for chronic periods (2 hr/day and 5 days/week for 8 months). Behavioral changes were then assessed in the mice at 10 months (sham- or RF-10M) and 20 months (sham- or RF-20M), on the open-field test, the Y-maze test, and an object recognition memory task, while biological effects were analyzed via microarray gene profiling of the hippocampus.

Results: Open-field test results showed a decrease in the time duration spent at the center while there was a decrease in enhanced memory shown by the Y-maze test and the novel object recognition test in the RF-20M mice, compared to sham-exposed mice, but no significant changes in the RF-10M group. Based on a 2-fold change cutoff, the microarray data revealed that 15 genes, which are listed as being involved in neurogenesis on Gene Ontology, were altered in both groups. Quantitative real-time PCR for validation showed increased expression of Epha8 and Wnt6 in the hippocampi of RF-20M group mice, although 13 additional genes showed no significant changes following RF-EMF exposure.

Conclusion: Therefore, cognitive enhancement following chronic exposure for 8 months to RF-EMF from middle age may be associated with increases in neurogenesis-related signals in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 mice.


Investigating human exposure to a practical wireless power transfer system using and the effect about key parameters of dosimetry

SangWook Park. Investigating human exposure to a practical wireless power transfer system using and the effect about key parameters of dosimetry.  PLoS One. 2020 Aug 14;15(8):e0236929. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0236929.


Accurate dosimetry for a real wireless power transfer system (WPT) using electromagnetic resonance and electromagnetic induction requires an accurate description of the field formed by the system. In particular, the electromagnetic field depends on factors such as the construction of the transmitting and receiving coils, the circuit configuration, the input source of the front end of the transmitting coil, and the input impedance of the rear end of receiving coil. However, both circuit and electromagnetic simulations need to be performed to analyze the entire system, which is a difficult task. In order to overcome this difficulty, a method using an equivalent circuit model is proposed and verified through experiments. Moreover, the worst exposure condition to a magnetic field was examined by considering three variables: the charging mode, the state of charge, and the alignment and misalignment between the transmitting and receiving coils. Accordingly, the strongest magnetic field was created in the constant current mode in the fully charged state with misalignment. For example, the magnetic field strength in the case of 80% state of charge and misalignment was 1.397 times greater than in the case of 20% state of charge and alignment at a point 10 mm from the transmission pad. Finally, the induced electric fields and induced current densities were calculated by using a Japanese adult male whole-body voxel human model, and the results were compared with the values recommended by international guidelines to ascertain their compliance.


An Investigation Into the Effects of Long-Term 50-Hz Power-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Hematogram, Blood Chemistry, Fibrosis, and Oxidant Stress Status in the Liver and the Kidney From Sprague-Dawley Rats

Yemao Zhang, Jin Wang, Xingfa Liu, Lijian Ding, Xiong Wu, Mengying He, Huiying Hou, Guoran Ruan, Jinsheng Lai, Chen Chen. An Investigation Into the Effects of Long-Term 50-Hz Power-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Hematogram, Blood Chemistry, Fibrosis, and Oxidant Stress Status in the Liver and the Kidney From Sprague-Dawley Rats. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Aug 25. doi: 10.1002/bem.22291.


Power-frequency electromagnetic fields (PF-EMFs) at 50 Hz are potential health risk factors. This study aimed to explore the effects of long-term exposure to 50-Hz PF-EMFs on general physiological conditions in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. During a 24-week exposure period, the body mass and water and food intake of the animals were recorded regularly. The hematologic parameters were detected every 12 weeks, and blood chemistry analyses were performed every 4 weeks. After sacrifice, morphology was identified by hematoxylin-eosin, Masson, and immunohistochemical staining. Fibrosis-related gene expression and oxidative stress status were also detected. Compared with the control group, exposure to 30, 100, or 500 μT PF-EMF did not exert any effect on body mass, food intake, or water intake. Similarly, no significant differences were found in hematologic parameters or blood chemistry analyses among these groups. Furthermore, morphological assays showed that exposure to PF-EMFs had no influence on the structure of the liver or kidney. Finally, fibrosis-related gene expression and oxidative stress status were unaltered by PF-EMF exposure. The present study indicates that 24 weeks of exposure to PF-EMFs at intensities of 30, 100, or 500 μT might not affect hemograms, blood chemistry, fibrosis, or oxidative stress in the liver or kidney in SD rats.


Indication of Electromagnetic Field Exposure via RBF-SVM Using Time-Series Features of Zebrafish Locomotion

Yaqing He, Kim Fung Tsang, Richard Yuen-Chong Kong, Yuk-Tak Chow. Indication of Electromagnetic Field Exposure via RBF-SVM Using Time-Series Features of Zebrafish Locomotion. Sensors (Basel). 2020 Aug 26;20(17):E4818. doi: 10.3390/s20174818.


This paper introduces a novel model based on support vector machine with radial basis function kernel (RBF-SVM) using time-series features of zebrafish (Danio rerio) locomotion exposed to different electromagnetic fields (EMFs) to indicate the corresponding EMF exposure. A group of 14 adult zebrafish was randomly divided into two groups, 7 in each group; the fish of each group have the novel tank test under a sham or real magnetic exposure of 6.78 MHz and about 1 A/m. Their locomotion in the tests was videotaped to convert into the x, y coordinate time-series of the trajectories for reforming time-series matrices according to different time-series lengths. The time-series features of zebrafish locomotion were calculated by the comparative time-series analyzing framework highly comparative time-series analysis (HCTSA), and a limited number of the time-series features that were most relevant to the EMF exposure conditions were selected using the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) algorithm for RBF-SVM classification training. Before this, ambient environmental parameters (AEPs) had little effect on the locomotion performance of zebrafish processed by the empirical method, which had been quantitatively verified by regression using another group of 14 adult zebrafish. The results have demonstrated that the purposed model is capable of accurately indicating different EMF exposures. All classification accuracies can be 100%, and the classification precision of several classifiers based on specific parameters and feature sets with specific dimensions can reach higher than 95%. The speculative reason for this result is that the specified EMF has affected the zebrafish neural aspect, which is then reflected in their behaviors. The outcomes of this study have provided a new indication model for EMF exposures and provided a reference for the investigation of the impact of EMF exposure.


Security millimetre wave body scanner safe for patients with leadless pacemakers or subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

Patrick Blažek, Matthew J O'Connor, Severin Weigand, Christian Grebmer, Sebastian Reif, et al. Security millimetre wave body scanner safe for patients with leadless pacemakers or subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2020 Aug 29. doi: 10.1007/s10840-020-00830-x.


Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects and safety of the new security screening millimetre wave body scanners (MWBSs) for patients with rare cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs).

Methods: We identified 73 patients with either entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (S-ICD) or leadless pacemakers (LPM) attending routine device follow-up. CIED programming was optimised for the detection of EMI occurrence, and high-voltage therapy was disabled. Patients then underwent millimetre wave body scans under continuous ECG monitoring. Scanning was performed at the recommended distance as well as in close proximity to the scanner emulating accidental exposure. CIED function was observed for EMI effects.

Results: There were no episodes of inhibition of pacing in the leadless pacemaker subgroup, no oversensing in the S-ICD subgroup and no spontaneous device reprogramming in any group. There was no change in pacing or sensing thresholds, and S-ICD vector eligibility remained unchanged after scanning with the MWBS. No CIEDs were identified by the MWBS during the study.

Conclusion: No EMI events were detected during the use of MWBSs by patients with either S-ICDs or LPMs. This data should be reassuring for patients suggesting that they can undergo security body scans without worries or disclosure of their CIED status.