Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below.

The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 800 scientific papers. This 623-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:

Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.

Recent Papers

Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz)

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Special submission: Guidelines for limiting exposure to electromagnetic fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz). Health Physics. March 11, 2020. DOI: 10.1097/HP.0000000000001210.

Abstract

Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are used to enable a number of modern devices, including mobile telecommunications infrastructure and phones, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth. As radiofrequency EMFs at sufficiently high power levels can adversely affect health, ICNIRP published Guidelines in 1998 for human exposure to time-varying EMFs up to 300 GHz, which included the radiofrequency EMF spectrum. Since that time, there has been a considerable body of science further addressing the relation between radiofrequency EMFs and adverse health outcomes, as well as significant developments in the technologies that use radiofrequency EMFs. Accordingly, ICNIRP has updated the radiofrequency EMF part of the 1998 Guidelines. This document presents these revised Guidelines, which provide protection for humans from exposure to EMFs from 100 kHz to 300 GHz.


For a discussion of the problems with these guidelines see: ICNIRP’s Exposure Guidelines for Radio Frequency Fields

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Adverse Effects of Wireless Radiation

Kostoff RN. Adverse Effects of Wireless Radiation. School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology. 648 page monograph. 2019.

Abstract

This monograph identifies adverse effects of wireless radiation as reported in the premier biomedical literature. It shows that most of the laboratory experiments that have been performed are not designed to elicit the more severe adverse effects reflective of the real-life operating environment in which wireless radiation is embedded. The monograph includes a substantial bibliography of papers that present these adverse effects, and shows that what has been reported is the tip of the iceberg of the full spectrum of potential adverse effects from wireless radiation.


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Electrohypersensitivity as a newly identified and characterized neurologic pathological disorder: How to diagnose, treat, and prevent it

Belpomme D, Irigaray P. Electrohypersensitivity as a Newly Identified and Characterized Neurologic Pathological Disorder: How to Diagnose, Treat, and Prevent It. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Mar 11;21(6). pii: E1915. doi: 10.3390/ijms21061915.


Abstract
Since 2009, we built up a database which presently includes more than 2000 electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and/or multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) self-reported cases. This database shows that EHS is associated in 30% of the cases with MCS, and that MCS precedes the occurrence of EHS in 37% of these EHS/MCS-associated cases. EHS and MCS can be characterized clinically by a similar symptomatic picture, and biologically by low-grade inflammation and an autoimmune response involving autoantibodies against O-myelin. Moreover, 80% of the patients with EHS present with one, two, or three detectable oxidative stress biomarkers in their peripheral blood, meaning that overall these patients present with a true objective somatic disorder. Moreover, by using ultrasonic cerebral tomosphygmography and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, we showed that cases have a defect in the middle cerebral artery hemodynamics, and we localized a tissue pulsometric index deficiency in the capsulo-thalamic area of the temporal lobes, suggesting the involvement of the limbic system and the thalamus. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that EHS is a neurologic pathological disorder which can be diagnosed, treated, and prevented. Because EHS is becoming a new insidious worldwide plague involving millions of people, we ask the World Health Organization (WHO) to include EHS as a neurologic disorder in the international classification of diseases.

Conclusions

In summary, we showed that there are presently su fficient clinical, biological, and radiological data for EHS to be acknowledged as a well-defined, objectively identified, and characterized pathological neurologic disorder. As a result, patients who self-report they su ffer from EHS should be diagnosed and treated on the basis of presently available biological tests, including the detection of peripheral blood and urine biomarkers and the use of imaging techniques such as fMRI, TDU, and, when possible, UCTS. Moreover, because we showed for the first time that EHS is frequently associated with MCS and that both clinico-biological entities may be associated with a common physiopathological mechanism for genesis, it clearly appears that they can be identified as a unique neurologic pathological syndrome whatever their causal origin. Moreover; as it was shown that MCS genesis may be attributed to toxic chemical exposure, and EHS genesis to potentially excessive EMF and/or chemical exposure; protective measures against these two environmental stressors should be taken. Whatever its causal origin and mechanism of action, EHS should therefore be from now on recognized as a new identified and characterized neurological pathological disorder. As it is already a real health plague potentially involving millions of people worldwide it should be acknowledged by WHO, and thus be included in the WHO ICD. As stated during the international scientific consensus meeting on EHS and MCS that we have organized in 2015 in Brussels, scientists unanimously asked WHO to urgently assume its responsibilities, by classifying EHS and MCS as separate codes in the ICD; so as to increase scientific awareness of these two pathological entities in the medical community and the general public, and to foster research and train medical practitioners to e ciently diagnose, treat, and prevent EHS and MCS–which in fact constitute a unique, well-defined, and identifiable new neurologic disease.


Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/6/1915

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Adverse impacts of 5G downlinks on human body

Nasim I, Kim S. Adverse Impacts of 5G Downlinks on Human Body.  2019 SoutheastCon. Huntsville, AL. 11-14 April 2019. DOI: 10.1109/SoutheastCon42311.2019.9020454

Abstract

The increasing demand for higher data rates and uninterrupted reliable service have made the frequency spectrum above 6 GHz a very promising candidate for future wireless communications because of its massive amount of raw bandwidth and extremely high data transfer capabilities. However, increasing concerns of communications at high frequencies on human health have gained international alarm that suggests more research before it is deployed successfully. In this context, this paper aims to investigate the human electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from fifth-generation (5G) downlink communications and compare its impacts with the present cellular technologies considering the features that the 5G systems will likely adopt. Our simulation results suggest that while the impacts from 5G beamforming communications cross the regulatory borders at downlinks for a very short range between base stations (BSs) and user equipment (UE), the exposure level remains on a high throughout the entire network compared to the present systems. Also, this paper urges for more research on the exposure level from future communications to determine any possible threats below the existing guidelines. This paper also highlights the significance of considering SAR for the measurement of exposure compliance in downlinks.

Excerpt

... this paper urges the regulatory authorities to set SAR guidelines for 5G systems at far-field exposure also for frequencies above 6 GHz. Also, the minimum AP-UE [access point - user equipment] distance should be maintained at least 6 m [meters] for 5G and further space should be left for a conservative operation regarding human safety.

Conclusions

This paper has highlighted the significance of the human EMF exposure issue in the downlink of a cellular communications system. This paper measured the exposure level in terms of PD and SAR and compared them to those calculated in the 3.9G and 4G specifications. Distinguished from the prior art that studied uplinks only, this paper has found that the downlinks of a 5G can also yield a higher level of emissions in terms of SAR compared to concurrent cellular systems. Our results emphasized that this increase stems from more highly concentrated EMF energy per downlink RF beam due to the use of larger phased arrays within small cells of a 5G network. However, only skin effects are being taken into consideration for simplicity. This paper has also suggested the minimum AP-UE distance for human safety in cellular communications at high frequencies such as 28 GHz. To this end, this paper urges to investigate any possible threats at the exposure level shown in this work for future 5G systems before it is finally globalized.


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Electromagnetic radiation due to cellular, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies: How safe are we?

Naren, Elhance A, Chamola V. Guizani M. Electromagnetic Radiation due to Cellular, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies: How safe are we? IEEE Access. 4:1-21. 2019. DOI 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2976434


Abstract

The electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted out of wireless communication modules in various electronic devices have been identified by researchers as biologically hazardous to humans as well as other living beings. Different countries have different regulations to limit the radiation density levels caused by these devices. The radiation absorbed by an individual depends on various factors such as the device they use, the proximity of use, the type of antenna, the relative orientation of the antenna on the device, and many more. Several standards exist which have tried to quantify the radiation levels and come up with safe limits of EMR absorption to prevent human harm. In this work, we determine the radiation concern levels in several scenarios using a handheld radiation meter by correlating the findings with several international standards, which are determined based on thorough scientific evidence. This study also analyzes the EMR from common devices used in day to day life such as smartphones, laptops, Wi-Fi routers, hotspots, wireless earphones, smartwatches, Bluetooth speakers and other wireless accessories using a handheld radio frequency radiation measurement device. The procedure followed in this paper is so presented that it can also be utilized by the general public as a tutorial to evaluate their own safety with respect to EMR exposure. We present a summary of the most prominent health hazards which have been known to occur due to EMR exposure. We also discuss some individual and collective human-centric protective and preventive measures that can be undertaken to reduce the risk of EMR absorption. This paper analyses radiation safety in pre-5G networks and uses the insight gained to raise valuable concerns regarding EMR safety in the upcoming 5G networks.


Conclusions

People should be made aware that the EMR from using day to day cellular, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth devices are harmful to human health. The levels of radiation observed in most cases such as phone calls, internet browsing on laptops and smartphones, using wireless routers and hotspots, Bluetooth smartwatches and smartphones are unsafe when compared with radiations limits determined by medical bodies. According to current medical literature, various adverse health effects from exposure to RF EMR have been well documented. For now, wireless technologies must be avoided as much as possible. New and innovative wired solutions which provide the same level of user-friendliness should be encouraged.  Intervention of government and medical bodies with the main purpose of protecting human health is of utmost necessity to ensure good economic development without compromising the health of the population. Countries must adopt the guide-lines suggested by medical bodies which take into account both thermal and non-thermal effects of EMR. At present, all individuals must take preventive and protective measures to protect themselves from harmful EMR exposure.


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A meta-analysis of in vitro exposures to weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phones (1990–2015)

Halgamuge MN, Skafida E, Davis D. A meta-analysis of in vitro exposures to weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phones (1990–2015). Environmental Research. Available online 13 February 2020, 109227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109227.

Highlights

• Address the question of the impact of radiofrequency radiation on living organisms in vitro studies using abstract data from 300 peer-reviewed scientific publications (1990–2015) describing 1127 experimental observations.
• Establish impacts of the cumulative effect as measured by SAR * exposure time) to estimate the cumulative energy absorption of RF exposure for their analysis.
• Observe that more mature lymphocytes and glial cells are less reactive to RF, while less mature and less differentiated cells such as epithelium and spermatozoa are more sensitive to RF.
• Observe human cells are less affected by the radiofrequency radiation than rat/mouse cells.

Abstract

To function, mobile phone systems require transmitters that emit and receive radiofrequency signals over an extended geographical area exposing humans in all stages of development ranging from in-utero, early childhood, adolescents and adults. This study evaluates the question of the impact of radiofrequency radiation on living organisms in vitro studies. In this study, we abstract data from 300 peer-reviewed scientific publications (1990–2015) describing 1127 experimental observations in cell-based in vitro models. Our first analysis of these data found that out of 746 human cell experiments, 45.3% indicated cell changes, whereas 54.7% indicated no changes (p<0.001). Realizing that there are profound distinctions between cell types in terms of age, rate of proliferation and apoptosis, and other characteristics and that RF signals can be characterized in terms of polarity, information content, frequency, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and power, we further refined our analysis to determine if there were some distinct properties of negative and positive findings associated with these specific characteristics. We further analyzed the data taking into account the cumulative effect (SAR exposure time) to acquire the cumulative energy absorption of experiments due to radiofrequency exposure, which we believe, has not been fully considered previously. When the frequency of signals, length and type of exposure, and maturity, rate of growth (doubling time), apoptosis and other properties of individual cell types are considered, our results identify a number of potential non-thermal effects of radiofrequency fields that are restricted to a subset of specific faster-growing less differentiated cell types such as human spermatozoa (based on 19 reported experiments, p-value 0.002) and human epithelial cells (based on 89 reported experiments, p-value 0.0001). In contrast, for mature, differentiated adult cells of Glia (p 0.001) and Glioblastoma (p 0.0001) and adult human blood lymphocytes (p 0.0001) there are no statistically significant differences for these more slowly reproducing cell lines. Thus, we show that RF induces significant changes in human cells (45.3%), and in faster-growing rat/mouse cell dataset (47.3%). In parallel with this finding, further analysis of faster-growing cells from other species (chicken, rabbit, pig, frog, snail) indicates that most undergo significant changes (74.4%) when exposed to RF. This study confirms observations from the REFLEX project, Belyaev and others that cellular response varies with signal properties. We concur that differentiation of cell type thus constitutes a critical piece of information and should be useful as a reference for many researchers planning additional studies. Sponsorship bias is also a factor that we did not take into account in this analysis.

Conclusion

In this review, we perform a meta-analysis of data from 300 peer-reviewed scientific publications (1990-2015) with 1127 in vitro experimental observations carried out in the literature that discussed using different experimental techniques (cytogenetic, gene and protein expression analysis) and different cell types (cultured rodent, human cells and human blood lymphocytes) due to non-thermal radio-frequency electromagnetic exposure. In this paper, we directly differentiated the cumulative effect (SAR exposure time) to acquire the cumulative energy absorption of experiments due to RF exposure, which we believe, has not been fully considered previously. Several studies have reported, based on different experimental techniques that RF exposures comparable to those of a mobile phone induce a range of genetic and other damage including (cytogenetic, gene, and protein expression analysis). Non-thermal radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure in a range of cells/tissues that may not be associated with potentially harmful health consequences; in contrast, other studies have reported no apparent effects related to radiofrequency radiation. Our observation showed that 45.3% experiments concluded that an increase in such potential effects on cells exposed to radiofrequency radiation, while 54.7% showed no such effects (p = 0.001). Specific subtypes of cells show a much clearer cellular response. When radiofrequency, exposure and individual cell types are considered, potential non-thermal effects of radio-frequency radiation on cell types, such as human spermatozoa (based on 19 reported experiments, p-value = 0.002) and human epithelial cells (based on 89 reported experiments, p-value < 0.0001) may exist whereas for Glia (p = 0.001), Glioblastoma (p < 0.0001) and human blood lymphocytes (p < 0.0001) the evidence suggests that there are no statistically significant differences.

Fundamentally the validity of any exercise such as this depends on whether studies are carried out with parallel methods and levels of quality assurance and quality control for the biological materials that are employed. The widely varying results we report here could well reflect failures of scientific rigor and consistency, as Portelli and Barnes (2013) [9] have suggested plague in vitro studies. Despite the lack of uniformity in responses, certain patterns are evident. It appears that more mature lymphocytes and glial cells are less reactive to RF, while less mature and less differentiated cells such as epithelium and spermatozoa are more sensitive to RF. In addition, it appears that frequencies that are higher and pulsed have more biological impact than those that are continuous and of lower frequency.

A simple glance at our findings could imply that human cells are less affected by the radiofrequency radiation than rat/mouse cells. However, due to the inconsistency of results, it may be safer to look at other possible explanation. One possibility is that the experimental procedure is not consistently followed throughout the majority of these studies, or it could be due to the experimental design guidelines not being able to account for all the variables we may or may not be aware of. Consequently, it allows an inconsistency set of results due to small fluctuation in different studies. Nevertheless, this study should be useful as a reference for many researchers supporting epidemiological studies and in vivo experiments using whole organism animal models.


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Main regularities and health risks from exposure to non-thermal microwaves of mobile communication

Belyaev I. Main Regularities and Health Risks from Exposure to Non-Thermal Microwaves of Mobile Communication. 2019 14th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS). Nis Serbia. 23-25 Oct. 2019. DOI: 10.1109/TELSIKS46999.2019.9002324.

Abstract

Various responses to non-thermal microwaves (MW) from mobile communication including adverse health effects related to electrohypersensitivity, cancer risks, neurological effects, and reproductive impacts have been reported while some studies reported no such effects. This presentation provides an overview of the complex dependence of the MW effects on various physical and biological variables, which account for, at least partially, an apparent inconsistence in the published data. Among other variables, dependencies on carrier frequency, polarization, modulation, intermittence, electromagnetic stray fields, genotype, physiological traits, and cell density during exposure were reported. Nowadays, biological and health effects of 5G communication, which will use microwaves of extremely high frequencies (millimeter waves MMW, wavelength 1- 10 mm), are of significant public concern. It follows from available studies that MMW, under specific conditions of exposure at very low intensities below the ICNIRP guidelines, can affect biological systems and human health. Both positive and negative effects were observed in dependence on exposure parameters. In particular, MMW inhibited repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation at specific frequencies and polarizations. To what extend the 5G technology and the Internet of Things will affect the biota and human health is definitely not known. However, based on possible fundamental role of MMW in regulation of homeostasis and almost complete absence of MMW in atmosphere due to effective absorption, which suggests the lack of adaptation to this type of radiation, the health effects of chronic MMW exposures may be more significant than for any other frequency range.

Conclusions

To what extent the 5G technology and the Internet of Things will affect the human health is definitely not known. However, based on possible fundamental role of MMW in regulation of homeostasis [72] and almost complete absence of MMW in atmosphere due to effective absorption, which suggests the lack of adaptation to this type of radiation, the health effects of chronic MMW exposures may be more significant than for any other frequency range. From the health perspectives, implementation of the 5G technology is premature. Extended research with chronic exposure of human cells, animals and man is needed to exclude potentially harmful 5G signals.


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A real-world quality assessment study in six ExpoM-RF measurement devices

Eeftens M,Dongus S, Bürgler A, Röösl M, ACCEDERA team. A real-world quality assessment study in six ExpoM-RF measurement devices. Environmental Research. Vol.182, March 2020, 109049. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.109049

Highlights

• We compared 6 ExpoM-RF personal measurement devices for radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).
• The vast majority (84%) of variability in RF-EMF exposure levels was explained by the environment.
• Systematic differences between devices and calibrations were detectable, but relatively small.
• This supports the validity of studies which characterize personal and environmental RF-EMF using exposimeters.
• If systematic differences are corrected, we recommend adjusting for device ID and calibration session.

Abstract

Exposimeters measuring radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are commonly used to assess personal exposure to RF-EMF in real-life environments. They are usually calibrated in an anechoic chamber using single, well-defined signals such as the center frequency of each band, and standardized orientations, but it is not clear how different devices compare in the real environment where complex mixtures of signals from all directions are present. We thus tested the comparability of six ExpoM-RF exposimeters before and after calibration in an anechoic chamber by varying their position and orientation while repeatedly measuring 15 microenvironments (9 walking routes, 4 tram routes and 2 bus routes) on 6 different days. We modelled the geometric mean levels of RF-EMF as a function of orientation, position, device ID, whether the device was recently calibrated, correcting for the microenvironment in which each measurement took place. We found that systematic differences introduced by device ID, calibration, day of the week, orientation and position are relatively small compared to exposure differences between microenvironments. Any corrections (if desired) should include both device ID and calibration session, but would have a small impact considering the negligible differences between devices. This supports the validity of previous exposure measurement studies relying on ExpoM-RF devices, which did not correct for device ID. We further found that summarizing the exposure per microenvironment as geometric means results in better models than arithmetic means and medians, and recommend that further exposure assessment studies report observed levels as geometric means.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0013935119308461

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A novel pilot study of automatic identification of EMF radiation effect on brain using computer vision and machine learning

Singh A, Singh N, Jinda T, Rosado-Muñoz, A, Kishore Dutta M. A novel pilot study of automatic identification of EMF radiation effect on brain using computer vision and machine learning. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control. Vol. 57, March 2020, 101821. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bspc.2019.101821.


Highlights

• This work presents automated identification of the effect of EMF radiations on brain.
• Changes in brain morphology due to EMF exposure were analyzed considering drosophila melanogaster as a specimen.
• The geometrical features were extracted from the microscopic segmented brain image of drosophila.
• Machine learning techniques were used for identification of EMF exposure on drosophila brain.

Abstract

Electromagnetic field (EMF) radiations from mobile phones and cell tower affect brain of humans and other organisms in many ways. Exposure to EMF could lead to neurological changes causing morphological or chemical changes in the brain and other internal organs. Cellular level analysis to measure and identify the effect of mobile radiations is an expensive and long process as it requires preparing the cell suspension for the analysis. This paper presents a novel pilot study to identify changes in brain morphology under EMF exposure considering drosophila melanogaster as a specimen. The brain is automatically segmented, obtaining microscopic images from which discriminatory geometrical features are extracted to identify the effect of EMF exposure. The geometrical features of the microscopic segmented brain image of drosophila are analyzed and found to have discriminatory properties suitable for machine learning. The most prominent discriminatory features were fed to four different classifiers: support vector machine, naïve bayes, artificial neural network and random forest for classification of exposed / non-exposed microscopic image of drosophila brain. Experimental results indicate that all four classifiers provide good classification results up to 94.66% using discriminatory features selected by feature selection method. The proposed method is a novel approach to identify the effect of EMF exposure automatically and with low time complexity thus providing an efficient image processing framework based on machine learning.




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The radio-protective effect of rosmarinic acid against mobile phone and Wi-Fi radiation-induced oxidative stress in the brains of rats


Asl JF, Goudarzi M, Shoghi H. The radio-protective effect of rosmarinic acid against mobile phone and Wi-Fi radiation-induced oxidative stress in the brains of rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2020 Mar 3. doi: 10.1007/s43440-020-00063-9.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Rosmarinus officinalis L. is an aromatic perennial herb from which rosmarinic acid (RA) can be extracted. This research was conducted to assess the effectiveness of RA against radio frequency (RF) radiation-induced oxidative stress due to 915 MHz (mobile phone) and 2450 MHz (Wi-Fi) frequencies in rats.

METHODS: The animals were separated into six groups, including group 1 receiving normal saline (NS), group 2 (NS/Wi-Fi) and group 4 (NS/mobile), which received NS plus 60 min/day of exposure to the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) for 1 month, group 3 (RA/Wi-Fi) and group 5 (RA/mobile) received RA (20 mg/kg/day, po) plus 60 min/day of EMR, and group 6 (RA) received only RA.

RESULTS: There was a significant elevation of protein carbonylation (PC), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significant reduction in glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the RF radiation-exposed rats' brain compared to the control group. RA reduced the levels of NO, PC and MDA and it also elevated the TAC, GPx, SOD, CAT and GSH levels in the rats' brains in the RA/Wi-Fi and RA/mobile groups compared to the NS/Wi-Fi and NS/mobile groups, respectively.

CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that RA can be considered a useful candidate for protecting brain tissues against RF radiation-induced oxidative stress at 915 and 2450 MHz frequencies through ameliorative effects on the antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stress indices.


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The effects of mobile phone radiofrequency radiation on cochlear stria marginal cells in Sprague-Dawley rats

Yang H, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Zhong S, Hu G, Zuo W. The Effects of Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation on Cochlear Stria Marginal Cells in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Feb 18. doi: 10.1002/bem.22255.

Abstract

To investigate the possible mechanisms for biological effects of 1,800 MHz mobile radiofrequency radiation (RFR), the radiation-specific absorption rate was applied at 2 and 4 W/kg, and the exposure mode was 5 min on and 10 min off (conversation mode). Exposure time was 24 h short-term exposure. Following exposure, to detect cell DNA damage, cell apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the Comet assay test, flow cytometry, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride) staining, and a fluorescent probe were used, respectively. Our experiments revealed that mobile phone RFR did not cause DNA damage in marginal cells, and the rate of cell apoptosis did not increase (P > 0.05). However, the production of ROS in the 4 W/kg exposure group was greater than that in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that mobile phone energy was insufficient to cause cell DNA damage and cell apoptosis following short-term exposure, but the cumulative effect of mobile phone radiation still requires further confirmation. Activation of the ROS system plays a significant role in the biological effects of RFR.

Conclusion

The RFR emitted from mobile phones was insufficient to cause cell DNA damage and cell apoptosis following short‐term exposure, but intracellular ROS levels in the 4 W/kg exposure group were significantly increased than in the control group,indicating that activation of the ROS system plays a crucial role in the biological effects of RFR. The cumulative effect of mobile phone radiation requires investigation.


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Assessment of the cellphone radiation effects on anti-oxidative and renal parameters in rats

Eslami E, Fatahian S, Shahanipour K. Assessment of the Cellphone Radiations Effects on Anti-oxidative and Renal Parameters in Rat. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. 11(4):278-282. Dec 2019.

Objective: In the present study an attempt is to assess the cellphones waves effects on the stress oxidative activities as well as renal parameters in rat.

Methods: 30 mature male Wister rats were divided into 3 groups of 10. Group 1 (control) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. Groups 2 and 3 were exposed with two and four cellphones in opposite sides of the cage, respectively. Blood samples were collected directly from the rat's heart 15 and 30 days post exposure and the activity of anti-oxidative factors including Glutathione Peroxidase, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Paraoxonase and Malondialdehyde as well as renal parameters (Urea, Uric acid and Creatinine) were measured.

Results: Activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and paraoxonase enzymes in all treated groups, 15 and 30 days post cellphone exposure were significantly increased in comparison with control. The activity of glutathione peroxidase enzyme in all treated groups, 15 and 30 days post cellphone exposure was decreased in comparison with control. Malondialdehyde and creatinine activity did not show any significant changes. Uric acid and urea were significantly increased in the group just exposed with four cellphones, 30 days post exposure.

Conclusion: According to the results, many changes were seen in biochemical parameters due to the cellphone exposure during a month. Therefore it can be concluded that radio frequency devices could be destructive and have many negative effects on the tissues and enzyme function.


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Effects of acute exposure to ultra-wideband pulsed electromagnetic fields on the liver and kidneys of mice

Guo K, Zhang Y, Fang X, Fan P, Shang S, Fan F, Wu H, Man M, Xie Y, Lu X. Effects of acute exposure to ultra-wideband pulsed electromagnetic fields on the liver and kidneys of mice. Electromagn Biol Med. 2020 Mar 12:1-14. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2020.1737806.

Abstract

The biosafety of ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses, which are characterized by simultaneously high power and a high bandwidth ratio, has gained increasing attention. Although there is substantial prior literature on the biological effects of UWB pulses on both cells and animals, an explicit, unequivocal and definite pattern of the corresponding biological responses remains elusive, and the systemic secondary consequences are also still not fully understood. In this study, we found that exposing mice to UWB pulses resulted in the alteration of several biochemical blood parameters, which further prompted us to investigate changes in the liver and kidneys of mice exposed to UWB pulses with different field intensities and different durations. The data demonstrated that exposure to UWB pulses significantly increased the levels of ALT and AST, increased oxidative stress, and could even induce the accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocytes. The total number of pulses under the tested acute exposure regiment contributed most to the observed hepatic and rental dysfunction. Notably, the physiological and molecular changes recovered approximately 72 hours after exposure. These results imply the potential risk of acute exposure to UWB pulses, and highlight the meaningful targets for further long-term study of chronic exposure.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32164469

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Design and dosimetric analysis of an exposure facility for investigating possible effects of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi signals on human sleep

Schmid G, Hirtl R, Bueno-Lopez A, Dorn H, Eggert T, Danker-Hopfe H. Design and Dosimetric Analysis of an Exposure Facility for Investigating Possible Effects of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi Signals on Human Sleep. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Feb 27. doi: 10.1002/bem.22256.

Abstract

A new head exposure system for double-blind provocation studies investigating possible effects of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi exposure on human sleep was developed and dosimetrically analyzed. The exposure system includes six simultaneously radiating directional antennas arranged along a circle (radius 0.6 m) around the test subject's head, and enables a virtually uniform head exposure, i.e. without any preferred direction of incidence, during sleep. The system is fully computer-controlled and applies a real wireless local area network (WLAN) signal representing different transmission patterns as expected in real WLAN scenarios, i.e. phases of "beacon only" as well as phases of different data transmission rates. Sham and verum are applied in a double-blind crossover study design and all relevant exposure data, i.e. forward and reverse power at all six antenna inputs, are continuously recorded for quality control. For a total antenna input power (sum of all antennas) of 220 mW, typical specific absorption rate (SAR) in cortical brain regions is approximately 1-2 mW/kg (mass average SAR over respective brain region), which can be seen as a realistic worst-case exposure level in real WLAN scenarios. Taking into account variations of head positions during the experiments, the resulting exposure of different brain regions may deviate from the given average SAR levels up to 10 dB. Peak spatial 10 g average SAR in all brain and all head tissues is between 1.5-3.5 and 10.4-25 mW/kg, respectively.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32104921

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Antibacterial susceptibility pattern of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus after exposure to electromagnetic waves from mobile phone simulator

Movahedi MM, Nouri F, Tavakoli Golpaygani A, Ataee L, Amani S, Taheri M. Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus after Exposure to Electromagnetic Waves Emitted from Mobile Phone Simulator. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2019 Dec 1;9(6):637-646. doi: 10.31661/jbpe.v0i0.1107.

Abstract

Background: The increasing use of telecommunication devices such as Wi-Fi modems and mobile phones in the recent years can change the cellular structure of microorganisms so the generation of electromagnetic waves has led to concern in the community whenever be exposed to these fields and may have harmful effects on human health.

Material and Methods: In this experimental study, standard strains of bacteria were prepared on Mueller-Hinton agar for bacterial growth to obtain 0.5 McFarland turbidity (1.5 × 108 CFU) of bacteria. Antibiotic susceptibility test using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was done. For Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, antibiotics susceptibility test was conducted. The test group was exposed to electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phone simulator with a frequency of 900 MHz and the control group were not exposed.

Results: The results revealed that increasing duration of exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by the mobile simulators with a frequency of 900 MHz especially after 24 h of exposure, can increase bacterial resistance in S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa.

Conclusion: Several factors can cause bacterial resistance against antibiotics. One of these factors is the electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile simulator with a frequency of 900 MHz, which can increase the permeability of the cell wall of bacteria.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32039094

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Dynamic changes in cytoskeleton proteins of olfactory ensheathing cells induced by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

Grasso R, Pellitteri R, Caravella SA, Musumeci F, Raciti G, Scordino A, Sposito G, Triglia A, Campisi A. Dynamic changes in cytoskeleton proteins of olfactory ensheathing cells induced by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. J Exp Biol. 2020 Feb 10. pii: jeb.217190. doi: 10.1242/jeb.217190.

Abstract

Several evidences have suggested the ability of radio frequency electromagnetic fields to influence biological systems, even if the action mechanisms are not well understood. Only few data have reported about the effect of radio frequency electromagnetic fields on self-renewal of neural progenitor cells. A particular glial type, which shows characteristics of stem cells, are Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs). Herein, we assessed the non-thermal effects induced on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells through radio frequency electromagnetic fields changing the envelope of the electromagnetic wave. Primary OEC cultures were exposed to continuous or amplitude modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic fields, in far field condition and at different exposition times (10, 15, 20 min). The expression of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells markers (S-100 and Nestin), cytoskeletal proteins (GFAP and Vimentin), apoptotic pathway activation by Caspase-3 cleavage and cell viability were evaluated.Our results highlight that 20 min of exposure to continuous or amplitude modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic fields induced a different and significant decrease in cell viability. In addition, according to the electromagnetic fields waveform, diverse dynamic changes in the expression of the analysed markers in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells and activation of apoptotic pathway were observed. The data suggest that radio frequency electromagnetic fields might play different and important role in the self-renewal of OEC stem cells, which are involved in nervous system repair.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32041804

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Lipid oxidation induced by RF waves and mediated by ferritin iron causes Activation of ferritin-tagged ion channels

Hernández-Morales M, Shang T, Chen J, Han V, Liu C. Lipid Oxidation Induced by RF Waves and Mediated by Ferritin Iron Causes Activation of Ferritin-Tagged Ion Channels. Cell Rep. 2020 Mar 10;30(10):3250-3260.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.070.

Abstract

One approach to magnetogenetics uses radiofrequency (RF) waves to activate transient receptor potential channels (TRPV1 and TRPV4) that are coupled to cellular ferritins. The mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear and controversial. Theoretical calculations suggest that the heat produced by RF fields is likely orders of magnitude weaker than needed for channel activation. Using the FeRIC (Ferritin iron Redistribution to Ion Channels) system, we have uncovered a mechanism of activation of ferritin-tagged channels via a biochemical pathway initiated by RF disturbance of ferritin and mediated by ferritin-associated iron. We show that, in cells expressing TRPVFeRIC channels, RF increases the levels of the labile iron pool in a ferritin-dependent manner. Free iron participates in chemical reactions, producing reactive oxygen species and oxidized lipids that ultimately activate the TRPVFeRIC channels. This biochemical pathway predicts a similar RF-induced activation of other lipid-sensitive TRP channels and may guide future magnetogenetic designs.


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Possible mechanism for synchronized detection of weak magnetic fields by nerve cells


Barnes F, Greenebaum B. Possible Mechanism for Synchronized Detection of Weak Magnetic Fields by Nerve Cells. Bioelectromagnetics. Published online Jan 28, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.22251

Abstract

We propose that biological systems may detect static and slowly varying magnetic fields by the modification of the timing of firing of adjacent nerve cells through the local influence of the magnetic field generated by current from one cell's firing on its nearest neighbors. The time delay of an adjacent nerve cell pulse with respect to the initial clock nerve cell pulse could serve as a signal for sensing the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to the current flows in the cells. It has been shown that changes in static magnetic fields modify concentrations of reactive oxygen species, calcium, pH, the growth rates of fibrosarcoma cells, and membrane potentials. These are linked to changes in membrane potentials that can either inhibit or accelerate the firing rate of pacemaker or clock cells. This mechanism may have applications to animals' use of magnetic fields for navigation or other purposes, possibly in conjunction with other mechanisms.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/bem.22251
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Assessment of low-frequency magnetic fields emitted by DC fast charging columns

Trentadue G, Pinto R, Salvetti M, Zanni M, Pliakostathis K, Scholz H, Martini G. Assessment of Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields Emitted by DC Fast Charging Columns. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Feb 11. doi: 10.1002/bem.22254.

Abstract

The expected imminent widespread use of electromobility in transport systems draws attention to the possible effects of human exposure to magnetic fields generated inside electric vehicles and during their recharge. The current trend is to increase the capacity of the battery inside the vehicles to extend the available driving range and to increase the power of recharging columns to reduce the time required for a full recharge. This leads to higher currents and potentially stronger magnetic fields. The Interoperability Center of the Joint Research Center started an experimental activity focused on the assessment of low-frequency magnetic fields emitted by five fast-charging devices available on the market in recharge and standby conditions. The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of a standard measurement procedure for the assessment of magnetic fields emitted by direct current charging columns. The spectrum and amplitudes of the magnetic field, as well as exposure indices according to guidelines for the general public and occupational exposure, were recorded by means of a magnetic field probe analyzer. The worst-case scenario for instantaneous physical direct and indirect effects was identified. Measurements within the frequency range of 25 Hz-2 kHz revealed localized magnetic flux density peaks above 100 μT at the 50 Hz frequency in three out of five chargers, registered in close proximity during the recharge. Beyond this distance, exposure indices were recorded showing values below 50% of reference levels.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32043629

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Natural ELF fields in the atmosphere and in living organisms

Price C, Williams E, Elhalel G, Sentman D. Natural ELF fields in the atmosphere and in living organisms. Int J Biometeorol. 2020 Feb 8. doi: 10.1007/s00484-020-01864-6.

Abstract

Most electrical activity in vertebrates and invertebrates occurs at extremely low frequencies (ELF), with characteristic maxima below 50 Hz. The origin of these frequency maxima is unknown and remains a mystery. We propose that over billions of years during the evolutionary history of living organisms on Earth, the natural electromagnetic resonant frequencies in the atmosphere, continuously generated by global lightning activity, provided the background electric fields for the development of cellular electrical activity. In some animals, the electrical spectrum is difficult to differentiate from the natural background atmospheric electric field produced by lightning. In this paper, we present evidence for the link between the natural ELF fields and those found in many living organisms, including humans.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32034466

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Relationship between distance to overhead power lines and calculated fields in two studies

Amoon AT, Swanson J, Vergara X, Kheifets LI. Relationship between distance to overhead power lines and calculated fields in two studies. J Radiol Prot. 2020 Feb 17. doi: 10.1088/1361-6498/ab7730.

Abstract

There is some evidence that both distance from transmission lines and measured or calculated magnetic fields are associated with childhood leukemia. Because distance is a key component when calculating the magnetic field generated by power lines, distance from lines and calculated fields based on lines tend to be highly correlated. Socioeconomic status (SES) and dwelling type are also associated with magnetic field exposure. We used exposure data from two large studies of childhood leukemia and other cancers, in the US and the UK, to describe a relationship between distance and magnetic fields across the population within 100 meters (m) of power lines as a whole and evaluate potential modifiers such as SES and type of dwelling. There were 387 subjects living within 100 m of an overhead power line. There was no significant difference in mean calculated fields nor distance to 200+ kV lines within 100 m by study. Within the range where the power line field is expected to be significant compared to other sources, which we take as 100 m, distance to high voltage lines predicted MF variation in both studies better than other functions of distance tested in both linear and logistic regression. There were no differences between high and low SES nor dwelling types (single-family home vs other). In conclusion, we found that calculated fields do appear to diminish linearly with increasing distance from overhead power lines, up to 100 m, particularly those 200+ kV and above. These results are stronger in the UK study. Within 100 m, distance to high voltage lines continues to be highly correlated with calculated magnetic fields and each can be a proxy for the other.


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The inverse relation between mitochondrial transmembrane potential and proteins α-helix in neuronal-like cells under static magnetic field and the role of VDAC

Calabrò E, Magazù S, Currò M, Ientile R. The inverse relation between mitochondrial transmembrane potential and proteins α-helix in neuronal-like cells under static magnetic field and the role of VDAC. Electromagn Biol Med. 2020 Mar 9:1-7. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2020.1737808.

Abstract

In this study, a correlation between cell channel α-helices displacement and the mitochondrial transmembrane potential after exposure of 3, 7, 15 and 24 h of neuronal-like cells to a uniform magnetic field at the intensity of 2 mT was shown. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and fluorescence techniques were used to analyze the secondary structure of protein content and mitochondrial transmembrane potential, respectively. The main result of this study was represented by a significant inverse relation between the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the intensity of the Amide I band that can be associated with time exposure. Given that mitochondrial transmembrane potential should be related to the gating state of voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in mitochondrial membrane, this result could have a relevant role in medicine. Indeed, VDAC's irregular behavior can be associated with several varieties of mitochondria-associated pathologies and various forms of cancer and neurodegeneration.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32149540


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Radiofrequency interference in the clinical laboratory

Badizadegan ND, Greenberg S, Lawrence H, Badizadegan K. Radiofrequency Interference in the Clinical Laboratory. Am J Clin Pathol. 2019 Apr 2;151(5):522-528. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/aqy174.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Radiofrequency interference (RFI) is a known medical device safety issue, but there are no documented cases of interference resulting in erroneous laboratory results.

METHODS: We investigated unexpected failure of a hematology analyzer resulting in erroneous WBC counts. Hardware failure was initially suspected, but temporal association with increased power output from a nearby antenna prompted investigation for RFI.

RESULTS: Power output from an antenna located approximately 4 feet from the analyzer was increased to ensure sufficient signal for emergency communications in the building. Interference from the antenna resulted in aberrant side scatter and abnormal WBC counts. Powering down the antenna returned the instrument to normal working conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: We have shown RFI as the root cause of erroneous WBC counts in a hematology analyzer. We propose that RFI should be on the list of potential interfering mechanisms when clinical laboratory instruments generate inconsistent or unreliable results.


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Electric and magnetic senses in marine animals, and potential behavioral effects of electromagnetic surveys


Nyqvist D, Durif C, Johnsen MG, De Jong K, Forland TN, Sivle LD. Electric and magnetic senses in marine animals, and potential behavioral effects of electromagnetic surveys. Mar Environ Res. 2020 Mar;155:104888. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.104888.

Abstract

Electromagnetic surveys generate electromagnetic fields to map petroleum deposits under the seabed with unknown consequences for marine animals. The electric and magnetic fields induced by electromagnetic surveys can be detected by many marine animals, and the generated fields may potentially affect the behavior of perceptive animals. Animals using magnetic cues for migration or local orientation, especially during a restricted time-window, risk being affected by electromagnetic surveys. In electrosensitive animals, anthropogenic electric fields could disrupt a range of behaviors. The lack of studies on effects of the electromagnetic fields induced by electromagnetic surveys on the behavior of magneto- and electrosensitive animals is a reason for concern. Here, we review the use of electric and magnetic fields among marine animals, present data on survey generated and natural electromagnetic fields, and discuss potential effects of electromagnetic surveys on the behavior of marine animals.


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A sense of place: Pink salmon use a magnetic map for orientation

Putman NF, Williams CR, Gallagher EP, Dittman AH. A sense of place: Pink salmon use a magnetic map for orientation. J Exp Biol. 2020 Feb 6. pii: jeb.218735. doi: 10.1242/jeb.218735. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

The use of "map-like" information from Earth's magnetic field for orientation has been shown in diverse taxa, but questions remain regarding the function of such maps. We used a "magnetic displacement" experiment to demonstrate that juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) use magnetic cues to orient. The experiment was designed to simultaneously explore whether their magnetic map is used to direct fish (i) homeward, (ii) toward the center of their broad oceanic range, or (iii) along their oceanic migratory route. The headings adopted by these navigationally naïve fish coincided remarkably well with the direction of the juveniles' migration inferred from historical tagging and catch data. This suggests that the large-scale movements of pink salmon across the North Pacific may be driven largely by their innate use of geomagnetic map cues. Key aspects of the oceanic ecology of pink salmon and other marine migrants might therefore be predicted from magnetic displacement experiments.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32029460

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On the biophysical mechanism of sensing upcoming earthquakes by animals


Panagopoulos DJ, Balmori A, Chrousos GP. On the biophysical mechanism of sensing upcoming earthquakes by animals. Sci Total Environ. 2020 Jan 29;717:136989. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136989.

Abstract

It is documented that a few days or weeks before major Earthquakes (EQs) there are changes in animal behavior within distances up to 500 km from the seismic epicenter. At the same time Seismic Electric Signals (SES), geomagnetic and ionospheric perturbations, are detected within similar distances. SES consist of single unipolar pulses, and/or groups of such pulses called "SES activities" with an average frequency between successive pulses on the order of ~0.01 Hz and electric field intensity on the order of ~10-5-10-4 V/m (Frazer-Smith et al., 1990; Rikitake, 1998; Varotsos et al., 1993, 2011, 2019; Hayakawa et al., 2013; Grant et al., 2015). We show that the SES activities can be sensed by living organisms through the "Ion Forced-Oscillation Mechanism" for the action of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) on cells, according to which polarized EMFs can cause irregular gating of electro-sensitive ion channels on the cell membranes with consequent disruption of the cell electrochemical balance (Panagopoulos et al., 2000, 2002, 2015). This can be sensed by sensitive animals as discomfort in cases of weak and transient exposures, and may even lead to DNA damage and serious health implications in cases of intense exposure conditions (as in certain cases of man-made EMF exposures). Moreover, we show that the geomagnetic and ionospheric perturbations cannot be sensed through this mechanism. The same mechanism has explained meteoropathy, the sensing of upcoming thunderstorms by sensitive individuals, through the action of the EMFs of lightning discharges (Panagopoulos and Balmori, 2017). The present study shows that centuries-long anecdotal rumors of animals sensing intense upcoming EQs and displaying unusual behavior, lately documented by systematic studies, are now explained for the first time on the basis of the electromagnetic nature of all living organisms, and the electromagnetic signals emitted prior to EQs.


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Gray whales strand more often on days with increased levels of atmospheric radio-frequency noise


Granger J, Walkowicz L, Fitak R, Johnsen S. Gray whales strand more often on days with increased levels of atmospheric radio-frequency noise. Curr Biol. 2020 Feb 24;30(4):R155-R156. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.01.028.

Abstract

Evidence from live gray whale strandings suggests that their navigation may be disrupted by increased radio frequency noise generated by solar storms, suggesting the potential for magnetoreception in this species.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32097638