Thursday, January 2, 2020

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August, 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below.

The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 800 scientific papers. This 588-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:


Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.


Recent Papers

Notes on parliament hearing in Tallinn, Estonia June 4, 2019 as regards the deployment of the fifth generation, 5G, of wireless communication

Hardell L. Notes on parliament hearing in Tallinn, Estonia June 4, 2019 as regards the deployment of the fifth generation, 5G, of wireless communication. World Academy of Sciences Journal.  November 18, 2019   pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.3892/wasj.2019.28

Abstract

The fifth generation (5G) for wireless communication is about to be deployed worldwide in spite of no thorough studies being made on the potential risks to human health and the environment. The implementation seems to be driven mainly by business interests, not considering mounting public anxiety on the associated risks. In Estonia, an appeal on a moratorium was signed by 1,122 subjects, forcing a hearing in the Social Affairs Commission and the Environment Commission of Estonian Parliament on June 4, 2019. The hearing lasted for 1 h and 40 min. The whole hearing may be found on the web. It clearly demonstrated that decision‑making bodies base their decisions and act on expert statements that tend to be biased and formed by a cartel of members instead of their own science‑based evaluation. Thus, the hearing revealed a lack of knowledge among the Commission members on the risks involved with the use of 5G wireless communication that is exemplified herein. This may create negative consequences for human health and the environment in the future.


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Discussion on Spatial and Time Averaging Restrictions Within the Electromagnetic Exposure Safety Framework in the Frequency Range Above 6 GHz for Pulsed and Localized Exposures


Neufeld E, Samaras T, Kuster N. Discussion on Spatial and Time Averaging Restrictions Within the Electromagnetic Exposure Safety Framework in the Frequency Range Above 6 GHz for Pulsed and Localized Exposures.  Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Dec 30. doi: 10.1002/bem.22244.


Abstract


Both the current and newly proposed safety guidelines for local human exposure to millimeter-wave frequencies aim at restricting the maximum local temperature increase in the skin to prevent tissue damage. In this study, we show that the application of the current and proposed limits for pulsed fields can lead to a temperature increase of 10°C for short pulses and frequencies between 6 and 30 GHz. We also show that the proposed averaging area of 4 cm2 , that is greatly reduced compared with the current limits, does not prevent high-temperature increases in the case of narrow beams. A realistic Gaussian beam profile with a 1 mm radius can result in a temperature increase about 10 times higher than the 0.4°C increase the same averaged power density would produce for a plane wave. In the case of pulsed narrow beams, the values for the time and spatial-averaged power density allowed by the proposed new guidelines could result in extreme temperature increases.


Excerpts

.... In this letter, we look at limits, such as those currently proposed or recently approved for the revised ICNIRP guidelines and IEEE standard, and investigate whether such limits are consistent with the stated goals of the exposure safety frameworks of preventing excessive heating in the case of pulsed and/or localized radiation. In cases when they are not consistent, we discuss how consistency can be achieved. In line with the abovementioned safety standards and exposure guidelines, the presented analysis focuses exclusively on the magnitude of the tissue temperature increase as a risk factor and does not consider other aspects, such as the thermoelastic effect related to the rapidity of temperature increase.....

In conclusion, the results presented above demonstrate that, in the case of very short pulses, pulse‐duration‐independent limits imposed on transmitted energy density (fluence) alone cannot preclude the induction of high‐temperature increases in the skin. Pulse‐duration‐dependent limits should be applied also for pulses less than 1 s and possibly less than 30 GHz as well. Even though the amplifiers of the currently developed consumer devices will not allow the full exploitation of the limits of the guidelines, the guidelines should not implicitly rely on this, as they will be used to develop exposure assessment standards with the aim of ensuring safety of any future technology, e.g. IEC/IEEE 63195 [2018]. Accordingly, either assumption must be explicitly stated in the guidelines, or the limits should be adapted to be intrinsically safe. In the absence of limitations applied to the peak‐to‐average power ratio of pulses, it is possible to deliver to the body large amounts of energy within a very short time interval. For millimeter‐wave frequencies, where the absorption is superficial, this results in fast and dramatic temperature rises, as the step response function is proportional to the rapidly rising urn:x-wiley:01978462:media:bem22244:bem22244-math-0042 rather than the urn:x-wiley:01978462:media:bem22244:bem22244-math-0006 commonly encountered for deeper heating. As far as spatial averaging is concerned, it has been shown that an averaging area smaller than 4 cm2 should be introduced in order to avoid peak PDs in narrow beams [Neufeld and Kuster, 2018] that overheat the tissues. With increasing beam radius, e.g. at larger distances from the antenna(s), the tolerable averaging area increases rapidly, provided that there are no sharp exposure peaks. Duration‐independent limits on the fluence of pulses are not suitable. They should either be replaced by duration‐dependent fluence limits for pulses or by limits on the (temporal) peak exposure. In both cases, the limits should be set after taking narrow‐beam exposures into consideration. These limits will depend on the chosen spatial and temporal averaging schemes and the maximum temperature increase deemed acceptable. Forward‐looking knowledge about the technical needs and priorities of the industry could allow for selecting the balance between thresholds (averaging time and area, peak‐to‐average ratio, PD) to minimally impact the technological potential using the same limit‐setting framework.

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Special Issue: “Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine: From Mechanisms to Biomedical Applications”

Scarfì MR, Mattsson M-O, Simkó M, Zeni O. Editorial. Special Issue: “Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine: From Mechanisms to Biomedical Applications." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22): 4548; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224548

1. Special Issue Rationale

The last decades have seen a huge increase in applications and devices using and emitting non-ionizing radiation, otherwise referred to as “electromagnetic fields” (EMF). This includes, e.g., the distribution and use of electricity and information and communication technologies. Present and foreseeable future technologies employ different parts of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum, from static electric and magnetic fields, via low frequency fields to high frequency EMF encompassing millimeter waves and THz fields. Thus, humans are exposed to various electric, magnetic, and EMF in the course of everyday life. In addition, these kinds of non-ionizing radiation are also successfully employed in biomedical applications, for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, causing exposure in specific occupational environments. As a consequence, public and scientific concern with respect to the possible adverse health effects of EMF occurring after exposure to levels below those inducing known acute effects has been rising. A large body of literature dealing with experimental as well as clinical and population-based investigations into the biological and health effects of such fields has yielded inconsistent and often conflicting information. Moreover a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of interaction remains to be elucidated. Therefore, there is great interest in evaluating the induced biological responses from the point of view of the associated interaction mechanisms.

2. About the Papers of This Special Issue

The call for articles on “Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine: From Mechanisms to Biomedical Applications” resulted in a total of 14 accepted manuscripts: 10 regular papers, one communication and three review papers. On the whole, the following issues were addressed:

(1)  EMF Exposure Assessment

In the characterization of human exposure to EMF, children’s exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has been a matter of debate since several meta-analyses reported on an increased risk of childhood leukemia’s for daily average exposure above 0.4 µT without any causal relationship. This issue was covered in two papers by the same research group. Bonato et al. [1] propose a new method for the characterization of children’s exposure, which relies on personal measurements and employs a stochastic approach based on segmentation that resulted in the identification of the parameters most affecting the level of children’s exposure. Tognola et al. [2], acharacterized a real-life ELF exposure scenario by applying a machine learning approach on personal exposure measurements from 977 children in France. The impact of only outdoor sources of exposure was considered.

The measurements of personal exposure to radiofrequency (RF) EMF is a challenging task in epidemiological studies and was covered in two papers and one review article. Zeleke et al. [3] recorded and analyzed measurements of personal RF-EMF exposure levels from a wide range of frequency bands from 63 participants over a range of 27.4 ± 4.5 h. Liu et al. [4] investigated the applicability of an efficient whole-body individual modelling method for the assessment of RF exposure in the case of patient exposure under MRI examination. Chiaramello et al. [5] presented an overview of the papers published in the last ten years and address RF-EMF exposure assessment from different sources in indoor environments.

(2) Biological Effects of EMF Exposure and Health Risk Evaluation

An in vitro study by Sannino et al. [6] indicated a possible involvement of DNA repair mechanisms in the RF-induced adaptive response, a phenomenon by which pre-exposure of different cell cultures to RF fields under specific conditions is capable of reducing the damage induced by subsequent treatment with genotoxic agents.

Three studies report on the results of in vivo investigations carried out on laboratory animals. In particular, Guo et al. [7] investigated the effects of one-month exposure to a 220 MHz pulsed modulated RF field at the power density of 50 W/m2 on the sperm quality in male adult rats, which was found to be impaired by the exposure. These exposure conditions were chosen by the authors since they are realistic under certain occupational conditions in which workers are exposed to high intensity RF fields.

The Medaka fish was chosen in the paper by Sun et al. [8] to address the effect of long term (entire development period) static magnetic field exposure at the mT level on embryo development and behavioral response. Development was not affected whereas swimming velocity was reduced in the exposed group.

Sienkiewicz and van Rongen [9] reviewed the evidence on the effects of exposure to RF fields, mostly associated with mobile phone technology, on the cognitive behavior of laboratory animals. Vornoli et al. [10] reviewed the currently available evidence from in vivo studies on carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies in order to summarize the contribution of experimental research to the prevention of the adverse effects of RF radiation on human health.

Two studies were carried out on human volunteers. In Loughran et al. [11], the influence of RF-EMF on electroencephalogram (EEG) readings was investigated in 36 healthy adults participating in a randomized, double-blind provocation study with the aim to find out if a thermal mechanism is involved in nervous system responses to RF-EMF. Indeed, the results suggest such an involvement.

Vecsei et al. [12] studied the effects of acute exposure from long term evolution (LTE) mobile phone EMF on the thermal pain threshold in healthy young adults and no effects of exposure were seen.

A couple of other relevant papers are collected in this special issue that address the topic of the extrapolation of the outcome of animal studies to humans [13], and the identification and description of methods using non-ionizing radiation (NIR) such as EMF and optical radiation in Swedish health care [14]. Specifically, Kodera and Hirata computationally estimated the thermal time constants of temperature elevation in human head and rat models exposed to dipole antennas at 3–10 GHz [13], while Hansson Mild and coworkers identified three applications in Swedish health care (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and electrosurgery) where acute effects at existing exposure levels could not be ruled out [14].


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Genetic susceptibility may modify the association between cell phone use and thyroid cancer: A population-based case-control study in Connecticut

Luo J, Li H, Deziel NC, Huang H, Zhao N, Ma S, Nie X, tUdelsman R, Zhang Y. Genetic susceptibility may modify the association between cell phone use and thyroid cancer: A population-based case-control study in Connecticut. Environmental Research. Available online 6 December 2019, 109013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.109013.

Highlights

• The interaction between cell phone use and genetic variants on thyroid cancer was investigated in this study.
• When some genetic variants were present, cell phone use was significantly associated with thyroid cancer.
• The association increased when cell phone use duration and frequency increased.
• Genetic susceptibility may modify the association between cell phone use and thyroid cancer.

Abstract

Emerging studies have provided evidence on the carcinogenicity of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from cell phones. This study aims to test the genetic susceptibility on the association between cell phone use and thyroid cancer. Population-based case-control study was conducted in Connecticut between 2010 and 2011 including 440 thyroid cancer cases and 465 population-based controls with genotyping information for 823 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 176 DNA genes. We used multivariate unconditional logistic regression models to estimate the genotype-environment interaction between each SNP and cell phone use and to estimate the association with cell phone use in populations according to SNP variants. Ten SNPs had P < 0.01 for interaction in all thyroid cancers. In the common homozygote groups, no association with cell phone use was observed. In the variant group (heterozygotes and rare homozygotes), cell phone use was associated with an increased risk for rs11070256 (odds ratio (OR): 2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30–4.30), rs1695147 (OR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.30–4.90), rs6732673 (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.01–2.49), rs396746 (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.13–5.65), rs12204529 (OR: 2.62, 95% CI: 1.33–5.17), and rs3800537 (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.30–5.36) with thyroid cancers. In small tumors, increased risk was observed for 5 SNPs (rs1063639, rs1695147, rs11070256, rs12204529 and rs3800537), In large tumors, increased risk was observed for 3 SNPs (rs11070256, rs1695147, and rs396746). Our result suggests that genetic susceptibilities modify the associations between cell phone use and risk of thyroid cancer. The findings provide more evidence for RFR carcinogenic group classification.


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Wireless Wearables and Implants: A Dosimetry Review


Guido K, Kiourti A. Bioelectromagnetics. Wireless Wearables and Implants: A Dosimetry Review. 2020 Jan;41(1):3-20. doi: 10.1002/bem.22240.

Abstract

Wireless wearable and implantable devices are continuing to grow in popularity, and as this growth occurs, so too does the need to consider the safety of such devices. Wearable and implantable devices require the transmitting and receiving of electromagnetic waves near and through the body, which at high enough exposure levels may damage proximate tissues. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is the quantity commonly used to enumerate exposure levels, and various national and international organizations have defined regulations limiting exposure to ensure safe operation. In this paper, we comprehensively review dosimetric studies reported in the literature up to the year 2019 for wearables and implants. We discuss antenna designs for wearables and implants as they relate to SAR values and field and thermal distributions in tissue, present designs that have made steps to reduce SAR, and then review SAR considerations as they relate to applied devices. As compared with previous review papers, this paper is the first review to focus on dosimetry aspects relative to wearable and implantable devices.



Conclusions

This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the dosimetry aspects relevant to wearable and implantable antennas. Placing radiators close to or within the body poses challenges for both radiation efficiency and device safety. The primary indicator of dosimetry for such increasingly prevalent devices, SAR, manifests as a temperature increase within body tissues. When SAR peaks outside of the safe limits outlined by the IEEE, ICNIRP, and FCC, damage to the surrounding tissues, usually those located closest to the device, can occur. As such, designers of wearable and implantable devices are taking steps to reduce SAR levels while maintaining the radiation characteristics of the antenna. Both designers of wearable devices and designers of implantable devices share many of the methods used to reduce SAR, such as metamaterials and other ground plane alterations, and all methods seek to reduce peak areas of the electric field. As these devices continue to grow in popularity, designers must not only consider the safety of their own device but also the combined safety of the other devices that may be implemented on/in the same person.

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RF Exposure Due to Mobile Devices Operated Close to the Human Body

Fernández-Rodríguez C, Bulla G, de Salles AA. RF Exposure Due to Mobile Devices Operated Close to the Human Body. Proceedings of the 49th European Microwave Conference. Paris, France. 1-3 October 2019. pp. 264-267.

Abstract

The SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) simulations due to mobile devices operated in close range to the human head and body are described in this paper. The FDTD (Finite- Difference Time-Domain) numerical method together with realistic children, adolescents and adults’ models are employed to estimate the 1 g and the 10 g SAR in different biological tissues. Typical mobile phones, laptops, tablets and virtual reality glasses were considered and the alternatives to reduce the SAR are discussed. The need of new dosimetric parameters and skin and nervous system models for 5G and millimetric waves exposure are also addressed.

VII. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

The SAR for some typical mobile phones, laptops, tablets and virtual reality glasses were simulated and results were compared to the available recommended exposure guidelines. It was observed that when some of these devices are operated very close to the head or body the simulated results can be above the exposure limits. This is particularly the case for the children models and for particular tissues (e.g. hippocampus and cerebellum). Then the methods to determine regulatory compliance for wireless devices should be re-examined.

Antennas now used in portable devices are monopole, helix, PIFA or other planar structures (generally without ground plane) and they radiate the EMF almost to all directions. Since these devices can be operated close to the head or body, directional antennas radiating the EMF to the direction opposite to the head and body should be developed in order to reduce the SAR in these tissues. This can also contribute to reduce antenna input impedance mismatching when the device is operated close to the body. New antenna techniques including a back plane, electromagnetic band gap (EBG) and artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) could be adequate alternatives aiming to reduce the SAR in the user’s head and body. There is also an urgent need for research to evaluate the risks to the eye from use of cell phones in virtual reality applications.

Also, in the near future the use of mm-waves (e.g. 26 GHz and above) will be widespread to carry new services on the 5 G network. Then, the need for new quantities of interest, metrics and exposure limits adequate for these frequencies, as well as modelling new structures, such as the skin and the nervous system, are suggested.

It is very important to remark that the recommendations and the standards usually adopted in different countries only consider the health effects of short time exposure. However, the mobile phones, notebooks, tablets and virtual reality glasses may be used for long time very close to the user’s body. Then the long-time health effects must be taken into consideration in order to evaluate the health risks. Meanwhile the Precautionary Principle should be adopted in order to reduce health risks.


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Monitoring the Risk of the Electric Component Imposed on a Pilot During Light Aircraft Operations in a High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field

Michałowska J, Tofil A, Józwik J, Pytka J, Legutko S, Siemiątkowski Z, Łukaszewicz A. Monitoring the Risk of the Electric Component Imposed on a Pilot During Light Aircraft Operations in a High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field. Sensors (Basel). 2019 Dec 14;19(24). pii: E5537. doi: 10.3390/s19245537.

Abstract


High-frequency electromagnetic fields can have a negative effect on both the human body and electronic devices. The devices and systems utilized in radio communications constitute the most numerous sources of electromagnetic fields. The following research investigates values of the electric component of electromagnetic field intensification determined with the ESM 140 dosimeter during the flights of four aircrafts-Cessna C152, Cessna C172, Aero AT3 R100, and Robinson R44 Raven helicopter-from the airport in Depultycze Krolewskie near Chelm, Poland. The point of reference for the obtained results were the normative limits of the electromagnetic field that can affect a pilot in the course of a flight. The maximum value registered by the dosimeter was E = 3.307 V/m for GSM 1800 frequencies.

Excerpt

Although the results obtained confirm that the measured values of the electromagnetic fields in the tested aircraft did not exceed the permissible values, there is a risk related to the high load on the pilot’s body, especially the instructor, who performed a significant number of flights per day. As such, the radiation doses add up and this may cause premature fatigue and other negative effects on the instructor’s mental condition. Bearing in mind the need to increase the level of flight operations safety, it is reasonable to undertake research and development activities to develop a system for monitoring electromagnetic radiation and its impact on pilots during a flight. The authors’ idea is an onboard electromagnetic field monitoring system, shown schematically in Figure 23.


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Whole-body exposures to radiofrequency-electromagnetic energy can cause DNA damage in mouse spermatozoa via an oxidative mechanism

Houston BJ, Nixon B, McEwan KE, Martin JH, King BV, Aitken RJ, De Iuliis GN. Whole-body exposures to radiofrequency-electromagnetic energy can cause DNA damage in mouse spermatozoa via an oxidative mechanism. Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 25;9(1):17478. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-53983-9.

Abstract

Artificially generated radiofrequency-electromagnetic energy (RF-EME) is now ubiquitous in our environment owing to the utilization of mobile phone and Wi-Fi based communication devices. While several studies have revealed that RF-EME is capable of eliciting biological stress, particularly in the context of the male reproductive system, the mechanistic basis of this biophysical interaction remains largely unresolved. To extend these studies, here we exposed unrestrained male mice to RF-EME generated via a dedicated waveguide (905 MHz, 2.2 W/kg) for 12 h per day for a period of 1, 3 or 5 weeks. The testes of exposed mice exhibited no evidence of gross histological change or elevated stress, irrespective of the RF-EME exposure regimen. By contrast, 5 weeks of RF-EME exposure adversely impacted the vitality and motility profiles of mature epididymal spermatozoa. These spermatozoa also experienced increased mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species after 1 week of exposure, with elevated DNA oxidation and fragmentation across all exposure periods. Notwithstanding these lesions, RF-EME exposure did not impair the fertilization competence of spermatozoa nor their ability to support early embryonic development. This study supports the utility of male germ cells as sensitive tools with which to assess the biological impacts of whole-body RF-EME exposure.


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Prenatal Effects of a 1,800-MHz Electromagnetic Field on Rat Livers

Tumkaya L, Yilmaz A, Akyildiz K, Mercantepe T, Yazici ZA, Yilmaz H. Prenatal Effects of a 1,800-MHz Electromagnetic Field on Rat Livers. Cells Tissues Organs. 2019 Dec 4:1-9. doi: 10.1159/000504506.

Abstract

The use of devices, including mobile phones, generating electromagnetic fields (EMF) is widespread and is progressively increasing. It has also been shown that EMF may have detrimental effects. This is the first study to investigate the postnatal biochemical and histological effects of prenatal exposure of rat livers to 1,800-MHz EMF at different time intervals in uteroplacental life. The 3 EMF groups of rats were exposed to 1,800-MHz EMF for 6, 12, or 24 h daily for 20 days. Unexposed rats served as control group. All rats were subjected to anesthesia, and on postnatal day 60, the livers were excised, and blood was collected for histological and biochemical analyses. Malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in the exposed groups than the unexposed controls (p < 0.05). In contrast, EMF-exposed groups had lower liver tissue glutathione levels than controls (p < 0.05). Serum Ca2+, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher in EMF-exposed groups than controls (p < 0.05). In addition, liver tissue total oxidant status levels were increased (p < 0.05), and liver tissue total antioxidant status levels were decreased (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Furthermore, in the EMF groups, extensive vacuolation and degeneration of the hepatocytes in the portal area, as well as those surrounding the sinusoids, were evident. Affected hepatocytes had polygonally shaped nuclei and vacuolic cytoplasm imparting eosinophilic staining. Loss of cellular membrane integrity and invaginations, as well as picnotic nuclei, was prominent. This study has shown that intrauterine liver damage caused by 1,800-MHz EMF exposure persists into puberty in rats.


Excerpt

Three of the pregnant rats served as untreated controls, while the others were exposed to mobile phone radiation, which was adjusted to talking and Wi-Fi mode, for 6-, 12-, and 24-h/day for 20 consecutive days [Çetin et al., 2014; Meral et al., 2014; Ragy and Ragy, 2015; Schmid and Kuster, 2015; Mugunthan et al., 2016; Bahreyni Toossi et al., 2018; Ertilav et al., 2018]. The emitter of the EMF device (Anritsu MG3670 B type, Japan), which generates 1,800-MHz frequency radiation, was placed centrally under the cage [Bedir et al., 2018]. The SAR (specific absorption rate) value was calculated according to the study by Qin et al. [2012], which was 0.12 W/kg.
Eight newborn rats were allocated to each group. The newborn rats were not exposed to EMF. They were reared for 2 months under the aforementioned conditions. Blood was sampled, and livers were removed on the 60th day postpartum as detailed below.

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Does Exposure of Smart Phones during Pregnancy Affect the Offspring's Ovarian Reserve? A Rat Model Study

Calis P, Seymen M, Soykan Y, Delen K, Aral BS, Take Kaplanoglu G, Karcaaltincaba D. Does Exposure of Smart Phones during Pregnancy Affect the Offspring's Ovarian Reserve? A Rat Model Study. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2019 Dec 10:1-11. doi: 10.1080/15513815.2019.1692112.

Abstract

Objective: We investigated the effect of prenatal exposure to smart phone radiation and the protective effect of omega-3 on ovarian reserve of offspring. Methods: 24 pregnant Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group-I received neither radiofrequency (RF) radiation nor omega-3, group-II received RF, group-III received RF radiation and 300 mg omega-3 and group-IV received RF radiation and 600 mg Omega-3 till birth. At 42 days, bilateral oophorectomy was performed on all female offspring for follicle count and immunohistochemical staining (GDF9, FOXO1 and TUNEL). Results: Group-II had significantly lower mean number of primordial (p = 0.006), secondary follicles(p = 0.003) and a higher atresia score. Group-III variables were comparable with group-I variables. Group-IV had statistically higher median number of atretic follicles than group-I (p = 0.023). Conclusions: Ovarian reserve of offspring diminished with RF exposure during pregnancy. Omega-3 supplementation during pregnancy may reduce the potential premature ovarian failure.


Excerpts

RF exposure in the experiment resulted in a whole body average SAR of 0.23 W/kg with an ERMS field of 17.25 V/m. This SAR value could be accepted as non-thermal SAR level for RF radiation, because it is known that 4 W/kg SAR leads to 1 °C increase in the temperature of the exposed tissue. RF exposure was applied at the same time of the day at whole pregnancy for 1 hour/day.

In conclusion, RF appears to negatively alter ovarian reserve in a rat model when exposed throughout pregnancy. However, low dose of Omega-3 supplementation might be a preventive strategy to minimize atresia in such cases. Before extrapolating those results to clinical practice, current findings should be confirmed with human data.

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Biochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometrical investigation of the effect of thymoquinone on the rat testis following exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field


Yahyazadeh A, Altunkaynak BZ, Kaplan S. Biochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometrical investigation of the effect of thymoquinone on the rat testis following exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field. Acta Histochem. 2019 Nov 26:151467. doi: 10.1016/j.acthis.2019.151467.

Abstract

Long-term use of cell phones emitting electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have raised concerns regarding public health in recent year. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of 900 MHz EMF exposure (60 min/day for 28 days) on the rat testis. Another objective was to determine whether the deleterious effect of EMF radiation would be reduced by the administration of thymoquinone (TQ) (10 mg/kg/day). Twenty-four male adult Wistar albino rats were randomly selected, then assigned into four groups as followControl, EMF, TQ and EMF + TQ. Testicular samples were analyzed using histological, stereological, biochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Total numbers of primary spermatocytes and spermatids as well as Leydig cells were significantly decreased in the EMF group compared to the Control group (p < 0.05). In the EMF + TQ group, the total number of primary spermatocytes was significantly increased compared to the EMF group (p < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly increased in the EMF group compared to the Control group (p < 0.05). Also, serum testosterone levels and wet weight of testes were significantly decreased in the EMF group compared to the Control group (p < 0.05). Our findings suggested that exposure to a 900 MHz EMF had adverse effects on rat testicular tissue and that the administration of TQ partially mitigated testicular oxidative damages caused by EMF radiation.


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Effects of co-exposure to 900 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and high-level noise on sleep, weight, and food intake parameters in juvenile rats


Bosquillon de Jenlis A, Del Vecchio F, Delanaud S, Bach V, Pelletier A. Effects of co-exposure to 900 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and high-level noise on sleep, weight, and food intake parameters in juvenile rats. Environ Pollut. 2019 Oct 25:113461. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113461.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Electrohypersensitive people attribute various symptoms to exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF); sleep disturbance is the most frequently cited. However, laboratory experiments have yielded conflicting results regarding sleep alterations. Our hypothesis was that exposure to RF-EMF alone would lead to slight or non-significant effects but that co-exposure to RF-EMFs and other environmental constraints (such as noise) would lead to significant effects.

METHODS: 3-week-old male Wistar rats (4 groups, n = 12 per group) were exposed for 5 weeks to continuous RF-EMF (900 MHz, 1.8 V/m, SAR = 30 mW/kg) in the presence or absence of high-level noise (87.5 dB, 50-20000 Hz) during the rest period. After 5 weeks of exposure, sleep (24 h recording), food and water intakes, and body weight were recorded with or without RF-EMF and/or noise. At the end of this recording period, sleep was scored during the 1 h resttime in the absence of noise and of RF-EMF exposure.

RESULTS: Exposure to RF-EMF and/or noise was associated with body weight gain, with hyperphagia in the noise-only and RF-EMF + noise groups and hypophagia in the RF-EMF-only group. Sleep parameters recording over 24 h highlighted a higher frequency of active wakefulness in the RF-EMF-only group and a lower non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep ratio during the active period in the noise-only group. There were no differences in sleep duration in either group. During the 1-h, constraint-free sleep recording, sleep rebound was observed in the noise-only group but not in the RF-EMF-only and RF-EMF + noise groups.

CONCLUSION: Our study showed effects of RF-EMF, regardless of whether or not the animals were also exposed to noise. However, the RF-EMF + noise group presented no exacerbation of those effects. Our results did not support the hypothesis whereby the effects of RF-EMF on physiological functions studied are only visible in animals exposed to both noise and RF-EMF.


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Impact of Cerebral Radiofrequency Exposures on Oxidative Stress and Corticosterone in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease


Bouji M, Lecomte A, Gamez C, Blazy K, Villégier AS. Impact of Cerebral Radiofrequency Exposures on Oxidative Stress and Corticosterone in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019 Nov 25. doi: 10.3233/JAD-190593.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of neurodegenerative disease leading to dementia. Several studies suggested that mobile phone radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures modified AD memory deficits in rodent models.

OBJECTIVE: Here we aimed to test the hypothesis that RF-EMF exposure may modify memory through corticosterone and oxidative stress in the Samaritan rat model of AD.

METHODS: Long-Evans male rats received intracerebroventricular infusion with ferrous sulphate, amyloid-beta 1-42 peptide, and buthionine-sufloximine (AD rats) or with vehicle (control rats). To mimic cell phone use, RF-EMF were exposed to the head for 1 month (5 days/week, in restraint). To look for hazard thresholds, high brain averaged specific absorption rates (BASAR) were tested: 1.5 W/Kg (15 min), 6 W/Kg (15 min), and 6 W/Kg (45 min). The sham group was in restraint for 45 min. Endpoints were spatial memory in the radial maze, plasmatic corticosterone, heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), and amyloid plaques.

RESULTS: Results indicated similar corticosterone levels but impaired memory performances and increased cerebral staining of thioflavine and of HO1 in the sham AD rats compared to the controls. A correlative increase of cortical HO1 staining was the only effect of RF-EMF in control rats. In AD rats, RF-EMF exposures induced a correlative increase of hippocampal HO1 staining and reduced corticosterone.

DISCUSSION: According to our data, neither AD nor control rats showed modified memory after RF-EMF exposures. Unlike control rats, AD rats showed higher hippocampal oxidative stress and reduced corticosterone with the higher BASAR. This data suggests more fragility related to neurodegenerative disease toward RF-EMF exposures.


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Microwaves from mobile phone induce reactive oxygen species but not DNA damage, preleukemic fusion genes and apoptosis in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

Durdik M, Kosik P, Markova E, Somsedikova A, Gajdosechova B, Nikitina E, Horvathova E, Kozics K, Davis D, Belyaev I. Microwaves from mobile phone induce reactive oxygen species but not DNA damage, preleukemic fusion genes and apoptosis in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 7;9(1):16182. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-52389-x.

Abstract

Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has been associated with the increased risk of childhood leukemia, which arises from mutations induced within hematopoietic stem cells often through preleukemic fusion genes (PFG). In this study we investigated whether exposure to microwaves (MW) emitted by mobile phones could induce various biochemical markers of cellular damage including reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA single and double strand breaks, PFG, and apoptosis in umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells including CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. UCB cells were exposed to MW pulsed signals from GSM900/UMTS test-mobile phone and ROS, apoptosis, DNA damage, and PFG were analyzed using flow cytometry, automated fluorescent microscopy, imaging flow cytometry, comet assay, and RT-qPCR. In general, no persisting difference in DNA damage, PFG and apoptosis between exposed and sham-exposed samples was detected. However, we found increased ROS level after 1 h of UMTS exposure that was not evident 3 h post-exposure. We also found that the level of ROS rise with the higher degree of cellular differentiation. Our data show that UCB cells exposed to pulsed MW developed transient increase in ROS that did not result in sustained DNA damage and apoptosis.



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Immunotropic effects in cultured human blood mononuclear cells exposed to a 900 MHz pulse-modulated microwave field

Szymański Ł, Sobiczewska E, Cios A, Szymanski P, Ciepielak M, Stankiewicz W. Immunotropic effects in cultured human blood mononuclear cells exposed to a 900 MHz pulse-modulated microwave field. J Radiat Res. 2019 Dec 12. pii: rrz085. doi: 10.1093/jrr/rrz085.

Abstract

The specific biological effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) remains unknown even though devices present in our daily lives, such as smartphones and Wi-Fi antennae increase the environmental level of electromagnetic radiation. It is said that the human immune system is able to react to discrete environmental stimuli like EMF. To investigate the effect of 900 MHz microwave stimulation on the immune system our research aimed to analyze lymphocyte proliferation and observe and assess the basic immunoregulatory activities using a newly developed and improved anechoic chamber. Samples of mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from the blood of healthy donors were exposed to 900 MHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation (20 V/m, SAR 0.024 W/kg) twice (15 min each) or left without irradiation (control group). Subsequently, the control and exposed cells were set up to determine several parameters characterizing T cell immunocompetence and monocyte immunogenic activity. Although the microcultures of PBMC exposed to radiofrequency radiation demonstrated higher immunogenic activity of monocytes (LM index) and T-cell response to concanavalin A than control cultures after first exposure, this parameter decreased after a second stimulation. Saturation of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor rose significantly after the second day of exposure. On the other hand, response to mitogen dropped after EMF stimulation. The results suggest that PBMC are able to overcome stress caused by mitogens after stimulation with 900 MHz radiation.


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Comparative cyto- and genotoxicity of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz electromagnetic field radiations in root meristems of Allium cepa

Kumar A, Kaur S, Chandel S, Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK. Comparative cyto- and genotoxicity of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz electromagnetic field radiations in root meristems of Allium cepa. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Nov 4;188:109786. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109786.

Abstract

In the last few decades, tremendous increase in the use of wireless electronic gadgets, particularly the cell phones, has significantly enhanced the levels of electromagnetic field radiations (EMF-r) in the environment. Therefore, it is pertinent to study the effect of these radiations on biological systems including plants. We investigated comparative cytotoxic and DNA damaging effects of 900 and 1800 MHz EMF-r in Allium cepa (onion) root meristematic cells in terms of mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Onion bulbs were subjected to 900 and 1800 MHz (at power densities 261 ± 8.50 mW m-2 and 332 ± 10.36 mW m-2, respectively) of EMF-r for 0.5 h, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h. Root length declined by 13.2% and 12.3%, whereas root thickness was increased by 46.7% and 48.3% after 4 h exposure to 900 MHz and 1800 MHz, respectively. Cytogenetic studies exhibited clastogenic effect of EMF-r as depicted by increased CAs and MI. MI increased by 36% and 53% after 2 and 4 h exposure to 900 MHz EMF-r, whereas it increased by 41% and 67% in response to 1800 MHz EMF-r. Aberration index was increased by 41%-266% and 14%-257% during 0.5-4 h of exposure to 900 MHz and 1800 MHz, respectively, over the control. EMF-r exposure decreased % head DNA (DNAH) and increased % tail DNA (DNAT) and olive tail moment (OTM) at both 900 and 1800 EMF-r. In 4 h exposure treatments, head DNA (%) declined by 19% and 23% at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz, respectively. DNAT and OTM were increased by 2.3 and 3.7 fold upon exposure to 900 MHz EMF-r over that in the control, whereas 2.8 and 5.8 fold increase was observed in response to 1800 MHz EMF-r exposure for 4 h and the difference was statistically significant. The study concludes that EMF-r in the communication range (900 and 1800 MHz) adversely affect root meristems in plants and induce cytotoxic and DNA damage. EMF-r induced DNA damage was more pronounced at 1800 MHz than that at 900 MHz.


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Comments on the "Evaluation of the genotoxicity of cell phone radiofrequency radiation in male and female rats and mice following subchronic exposure"


Vijayalaxmi, Foster KR, Miyakoshi J, Verschaeve L. Comments on the "Evaluation of the genotoxicity of cell phone radiofrequency radiation in male and female rats and mice following subchronic exposure" by Smith-Roe at al. [online, open access, Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 2019]. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2019 Dec 27. doi: 10.1002/em.22353.

No abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31883146

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Environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic field levels in a department of pediatrics

Besset D, Selmaoui B, Tourneux P, Leke A, Delanaud S, de Seze R, Stephan Blanchard E. Environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic field levels in a department of pediatrics. Environ Res. 2019 Nov 6:108894. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108894.

Abstract

Preterm neonates constitute a vulnerable population that is highly sensitive to its environment. Given the increased use of wireless communication devices (mobile and digital enhanced cordless telecommunications, WiFi networks, etc.), neonates hospitalized in a department of pediatrics are potentially exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Strikingly, data on RF-EMF levels in pediatric units have not previously been published. The objective of the present study was thus to quantify the RF-EMF levels in a 34-bed tertiary department of pediatrics with a neonatal critical care unit (NCCU) and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). To this end, we used triaxle antenna dosimeters to map the RF-EMF levels in the environment and to measure spot emissions from medical devices. In a first set of experiments, RF-EMF levels at 144 points in the staff area and in the children's rooms in the NCCU and NICU were evaluated over a 24-h period. In a second set of measurements performed in a Faraday chamber, we measured the RF-EMF levels emitted by the medical devices to which neonates are potentially exposed in the department of pediatrics. The RF-EMF levels were significantly higher in the NCCU than in the NICU (p < 0.05). Although the two units did not differ significantly with regard to the average maximum values, the single greatest value recorded in the NCCU (6 V/m GSM + UMTS 900 (UL) frequency band, in the staff area) was more than twice that recorded in the NICU (3.70 V/m in the UMTS 2100 (UL) frequency band, in the children's rooms). The NCCU and NICU did not differ significantly with regard to the time during which the RF-EMF level at each measurement point was more than two standard deviations above its mean. The RF-EMF level was significantly higher during the day than during the night (p < 0.001). The various medical devices used in the NICU did not emit detectable amounts of RF. Overall, RF-EMF levels in the NCCU and NICU were very low. It is probable that the RF-EMFs measured here were primarily generated by the parents' and staff members' activities, rather than by medical devices. However, a combination of low-level, chronic exposure with transient, elevated peak values in a vulnerable population of preterm neonates may be of particular concern. In a department of pediatrics, decreasing preterm neonates' exposure to RF-EMFs should primarily involve a limitation on the use of wireless communication devices by staff members and parents.


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Patients with pacemakers or defibrillators do not need to worry about e-Cars: An observational study


Lennerz C, Horlbeck L, Weigand S, Grebmer C, Blazek P, Brkic A, Semmler V, Haller B, Reents T, Hessling G, Deisenhofer I, Lienkamp M, Kolb C, O'Connor M.
Technol Health Care. 2019 Nov 8. doi: 10.3233/THC-191891.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Electric cars are increasingly used for public and private transportation and represent possible sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Potential implications for patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) range from unnecessary driving restrictions to life-threatening device malfunction. This prospective, cross-sectional study was designed to assess the EMI risk of electric cars on CIED function.

METHODS: One hundred and eight consecutive patients with CIED presenting for routine follow-up between May 2014 and January 2015 were enrolled in the study. The participants were exposed to electromagnetic fields generated by the four most common electric cars (Nissan Leaf, Tesla Model S, BMW i3, VW eUp) while roller-bench test-driving at Institute of Automotive Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University, Munich. The primary endpoint was any abnormalities in CIED function (e.g. oversensing with pacing-inhibition, inappropriate therapy or mode-switching) while driving or charging electric cars as assessed by electrocardiographic recordings and device interrogation.

RESULTS: No change in device function or programming was seen in this cohort which is representative of contemporary CIED devices. The largest electromagnetic field detected was along the charging cable during high current charging (116.5 μT). The field strength in the cabin was lower (2.1-3.6 μT).

CONCLUSIONS: Electric cars produce electromagnetic fields; however, they did not affect CIED function or programming in our cohort. Driving and charging of electric cars is likely safe for patients with CIEDs.



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Evaluation of Wi-Fi Radiation Effects on Antibiotic Susceptibility, Metabolic Activity and Biofilm Formation by Escherichia Coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermis


Said-Salman IH, Jebali FA, Yusef HH, Mustafa ME. Evaluation of Wi-Fi Radiation Effects on Antibiotic Susceptibility, Metabolic Activity and Biofilm Formation by Escherichia Coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermis. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2019 Oct 1;9(5):579-586. doi: 10.31661/jbpe.v0i0.1106.

Abstract

Background: The radiation emitted from electromagnetic fields (EMF) can cause biological effects on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including non-thermal effects.

Objective: The present study evaluated the non-thermal effects of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) operating at 2.4 GHz part of non-ionizing EMF on different pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermis). Antibiotic resistance, motility, metabolic activity and biofilm formation were examined.
Material and Methods:In this case-control, a Wi-Fi router was used as a source of microwaves and also bacterial cells were exposed to Wi-Fi radiation continuously for 24 and 48 hours. The antibiotic susceptibility was carried out using a disc diffusion method on Müller Hinton agar plates. Motility of Escherichia coli 0157H7 was conducted on motility agar plates. Cell metabolic activity and biofilm formation were performed using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and crystal violet quantification, respectively.

Results: The exposure to Wi-Fi radiation altered motility and antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli 0157H7. However, there was no effect Wi-Fi radiation on antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis. On the other hand, the exposed cells, as compared to the unexposed control, showed an increased metabolic activity and biofilm formation ability in Escherichia coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis.

Conclusion: These results proposed that Wi-Fi exposure acted on bacteria in stressful manner by increasing antibiotic resistance and motility of Escherichia coli 0157H7, as well as enhancing biofilm formation by Escherichia coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis. The findings may have implications for the management of serious diseases caused by these infectious bacteria.


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The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves on neuronal response properties in rat barrel cortex

Sistani S, Fatemi I, Shafeie SA, Kaeidi A, Azin M, Shamsizadeh A. The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves on neuronal response properties in rat barrel cortex. Somatosens Mot Res. 2019 Nov 13:1-6. doi: 10.1080/08990220.2019.1689116. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

There is a growing number of studies on the possible biological effects of Wi-Fi radiations on nervous system. In this study we investigated the effect of Wi-Fi exposure on single neuron responses to natural stimuli by using whisker to barrel pathway. This study was done on 29 male Wistar rats. Neuronal spontaneous activity and ON and OFF responses to displacement of principal whisker (PW), adjacent whisker (AW) and combination of PW-AW stimulation (as natural stimuli) were recorded in barrel cortex of anaesthetised rats. A D-link Wi-Fi device was used for 1 h exposure to 2.4 GHz microwaves in data mode (18.2 dBm and 44% for power and duty cycle). A condition test ratio (CTR) was calculated for assessing neuronal integrative properties. Wi-Fi radiations decreased CTR for ON responses. However, neuronal spontaneous activity and ON and OFF responses were not significantly changed following exposure to Wi-Fi signals. The results of this study demonstrated that exposure to Wi-Fi radiation could modulate integrative responses to natural stimuli in barrel cortex.


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The Effect of Prenatal Exposure to 2.4 GHz Radio Frequency on the Histology and Expression of the osteocalcin and RUNX2 Gene of the Forelimb in an NMRI Mouse

Amandokht Saghezchi S, Azad N, Heidari R, Jajarmi V, Abdi S, Abaszadeh HA, Sadjadpour SS, Neikoei N, Heidari MH, Abdollahifar MA. The Effect of Prenatal Exposure to 2.4 GHz Radio Frequency on the Histology and Expression of the osteocalcin and RUNX2 Gene of the Forelimb in an NMRI Mouse. J Lasers Med Sci. 2019 Fall;10(4):283-289. doi: 10.15171/jlms.2019.46.

Abstract

Introduction: Today the use of electromagnetic waves has dramatically increased in modern industrial societies. This study aimed to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to 2.4 GHz wireless frequency on forelimb development in an NMRI mouse in vivo.

Methods: A total of 21 female mice weighing 25-30 g were included in the present study. They were randomly assigned to 3 groups, namely control (n=7), sham (n=7), and experimental (n=7). After mating, the experimental group was exposed to 2.4 GHz radio frequency at a distance of 20-30 cm from the device, 4 h/d until the delivery. The sham group was placed at a distance of 20-30 cm from the device every day without exposure to electromagnetic waves, and the control group had a pregnancy period without any stress and electromagnetic wave exposure. After giving birth, the forelimbs were isolated from the infants and examined by stereological studies and RT-PCR for the evaluation of osteocalcin and RUNX2 gene expression.

Results: Although, at first glance, there was no macroscopic teratogen effect in forelimbs in all groups, via a stereological method, we showed that bone and cartilage volume decreased in the experimental group compared to the other groups. We also found that the experimental group had lower expression of the osteocalcin and RUNX2 gene than the control and sham groups did. However, there were no significant differences between the control and sham groups in terms of bone and cartilage volume and gene expression.

Conclusion: Although teratogen effect of prenatal exposure to 2.4 GHz radio frequency on forelimbs was not demonstrated macroscopically, further studies showed negative effects on the forelimb bone, cartilage volume, and gene expression.

The exposure apparatus was a wireless router (CISCO, EA6300V1, China) that applied 2.4 GHz wireless frequency for 21 days and 4 h/d.


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Effect of Occupational Exposure to Radar Radiation on Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Variani AS, Saboori S, Shahsavari S, Saeed Yari S, Zaroushani V. Effect of Occupational Exposure to Radar Radiation on Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 20 (11): 3211-3219. 2019 Nov 1. DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.11.3211.

Abstract

Objective: Microwave radiation is one of the most growing environmental workplace factors that exposes too many workers in the various workplaces. Regard to concerns about cancer incidence in these workers and lack of systematic or meta-analytic studies about this object, so, we conducted a meta-analysis to acquire an understanding of the association between cancer risk and occupational exposure to radar radiation.

Methods: A systematic search was carried out on case-control, cohort and clinical control trial studies that published in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar databases that accomplished from March 2017 to March 2018 and updated on 30 September, 2018 in English and Persian articles without time limit in publication date. Keywords were selected based on PICO principle and collected from MeSH database. After removal of duplicated studied, taking into inclusion and exclusion criteria, the process of screening was carried out and data were extracted after preparation of the full text of included articles. Article collection was completed by manually searching for a reference list of eligible studies. For quality assessment of included studies, Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used.

Results: a total of 533 studies was found in the first step of literature search, only 6 were included with 53,008 sample size according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Estimated pooled random effects size analysis showed no significant increasing effect of occupational exposure to radar radiation on mortality rate (MR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.78, 0.83) and relative risk (RR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.75, 0.99, P <0.0001) of cancer with a significant heterogeneity between the selected studies.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis study have shown no significant increase in overall mortality ratio and cancer risk ratio from occupational exposure to the radar frequency of workers. But, these results are not conclusive. As regards to some limitation such as fewer numbers of included studies, lack of data about exposure characterizations and demographic characterizations in this meta-analysis, this result is not certain and conclusive. It is recommended to conduct future studies.


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Scoping Review of the Potential Health Effects of Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields

Habash M, Gogna P, Krewski D, Habash RWY. Scoping Review of the Potential Health Effects of Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2019;47(4):323-347. doi: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2019030211.

Abstract

Previous studies suggest that extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) may impact human health. However, epidemiologic studies have provided inconsistent results on the association between exposure to ELF EMFs and various health outcomes. This scoping review reports on primary investigations that were published during the ten-year period of 2007-2017 on the association between ELF EMFs and cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), reproductive health effects, and neurodegenerative diseases. We identified a total of 361 articles from two bibliographic databases (PubMed and EMBASE). Of these, 39 articles (19 cancer studies, two CVD studies, nine reproductive health studies, and ten neurodegenerative disease studies [with one repeated for two outcomes]) met inclusion criteria. Articles identified in this study focus on three different types of exposure: occupational (22 studies), residential (15 studies), and electric blanket (two studies). This review suggests that ELF EMFs may be associated with neurodegenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer's disease; however, limited evidence was found to suggest that ELF EMFs are associated with several types of cancer, CVD, and reproductive outcomes. Additional epidemiological studies in large study populations with improved exposure assessments are needed to clarify current inconclusive relationships.


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Maternal cumulative exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, prematurity and small for gestational age: a pooled analysis of two birth cohorts

Migault L, Garlantézec R, Piel C, Marchand-Martin L, Orazio S, Cheminat M, Zaros C, Carles C, Cardis E, Ancel PY, Charles MA, de Seze R, Baldi I, Bouvier G. Maternal cumulative exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, prematurity and small for gestational age: a pooled analysis of two birth cohorts. Occup Environ Med. 2020 Jan;77(1):22-31. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2019-105785.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Data on the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on pregnancy outcomes are inconclusive.

OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between maternal cumulative exposure to ELF-EMF during pregnancy and the risk of prematurity or small for gestational age (SGA) in a pooled analysis of two French birth cohorts.

METHODS: Elfe and Epipage2 are both population-based birth cohorts initiated in 2011 and included 18 329 and 8400 births, respectively. Health data and household, mother and child characteristics were obtained from medical records and questionnaires at maternity and during follow-up. A job exposure matrix was used to assess cumulative exposure to ELF-EMF during three periods: (1) until 15 weeks of gestation, (2) until 28 weeks of gestation and (3) until 32 weeks of gestation. Analyses were restricted to single live births in mainland France and to mothers with documented jobs (N=19 894). Adjusted logistic regression models were used.

RESULTS: According to the period studied, 3.2%-4% of mothers were classified as highly exposed. Results were heterogeneous. Increased risks of prematurity were found among low exposed mothers for the three periods, and no association was observed among the most exposed (OR1=0.92 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.15); OR2=0.98 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.21); OR3=1.14 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.41)). For SGA, no association was observed with the exception of increased risk among the low exposed mothers in period 2 and the most exposed in period 3 (OR=1.25 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.53)).

CONCLUSION: Some heterogeneous associations between ELF-EMF exposure and prematurity and SGA were observed. However, due to heterogeneity (ie, their independence regarding the level of exposure), associations cannot be definitely explained by ELF-EMF exposure.


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Low frequency magnetic fields inside cars

Pääkkönen R, Korpinen L. LOW FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELDS INSIDE CARS. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2019 Nov 7. pii: ncz248. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncz248.

Abstract

Magnetic fields were compared inside passenger seats of electric, petrol and hybrid cars. While driving about 5 km in an urban environment, values were recorded and compared between car types. The magnetic flux densities of the cars were less than 2.6 μT. The magnitudes of the magnetic fields of petrol cars and hybrid cars were about the same and slightly lower for electric cars. Based on our measurements, values were less than 3% of the guidelines given for the general population or people using pacemakers.


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Evaluation in humans of ELF-EMF exposure on chromogranin A, a marker of neuroendocrine tumors and stress

Touitou Y, Lambrozo J, Mauvieux B, Riedel M. Evaluation in humans of ELF-EMF exposure on chromogranin A, a marker of neuroendocrine tumors and stress. Chronobiol Int. 2019 Nov 4:1-8. doi: 10.1080/07420528.2019.1683857.

Abstract

Chromogranin A (CgA), which is a major protein in adrenal chromaffin cells and adrenergic neurons, is a clinically relevant endocrine and neuroendocrine tumor marker including pheochromocytomas, neuroblastomas, and related neurogenic tumors. In this study, we looked at the effect in humans of chronic daily exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field. We examined in 15 men (38.0 ± 0.9 years) the effects of chronic daily exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field for 1-20 yrs both at home and at work. EMDEX II dosimeters were used to record magnetic field all day long every 30 s. for 1 week. The weekly geometric mean of the individual exposures ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 μT. Blood samples were taken hourly between 20:00 h and 08:00 h. CgA patterns of exposed subjects were compared to age-matched controls. The results of exposed subjects were compared with those for 15 unexposed men who served as controls and whose individual exposure was ten times lower ranging from 0.004 to 0.092 μT. This work shows that in the control group the serum CgA levels exhibited a nighttime peak with a progressive decline of the serum concentrations and a nadir in the morning. Both the profile and the serum concentrations of CgA, a marker of neuroendocrine tumors and stress, did not appear to be impaired in the subjects chronically exposed over a long period (up to 20 yrs) to magnetic fields though a trend toward lower levels were found at the highest exposure (>0.3 μT). This does not rule out, however, that the potential deleterious risk of ELF-EMF on frail populations such as children and the elderly may be greater at low exposure and should hence be documented, at least for their residential exposure.


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Gender and Age Differences in the Suppressive Effect of a 50 Hz Electric Field on the Immobilization-Induced Increase of Plasma Glucocorticoid in Mice

Harakawa S, Hori T, Nedachi T, Suzuki H. Gender and Age Differences in the Suppressive Effect of a 50 Hz Electric Field on the Immobilization-Induced Increase of Plasma Glucocorticoid in Mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Dec 12. doi: 10.1002/bem.22238.

Abstract

We developed an experimental system to characterize the suppressive effect of extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric fields (EFs) on the stress response. We assessed differences in the EF effects by age and gender. Control, EF-alone, immobilization-alone, and co-treated groups were subjected to an EF (50 Hz, 10 kV/m). Co-treated mice were exposed to the EF for 60 min, with immobilization during the latter half. Our results indicate that the suppressive effects of ELF EFs on the stress response in immobilized mice occur regardless of gender or age. As stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of various diseases, these findings may have broad implications for understanding the efficacy of EFs in animal, and perhaps human, health


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An Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field and Global Cerebral Ischemia Affect Pituitary ACTH and TSH Cells in Gerbils

Rauš Balind SManojlović-Stojanoski M, Šošić-Jurjević B, Selaković V, Milošević V, Petković B. An Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field and Global Cerebral Ischemia Affect Pituitary ACTH and TSH Cells in Gerbils. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Dec 11. doi: 10.1002/bem.22237.

Abstract

The neuroendocrine system can be modulated by a magnetic field and cerebral ischemia as external and internal stressors, respectively. This study deals with the separate or combined effects of an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field (50 Hz, average magnetic field of 0.5 mT) for 7 days and global cerebral ischemia for 10 min on the morpho-functional features of pituitary adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) and thyrotrophic (TSH) cells in 3-month-old gerbils. To determine the immediate and delayed effects of the applied stressors, measurements were made on the 7th and 14th days after the onset of the experiment. The ELF magnetic field and 10-min global cerebral ischemia, separately and particularly in combination, decreased (P < 0.05) the volume density of ACTH cells, while only in combination were intracellular ACTH content and plasma ACTH concentration increased (P < 0.05) on day 7. The ELF magnetic field elevated serum TSH concentration on day 7 and intracellular TSHβ content on day 14 (P < 0.05). Also, 10-min global cerebral ischemia alone increased serum TSH concentration (P < 0.05), while in combination with the ELF magnetic field it elevated (P < 0.05) intracellular TSHβ content on day 14. In conclusion, an ELF magnetic field and/or 10-min global cerebral ischemia can induce immediate and delayed stimulation of ACTH and TSH synthesis and secretion.


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CT2A Cell Viability Modulated by Electromagnetic Fields at Extremely Low Frequency under No Thermal Effects.

García-Minguillán O, Prous R, Ramirez-Castillejo MDC, Maestú C. CT2A Cell Viability Modulated by Electromagnetic Fields at Extremely Low Frequency under No Thermal Effects. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Dec 24;21(1). pii: E152. doi: 10.3390/ijms21010152.

Abstract

The effects produced by electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human beings at extremely low frequencies (ELFs) have being investigated in the past years, across in vitro studies, using different cell lines. Nevertheless, the effects produced on cells are not clarified, and the cellular mechanisms and cell-signaling processes involved are still unknown. This situation has resulted in a division among the scientific community about the adequacy of the recommended level of exposure. In this sense, we consider that it is necessary to develop long-term exposure studies and check if the recommended levels of EMFs are under thermal effects. Hence, we exposed CT2A cells to different EMFs at different ELFs at short and long times. Our results showed frequency dependence in CT2A exposed during 24 h to a small EMF of 30 μT equal to those originated by the Earth and frequency dependence after the exposure during seven days to an EMF of 100 µT at different ELFs. Particularly, our results showed a remarkable cell viability decrease of CT2A cells exposed to EMFs of 30 Hz. Nevertheless, after analyzing the thermal effects in terms of HSP90 expression, we did not find thermal damages related to the differences in cell viability, so other crucial cellular mechanism should be involved.


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Magnetic Fields Trump Oxygen in Controlling the Death of Erythro-Leukemia Cells

Li Y, Héroux P. Magnetic fields trump oxygen in controlling the death of erythro-leukemia Cells. Applied Sciences, 6 December 2019

Abstract

Expansions in power and telecommunications systems have created a new electromagnetic environment. Here, we compare the death rate of human cancer cells in vitro in the pre-industrial electromagnetic environment of the past (“Zero Field”) with that of an electromagnetic environment typical of contemporary human exposures (“Incubator Field”). A cell incubator provides magnetic fields comparable to those in the current human environment. Steel shields divert those same fields away from cell preparations in the “pre-industrial” assays. Large changes in oxygen levels are provided by nitrogen or atmospheric gas over the cell cultures. Human cancer cells are then separated according to three categories: necrotic, early apoptotic, or late apoptotic. The results are compiled for two variables, magnetic field and oxygen, in 16 different situations (“Transitions”) likely to occur in the human body under present living conditions. We find that magnetic fields are a more powerful determinant of cell death than oxygen, and induce death by different mechanisms. This has important implications for the reproducibility of in vitro biological experiments focusing on cell survival or metabolism, and for public health. The rate and mechanisms of cell death are critical to many chronic human ailments such as cancer, neurological diseases, and diabetes.


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Review. The influence of bioactive mobile telephony radiation at the level of a plant community – Possible mechanisms and indicators of the effects

Czerwiński M, Januszkiewicz L, Vian A, Lázaro.A. Review. The influence of bioactive mobile telephony radiation at the level of a plant community – Possible mechanisms and indicators of the effects.
Ecological Indicators. 108, January 2020, 105683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105683.

Highlights

• There are various indicators of microwave radiation impact on herbaceous vegetation.
• The best indicators are some parameters of vegetation canopy or individual  plants.
• Specific plant functional groups may be indicators of long-term community processes.
• Other organisms interacting with plants, e.g. pollinators, should also be cons idered.
• The selection of indicators depends on the propagation of radiation in the canopy.

Abstract

Environmental exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile telephony has rapidly increased in the last two decades and this trend is expected to continue. The effects of this exposure at plant community level are unknown and difficult to assess in a scientifically appropriate manner. Such an assessment can be scientifically adequate if a studied plant community is completely new and control-impact radiation treatment is used.

In this review we aimed to predict ecological effects and identify indicators of the impact of bioactive RF-EMFs at the mobile telephony frequency range on plant communities. We considered the scenario where a plant community was exposed to radiation generated by a base transmitting station antenna mounted on a nearby mast. This plant community can be represented by mesic meadow, ruderal or arable weed community, or other herbaceous, moderately productive vegetation type. We concentrated primarily on radiation effects that can be recorded for a year since the exposure started. To predict them we used physical theories of radiowave propagation in vegetation and the knowledge on plants physiological responses to RF-EMF. Our indicators can be used for the detection of the impact of RF-EMFs on vegetation in a control-impact experiment.

The identified indicators can be classified into the following groups: (1) canopy parameters; (2) plant characteristics to be measured in the field or laboratory in a number of individuals that represent the populations of selected species; (3) community weighted means/medians (CWMs) of plant traits and strategies; (4) the abundance of other organisms that interact with plants and can influence their fitness or population size. The group of canopy parameters includes mean height, vertical vegetation structure and dry weight of above-ground standing phytomass. Plant characteristics requiring biometric sampling in the field are plant height, the number of fruits and seeds, as well as seed viability. The group of plant traits that are calculated as CWMs covers seed releasing height, seed dispersal mode, SLA, leaf orientation, month of germination and flowering, Ellenberg’s light indicator value, and the proportion of individuals in the classes of competitors and stress tolerators according to Grime's CSR strategy scheme. The group of “non-plant” indicators includes primarily the frequency of flower visits by beetles, wasps, hoverflies, and bees that have their nests over ground. To detect ecological responses that occur for the first year since a herbaceous community has been exposed to potentially bioactive RF-EMF, the first two indicators groups should be used.

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Long-distance navigation and magnetoreception in migratory animals

Mouritsen H. Long-distance navigation and magnetoreception in migratory animals. Nature. 2018 Jun;558(7708):50-59. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0176-1.

Abstract

For centuries, humans have been fascinated by how migratory animals find their way over thousands of kilometres. Here, I review the mechanisms used in animal orientation and navigation with a particular focus on long-distance migrants and magnetoreception. I contend that any long-distance navigational task consists of three phases and that no single cue or mechanism will enable animals to navigate with pinpoint accuracy over thousands of kilometres. Multiscale and multisensory cue integration in the brain is needed. I conclude by raising twenty important mechanistic questions related to long-distance animal navigation that should be solved over the next twenty years.


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Exposure Effects of Terahertz Waves on Primary Neurons and Neuron-like Cells Under Nonthermal Conditions

Tan SZ, Tan PC, Luo LQ, et al. Exposure Effects of Terahertz Waves on Primary Neurons and Neuron-like Cells Under Nonthermal Conditions. Biomed Environ Sci. 2019 Oct;32(10):739-754. doi: 10.3967/bes2019.094.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the potential effects of terahertz (THz) waves on primary cultured neurons from 4 rat brain regions (hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem) and 3 kinds of neuron-like cells (MN9D, PC12, and HT22 cells) under nonthermal conditions.

METHODS: THz waves with an output power of 50 (0.16 THz) and 10 (0.17 THz) mW with exposure times of 6 and 60 min were used in this study. Analysis of temperature change, neurite growth, cell membrane roughness, micromorphology, neurotransmitters and synaptic-related proteins (SYN and PSD95) was used to evaluate the potential effects.

RESULTS: Temperature increase caused by the THz wave was negligible. THz waves induced significant neurotransmitter changes in primary hippocampal, cerebellar, and brainstem neurons and in MN9D and PC12 cells. THz wave downregulated SYN expression in primary hippocampal neurons and downregulated PSD95 expression in primary cortical neurons.

CONCLUSION: Different types of cells responded differently after THz wave exposure, and primary hippocampal and cortical neurons and MN9D cells were relatively sensitive to the THz waves. The biological effects were positively correlated with the exposure time of the THz waves.



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Behavioral evidence for geomagnetic imprinting and transgenerational inheritance in fruit flies

Oh IT, Kwon HJ, Kim SC, Kim HJ, Lohmann KJ, Chae K. Behavioral evidence for geomagnetic imprinting and transgenerational inheritance in fruit flies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Dec 30. pii: 201914106. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1914106117.

Abstract

Certain long-distance migratory animals, such as salmon and sea turtles, are thought to imprint on the magnetic field of their natal area and to use this information to help them return as adults. Despite a growing body of indirect support for such imprinting, direct experimental evidence thereof remains elusive. Here, using the fruit fly as a magnetoreceptive model organism, we demonstrate that exposure to a specific geographic magnetic field during a critical period of early development affected responses to a matching magnetic field gradient later in life. Specifically, hungry flies that had imprinted on a specific magnetic field from 1 of 3 widely separated geographic locations responded to the imprinted field, but not other magnetic fields, by moving downward, a geotactic behavior associated with foraging. This same behavior occurred spontaneously in the progeny of the next generation: female progeny moved downward in response to the field on which their parents had imprinted, whereas male progeny did so only in the presence of these females. These results represent experimental evidence that organisms can learn and remember a magnetic field to which they were exposed during a critical period of development. Although the function of the behavior is not known, one possibility is that imprinting on the magnetic field of a natal area assists flies and their offspring in recognizing locations likely to be favorable for foraging and reproduction.