Thursday, September 26, 2019

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August, 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below.

The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 800 scientific papers. This 541-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:



Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.

Recent Papers

5G technology: Why should we expect  a shift from RF-induced brain cancers to skin cancers?

Mehdizadeh AR, Mortazavi SMJ. Editorial. 5G technology: Why should we expect  a shift from RF-induced brain cancers to skin cancers? J Biomed Phys Eng. Published online first.


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5G Wireless Communication and Health Effects-A Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHz

Simkó M, Mattsson MO. 5G Wireless Communication and Health Effects-A Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHz. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep 13;16(18). pii: E3406. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16183406.

Abstract

The introduction of the fifth generation (5G) of wireless communication will increase the number of high-frequency-powered base stations and other devices. The question is if such higher frequencies (in this review, 6-100 GHz, millimeter waves, MMW) can have a health impact. This review analyzed 94 relevant publications performing in vivo or in vitro investigations. Each study was characterized for: study type (in vivo, in vitro), biological material (species, cell type, etc.), biological endpoint, exposure (frequency, exposure duration, power density), results, and certain quality criteria. Eighty percent of the in vivo studies showed responses to exposure, while 58% of the in vitro studies demonstrated effects. The responses affected all biological endpoints studied. There was no consistent relationship between power density, exposure duration, or frequency, and exposure effects. The available studies do not provide adequate and sufficient information for a meaningful safety assessment, or for the question about non-thermal effects. There is a need for research regarding local heat developments on small surfaces, e.g., skin or the eye, and on any environmental impact. Our quality analysis shows that for future studies to be useful for safety assessment, design and implementation need to be significantly improved.

Funding: This research was funded by Deutsche Telekom Technik GmbH, Bonn, Germany, PO number 4806344812.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.


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The Contribution of In Vivo Mammalian Studies to the Knowledge of Adverse Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation on Human Health

Vornoli A, Falcioni L, Mandrioli D, Bua L, Belpoggi F. The Contribution of In Vivo Mammalian Studies to the Knowledge of Adverse Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation on Human Health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep 12;16(18). pii: E3379. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16183379.

Abstract

The proliferation of cellular antennas and other radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generating devices of the last decades has led to more and more concerns about the potential health effects from RFR exposure. Since the 2011 classification as a possible carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), more experimental studies have been published that support a causal association between RFR exposure and health hazards. As regard cancer risk, two long-term experimental studies have been recently published by the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Italian Ramazzini Institute (RI). Despite important experimental differences, both studies found statistically significant increases in the development of the same type of very rare glial malignant tumors. In addition to carcinogenicity, reproductive organs might be particularly exposed, as well as sensitive to RFR. In this work, we reviewed the currently available evidence from in vivo studies on carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies in order to summarize the contribution of experimental research to the prevention of the adverse effects of RFR on human health.

Conclusions

In conclusion, according to NTP, there is now clear evidence that RFR causes cancer in experimental animals. RFR re-evaluation has also been listed as a priority by IARC [87]. There is also stronger evidence that RFR exposure is responsible for causing alteration of various sperm parameters, thus, affecting male fertility. Although a clear quantification of the carcinogenic and reproductive risk is still lacking, these animal findings suggest that a precautionary approach should be promoted by regulatory and health agencies, especially for children and pregnant women. Caution should also be considered in the development and spread of the upcoming 5G technology, particularly in light of the proposed higher frequencies and intensities of the signal. Long-term animal studies are urgently necessary to verify the possible health effects of 5G technology.


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Building science and radiofrequency radiation: What makes smart and healthy buildings

Clegg FM, Sears M, Friesen M, Scarato T, Metzinger R, Russell CL, Stadtner A, Miller AB. Building science and radiofrequency radiation: What makes smart and healthy buildings. Building & Environment. Published online August 6, 2019, 106324.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106324

Highlights

• Wireless systems increase radiofrequency radiation (RFR) in buildings.
• Scientific evidence identifies adverse effects from RFR below regulatory limits.
• Globally, some governments and public health agencies are reducing RFR exposures.
• Low RFR best practices include wired technology instead of Wi-Fi, and corded phones.
• Safer, sustainable strategies and solutions for “smart” buildings are feasible.

Abstract

Radiofrequency radiation (RFR), used for wireless communications and “smart” building technologies, including the “Internet of Things,” is increasing rapidly. As both RFR exposures and scientific evidence of harmful effects increase apace, it is timely to heed calls to include low RFR levels as a performance indicator for the health, safety and well-being of occupants and the environment.

Adverse biochemical and biological effects at commonly experienced RFR levels indicate that exposure guidelines for the U.S., Canada and other countries, are inadequate to protect public health and the environment.

Some industry liability insurance providers do not offer coverage against adverse health effects from radiation emitted by wireless technologies, and insurance authorities deem potential liability as “high.” Internationally, governments have enacted laws, and medical and public health authorities have issued recommendations, to reduce and limit exposure to RFR.

There is urgent need to implement strategies for no- or low-RFR emitting technologies, and shielding, in building design and retrofitting. These strategies include installing wired (not wireless) Internet networks, corded rather than cordless phones, and cable or wired connections in building systems (e.g., mechanical, lighting, security). Building science can profit from decades of work to institute performance parameters, operationalizing prudent guidelines and best practices. The goal is to achieve RFR exposures that are ALARA, “As Low As Reasonably Achievable.”

We also challenge the business case of wireless systems, because wired or cabled connections are faster, more reliable and secure, emit substantially less RFR, and consume less energy in a sector with rapidly escalating green-house gas emissions.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360132319305347?via%3Dihub

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Influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on brain activity, sleep and cognitive performance of older women

Danker-Hopfe H, Dorn H, Eggert T, Sauter C. [Influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on brain activity, sleep and cognitive performance of older women.] Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field (RF-EMF) Effects on Brain Activity During Sleep and Waking in Healthy Elderly Women Project 3614S30012. Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). 2019, Departmental Research Reports on Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (BfS-RESFOR) 143/19: 1-226

Excerpts from Summary

The aim of the present randomized, double-blind cross-over study was to investigate acute effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by GSM900 mobile phones and TETRA (BOS) handheld devices on the central nervous system (CNS). Possible effects on the sleeping brain as well as on the waking brain in resting state and under cognitive demand were studied....

In the present study three different exposure signals were applied: 1) Sham exposure with a partial body SAR value of 0 W/kg (averaged over 10 g of tissue), 2) GSM 900 exposure with a partial body SAR value of 2.0 W/kg (averaged over 10 g of tissue) and 3) TETRA exposure a partial body SAR value of 6.0 W/kg (averaged over 10 g of tissue)….

Overall, 30 women with a mean age of 67.8 ± 5.7 years (range: 60-80 years) participated in the present study. At study nights subjects were exposed at the left side of the head for 30 min prior to sleep and afterwards for the duration of the whole night (7.5 hours). Sleep architecture, sleep spindle parameters and power spectra of the sleep EEG were analysed. Daytime assessments comprised the level of tonic alertness as measured by the pupillographic sleepiness test (PST), the alpha-attenuation test (AAT) and the resting state waking EEG with eyes closed. Phasic alertness was tested by several evoked potentials (readiness potential, contingent negative variation, slow potential arising from a visual monitoring task, and auditory evoked potentials: N1, P2, and P3) with and without behavioural measures like reaction times and number of correct responses. Additionally effects on selective attention, divided attention, vigilance and working memory were investigated. Prior to testing subjects were exposed for 30 min followed by tests with parallel EEG registration for a duration of around 2.5 hours. To avoid time of day effects, all tests were performed in the afternoon starting at approximately 03:00 p.m….

In the elderly women exposure effects on brain activity during sleep showed more statistically significant differences in the macrostructure of sleep under RF exposure than in younger men. These effects point to a sleep-consolidating effect of RF exposure. Analysis of the power spectra values revealed that GSM exposure mainly resulted in a statistically significant lower EEG power in higher frequency bands at frontal electrode positions in the sleep stages N2, N3 and NREM. On the other hand, TETRA exposure mainly affected the deep delta frequency band, with statistically significant increased EEG power in sleep stage N1 at frontal electrode positions and in sleep stage N2 and NREM also at posterior electrodes. These results can also be interpreted to reflect a sleep-consolidating effect of RF exposure. The spindle analysis revealed no important exposure-dependent variations in the investigated sleep spindle parameters. In summary, none of the observed effects can be interpreted in terms of a disturbed sleep under exposure.

While the PST and the AAT did not reveal any evidence for an RF exposure effect on the tonic level of central nervous alertness, power spectra of the waking EEG was increased in the alpha frequency range following TETRA exposure. These slight physiological variations, however, are typically not reflected in parameters of phasic alertness (exception: Contingent Negative Variation and P300 where results indicate a more efficient information processing under GSM exposure). With some exceptions [increased reaction time (mean + median) under GSM exposure in the first part of the vigilance task as well as increased reaction time (median) under GSM and TETRA exposure in the selective attention task] no systematic exposure related differences were observed for the three attention components: vigilance, selective and divided attention. There were also no systematic effects on working memory.

A pre-post exposure comparison of mood and symptoms revealed only slight variation in relation to exposure. However, with one exception, the study night questionnaire outcome parameters, which were affected by exposure, were exclusively attributable to subjective sleep perception and can be interpreted as "better sleep" under RF exposure. These subjective assessments correspond to the observations for the objectively measured sleep parameters. Results of thermal perception suggest that the subjects were neither influenced nor unblinded due to a possible heating from the antenna.

 Overall the data indicate that brain activity as measured by power spectra of the wake and of the sleep EEG may differ between exposure conditions. This is in line with several other study results in this specific field of research. The slight physiological changes, however, are typically not reflected by behavioural measures and symptoms. Moreover, in particular the sleep data shows that the effects seen in elderly women differ significantly from those of young men. Whether these differences are age- and / or gender-specific can only be answered when the data of a study in elderly men (60 to 80 years) is analyzed. So far results refer to the group level. Analyses at the individual level, which can be performed based on multiple assessments per exposure condition and subject, are still pending.

Open access paper (in German): https://doris.bfs.de/jspui/bitstream/urn:nbn:de:0221-2019013117414/3/BfS_2019_3614S30012.pdf

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Incidence trends of adult malignant brain tumors in Finland, 1990-2016

Natukka T, Raitanen J, Haapasalo H, Auvinen A. Incidence trends of adult malignant brain tumors in Finland, 1990-2016. Acta Oncol. 2019 Jul;58(7):990-996. doi: 10.1080/0284186X.2019.1603396.

Abstract

Background: Several studies have reported increased incidence trends of malignant gliomas in the late 1900s with a plateau in the 2000s, but also some recent increases have been reported. The purpose of our study was to analyze incidence trends of malignant gliomas in Finland by morphology and tumor location.

Material and methods: Data on 4730 malignant glioma patients were obtained from case notifications to the nationwide, population-based Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR), and less detailed data on 3590 patients up to 2016. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) and average annual percent changes (APCs) in the incidence rates were calculated by histological subtype and tumor location.

Results: The incidence rate of gliomas was 7.7/100,000 in 1990-2006 and 7.3 in 2007-2016. The incidence of all gliomas combined was stable during both study periods, with no departure from linearity. In an analysis by age group, increasing incidence was found only for ages 80 years and older (1990-2006). During both study periods, incidence rates were increasing in glioblastoma and decreasing in unspecified brain tumors. In 1990-2006, rates were also increasing for anaplastic oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma and unspecified malignant glioma, while decreasing for astrocytoma. As for tumor location, incidence in 1990-2006 was increasing for frontal lobe and brainstem tumors, as well as those with an unspecified location, but decreasing for the parietal lobes, cerebrum and ventricles.

Conclusions: No increasing incidence trend was observed for malignant gliomas overall. An increasing incidence trend of malignant gliomas was found in the oldest age group during 1990-2006.

Excerpts

A difference in incidence trends between histological types during 1990–2006 was evident (likelihood ratio test p<.001). The incidence trend of glioblastoma was slightly increasing (APC: +0.8%; 95% CI: −0.0, +1.7 for 1990–2006 and +1.9%; 95% CI: +0.2, +3.5 for 2007–2016; Tables 2 and 3. A decreasing ASR was found for unspecified tumors of the brain (APC: −4.5%; 95% CI: −6.0, −2.9 for 1990–2006 and −6.0%; 95% CI: −8.6, −3.3 for 2007–2016), whereas incidence of unspecified malignant glioma increased by +6.7% per year (95% CI: +2.6, +11.0)) in 1990–2006 and at a nearly identical rate in 2007–2016. Incidence of oligoastrocytoma increased in 1990–2006 (APC: +6.6%; 95% CI: +3.8, +9.5), but not any more during the later period. During the earlier study period, significant increase in ASRs was also observed for anaplastic oligodendroglioma (APC: +6.0%; 95% CI: +2.3, +9.8), while incidence trend of astrocytoma showed a decrease of −2.8% per year (95% CI: −4.4, −1.1). Incidence of anaplastic astrocytoma increased in 2007–2016 (APC: +7.3%; 95% CI: +2.2, +12.7). In addition, imputing specific histologic types (in similar proportion to those with known cell type) to unspecified tumors had no substantial effect on the incidence trends in 1990–2006 (Supplementary Table 1).

We also found a difference in incidence trends between anatomic locations during 1990–2006 (likelihood ratio test p<.001). Incidence trends were increasing for the frontal lobe (APC: +1.7%; 95% CI: +0.6, +2.8), brainstem (APC: +5.8%; 95% CI: +1.7, +10.0) and unspecified locations (APC: +2.3%; 95% CI: +0.5, +4.1) (Table 4). Trends were decreasing for the parietal lobes (APC: −2.4%; 95% CI: −4.0, −0.9), cerebrum (APC: −3.5%; 95% CI: −6.2, −0.7) and ventricles (APC: −6.0%; 95% CI: −10.4, −1.4).

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Evaluation of radiofrequency and extremely low‐frequency field levels at children's playground sites in Greece from 2013 to 2018

Maria Christopoulou M, Karabetsos E. Evaluation of radiofrequency and extremely low‐frequency field levels at children's playground sites in greece from 2013 to 2018
Bioelectromagnetics. First published: 20 September 2019. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.22220

Abstract

From 2013 to 2018, in‐situ measurements of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and extremely low‐frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields in 317 existing and under‐construction children's playground facilities, in 16 municipalities all over Greece, were carried out by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE). These measurements were conducted following legislative framework established in 2009, which requires that compliance with the established exposure limits for EMFs should be verified in playground areas. The results are presented by the value of the electric field (E) and exposure ratio (Λ) for the RF EMF, as well as the value of the electric field (E) and magnetic flux density (B) for the ELF electric and magnetic fields. Statistical analysis tools were applied on measurement data and conclusions have been made, taking into consideration: (i) environment type (urban/suburban), and (ii) vicinity to any transmitting installations. Measurement results correspond to the typical EMF background levels for each environment type. Concerning the environment type, RF EMF, and ELF electric/magnetic field measurements reveal no differentiation between urban and suburban environments. 

Conclusion

In conclusion, the aim of this work was to analyze in‐situ measurements of RF EMF and ELF electric and magnetic fields in 317 existing and under‐construction playground facilities, conducted from 2013 to 2018. Concerning the environment type, RF EMF measurements reveal no differentiation between urban and suburban environments. Higher E‐field values, e.g., 1.66 V/m for urban environment, are due to the proximity of the playground facilities to base stations. Concerning ELF measurements, median values for magnetic flux density did not differ within environment types and were kept at 0.14 μΤ. Selected high‐measurement values in suburban environments may be due to a larger number of low‐ and medium‐voltage power distribution network facilities located near the playground sites. Based on both measurement datasets, RF and ELF field levels were found even lower than typical background levels in urban/suburban environments. This study is in line with the international literature's findings, confirming the children's exposure levels in urban and suburban environments. Although spot measurements provide overestimation of RF exposure levels compared to personal dosimeters’ data [Gallastegi et al., 2018], EEAE intends to correlate this study's findings with personal dosimeters’ data and schedule national epidemiological investigations, in order to provide a complete description of the exposure patterns.


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Radiofrequency radiation from nearby mobile phone base stations‑a case comparison of one low and one high exposure apartment

Koppel T, Ahonen M, Carlberg M, Hedendahl LK, Hardell L. Radiofrequency radiation from nearby mobile phone base stations‑a case comparison of one low and one high exposure apartment. Oncology Letters. Published online Sep 20, 2019. https://doi.org/10.3892/ol.2019.10899

Abstract

Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range of 30‑300 GHz has, since 2011, been classified as a ‘possible’ human carcinogen by Group 2B, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO. This was based on a number of human epidemiology studies on increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. Based on further human epidemiology studies and animal studies, the evidence on RF radiation carcinogenesis has increased since 2011. In previous measurement studies, it has been indicated that high environmental RF radiation levels are present in certain areas of Stockholm Sweden, including in one apartment. Field spatial distribution measurements were performed in the previously measured apartment in Stockholm, which exhibited high RF radiation from nearby base stations. Based on the RF broadband analyzer spot measurements, the maximum indoor E‑field topped at 3 V m‑1 in the bedroom at the 7th floor. The maximum outdoor exposure level of 6 V m‑1 was encountered at the 8th floor balcony, located at the same elevation and only 6.16 m away from the base station antennas. For comparison, a measurement was made in a low exposure apartment in Stockholm. Here, the maximum indoor field 0.52 V m‑1 was measured at the corner window, with direct line of sight to the neighboring house with mobile phone base station antennas. The maximum outdoor field of 0.75 V m‑1 was measured at the balcony facing the same next‑door building with mobile phone base station antennas. The minimum field of 0.10 V m‑1 was registered on the apartment area closest to the center of the building, demonstrating the shielding effects of the indoor walls. Good mobile phone reception was achieved in both apartments. Therefore, installation of base stations to risky places cannot be justified using the good reception requirement argument.

Open access paper: https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ol.2019.10899

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Radiation measurements in office environment with Wi-Fi, 3G and 4G users

Koutsi E, Deligiannis S, Sarantopoulos I, Zarbouti D, Athanasiadou G, Tsoulos G. Radiation measurements in office environment with Wi-Fi, 3G and 4G users. 2019 8th International Conference on Modern Circuits and Systems Technologies (MOCAST). 13-15 May 2019. DOI: 10.1109/MOCAST.2019.8741720
Abstract

The unprecedented explosion of wireless communications with billions of devices across several wireless and cellular systems, has increased concerns about the human exposure to electromagnetic waves. In this context, this work focuses in office operational environments and the most widely used wireless systems therein, i.e. Wi-Fi and 3G/4G networks, in order to evaluate the radiation levels with 4–5 people working in the room. The results show that even with one Wi-Fi user the radiation level can be higher than the reference level for the whole band, while the corresponding scenario for 3G/4G would be with three users. Also, with three or more users, the 4G levels are ∼10% higher than the second higher Wi-Fi.

Conclusions

In this work a measurement campaign was carried out with the frequency selective NARDA SRM-3000 inside a medium sized office room. The goal of the campaign was to
investigate the impact of Wi-Fi, 3G and 4G users on the E-field footprint when they maximize their activity, i.e. downloading/uploading data files from/to the web. As a
reference scenario, wideband measurements were performed outside office hours when no users were present.

The results show that even one Wi-Fi downloading user drives the E-field value above the reference scenario (of no WiFi router users or cell phone users), while three 3G or 4G users are needed to overtake it.  After two users, the 4G contribution dominates the E-field footprint inside the office. Specifically, compared to 3G, 4G almost doubles the E-field values which are ~10% higher compared to Wi-Fi.

It must be mentioned though that in all cases the measured E-field values were much lower (~66 times) than the existing non-ionizing radiation for public exposure safety values [8].

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8741720

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Early-Life Exposure to Pulsed LTE (4G) Radiofrequency Fields Causes Persistent Changes in Activity and Behavior in C57BL/6 J Mice


Broom KA, Findlay R, Addison DS, Goiceanu C, Sienkiewicz Z. Early-Life Exposure to Pulsed LTE Radiofrequency Fields Causes Persistent Changes in Activity and Behavior in C57BL/6 J Mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Sep 15. doi: 10.1002/bem.22217.

Abstract

Despite much research, gaps remain in knowledge about the potential health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. This study investigated the effects of early-life exposure to pulsed long term evolution (LTE) 1,846 MHz downlink signals on innate mouse behavior. Animals were exposed for 30 min/day, 5 days/week at a whole-body average specific energy absorption rate (SAR) of 0.5 or 1 W/kg from late pregnancy (gestation day 13.5) to weaning (postnatal day 21). A behavioral tracking system measured locomotor, drinking, and feeding behavior in the home cage from 12 to 28 weeks of age. The exposure caused significant effects on both appetitive behaviors and activity of offspring that depended on the SAR. Compared with sham-exposed controls, exposure at 0.5 W/kg significantly decreased drinking frequency (P ≤ 0.000) and significantly decreased distance moved (P ≤ 0.001). In contrast, exposure at 1 W/kg significantly increased drinking frequency (P ≤ 0.001) and significantly increased moving duration (P ≤ 0.005). In the absence of other plausible explanations, it is concluded that repeated exposure to low-level RF fields in early life may have a persistent and long-term effect on adult behavior.


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Effects of mobile phone radiation on certain hematological parameters

Christopher B, Sheena MY, Uddin Khandaker M, Bradley DA, Chew MT, Jojo PJ.  Effects of mobile phone radiation on certain hematological parameters. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. Published online September 14, 2019. 108443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2019.108443.

Highlights

• Mobile phone radiation affects blood hemoglobin level, white blood cell and platelets count and erythrocytes sedimentation rate.
• Effects of mobile phone radiation on hematological factors studied in a controlled condition in the laboratory.
• A matched case control approach was adopted for the investigation.
• Long time and over exposure to mobile phone radiation may affect the individual health.

Abstract

Exorbitant chronic exposure to any sort of radiation is hazardous to human health. Besides ionizing radiation, exposures to electromagnetic radiation mainly from the use of mobile phones have become a matter of great health concern, especially its extortionate use even by children. At the same time there are several myths related to the ill effects including carcinogenicity of the prolonged exposure continuously. The objective of this investigation was to find the effect on certain vital hematological parameters namely hemoglobin level, white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet count and erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) level due to the prolonged exposure to mobile radiations through in vitro examination of human blood samples. Matched case control methodology was adopted for the study. Blood samples were collected by clinicians from 27 voluntary subjects for investigation. From each, one sample was kept un-exposed while the other three samples were exposed to mobile microwave radiations for 60 min continuously in identical and controlled conditions. A 4G hand phone of a very popular brand having transmission frequency range from 2.3 to 2.4 GHz including uplink and downlink was used. Hematological analyses were carried out on fresh samples immediately after collection. For comparison of the levels of hematological parameters, blood exposed to 1 h of phone radiation and control were analysed. Experimental results show that there is a significant change on the hematological components. The exposed blood samples were found to have decrease in platelet count only. Hemoglobin level, ESR rate and the WBC counts were found to be increased. While these observations are performed in a controlled laboratory conditions, the tremendous growth in number of mobile phone users, the effects could be many more folds especially in work places and cities even through passive exposure.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0969806X19305481

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Chromosome damage in human cells induced by UMTS (3G) mobile telephony radiation

Panagopoulos DJ. Chromosome damage in human cells induced by UMTS mobile telephony radiation. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2019 Sep 13. doi: 10.4149/gpb_2019032.

Abstract

Environmental exposure to modern microwave telecommunication electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased to unprecedented levels with consequent health complaints and concerns. Many studies have already reported genotoxic effects on a variety of organisms and cell/tissue types. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes from six healthy donors were stimulated for mitosis and exposed to microwave EMF of Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) or third generation (3G) mobile telephony (MT) EMF/radiation emitted by a commercially available mobile phone handset. Lymphocytes exposed during the G2 phase of the cell division cycle and observed at metaphase, exhibited chromatid-type aberrations (gaps and breaks) at highly significant percentages - up to 275% - compared to the control (sham-exposed) samples. Each subject exhibited a different sensitivity to the microwave exposure. Moreover, the percentages of aberrations in the control samples among subjects were different due to genetic and environmental factors. The MT EMF exposure induced mainly achromatic lesions (gaps), and secondarily terminal deletions (breaks) in a smaller degree. In conclusion, the present study shows that microwave 3G MT EMF/radiation - within the current exposure limits - has significant genotoxic action on human cells, and human exposure to this EMF/radiation should be kept at levels as low as possible.


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Should parents allow their children to use smart phones and tablets? The issue of cognitive performance


Mortazavi SAR, Haghani M, Zarei S, Rastegarian N, Alighanbari N, Haghparast M, Darvish L. Should parents allow their children to use smart phones and tablets? The issue of cognitive performance. J Biomed Phys Eng. https://doi.org/10.22086/jbpe.v0i0.535, Published online first.

Abstract

Mobile phones, mobile phone base stations, cordless phones and power lines are among the main sources of our daily exposures to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Today, a large proportion of children aged eight and under has used smart phones and tablets for media activities such as playing online games, watching videos or using different applications. Over the past several years, our society has witnessed a rapid growth both in the percent of children who regularly use smart phones and tablets and the time spent using these devices. Expanded access of children to these mobile devices and the games that make mobile phones attractive to young users are believed to be the key factors that increased the time spent by children for using mobile devices. In IR Iran, students are not allowed to use mobile phones in schools. On the other hand, although students do not have access to Wi-Fi in schools, as Wi-Fi provides efficient access to the Internet on the campus, Wi-Fi routers are widely used. The rapid growth of mobile phone use has raised global public concerns especially for children. Focusing on the issue of cognitive performance, this paper is aimed at answering the following question; Should parents let their children use smart phones and tablets?

Conclusions

Nowadays in many countries, there are warnings about children mobile phone use [53].  Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation is a Class 2B (possible). It is widely believed that children are more susceptible to radiation at least in some regions of the electromagnetic spectrum [54]. It has been reported that chil-dren absorb more radiofrequency radiation than adults [53]. Moreover, some individuals are hypersensitive to RF-EMFs [55] and this hypersensitivity may cause more problems in children. As long-term effects of the children’s exposures to RF EMF emitted from mobile phones and other wireless technologies are not fully understood, overexposure to phones and other wireless technologies should be avoided to protect their cognitive performance. In this light, setting time limits for cell phone use by children is highly recommended. Moreover, in each country authorities should adopt radia-tion standards which protect children’s health and well-being.

Open access paper: http://www.jbpe.ir/Journal_OJS/JBPE/index.php/jbpe/article/download/535/306

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Children exposure to femtocell in indoor environments estimated by sparse low-rank tensor approximations

Chiaramello E, Parazzini M, Fiocchi S, Bonato M, Ravazzani P, Wiart J. Children exposure to femtocell in indoor environments estimated by sparse low-rank tensor approximations. Annals of Telecommunications. 74(1-2):113-121. February 2019.

Abstract

The exposure of an 8-year-old child to a femtocell operating at 2600 MHz, both (child and source) freely located in random positions in an indoor environment, was assessed. In order to develop surrogate models of the exposure, stochastic dosimetry based on sparse low-rank tensor approximation method (sparse LRA) was used. The surrogate models were used for fastly estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) in all the possible positions of femtocell and child. Results showed that, for all the possible positions in the room, the exposure values were significantly below the International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines for general public and that the probability of reaching SAR values higher than 1% of the ICNIRP guidelines value was lower than 0.006. The variation of the distance between femtocell and child influenced greatly the exposure, resulting in quartile coefficient of dispersion values always higher than 48%.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12243-018-0681-0

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Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the transcription of repetitive DNA elements in human cells

Del Re B, Bersani F, Giorgi G. Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the transcription of repetitive DNA elements in human cells. Electromagn Biol Med. 2019 Sep 21:1-9. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2019.1669634.

Abstract

Repetitive DNA (RE-DNA) was long thought to be silent and inert; only recent research has shown that it can be transcribed and that transcription alteration can be induced by environmental stress conditions, causing human pathological effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) could affect the transcription of RE-DNA. To this purpose, three different human cell lines (HeLa, BE(2)C and SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 900 MHz GSM-modulated RF-EMF at specific absorption rate of 1 W/kg or to sham. After exposure, mRNA levels of RE-DNA were evaluated through quantitative real-time PCR. The following RE-DNA types were investigated: Long Interspersed nucleotide Element 1, DNA alpha satellite and Human Endogenous Retroviruses-like sequences. When comparing cells exposed to RF-EMF versus control samples, different results were found for the three cell lines evaluated, indicating that RF-EMF exposure can significantly affect RE-DNA transcription and that the effects strongly depend on the cellular context and the tissue type. Further studies are needed to elucidate which molecular mechanisms could be involve


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Long-term exposure to 4G smartphone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation diminished male reproductive potential by directly disrupting Spock3-MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult rats

Yu G, Tang Z, Chen H, Chen Z, Wang L, Cao H, Wang G, Xing J, Shen H, Cheng Q, Li D, Wang G, Xiang Y, Guan Y, Zhu Y, Liu Z, Bai Z.  Long-term exposure to 4G smartphone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation diminished male reproductive potential by directly disrupting Spock3-MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult rats. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Aug 31;698:133860. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133860.

Abstract

The correlation between long-term exposure to SRF-EMR and the decline in male fertility is gradually receiving increasing attention from the medical society. While male reproductive organs are often exposed to SRF-EMR, little is currently known about the direct effects of long-term SRF-EMR exposure on the testes and its involvement in the suppression of male reproductive potential. The present study was designed to investigate this issue by using 4G SRF-EMR in rats. A unique exposure model using a 4G smartphone achieved localized exposure to the scrotum of the rats for 6 h each day (the smartphone was kept on active talk mode and received an external call for 1 min over 10 min intervals). Results showed that SRF-EMR exposure for 150 days decreased sperm quality and pup weight, accompanied by testicular injury. However, these adverse effects were not evident in rats exposed to SRF-EMR for 50 days or 100 days. Sequencing analysis and western blotting suggested Spock3 overexpression in the testes of rats exposed to SRF-EMR for 150 days. Inhibition of Spock3 overexpression improved sperm quality decline and alleviated testicular injury and BTB disorder in the exposed rats. Additionally, SRF-EMR exposure suppressed MMP2 activity, while increasing the activity of the MMP14-Spock3 complexes and decreasing MMP14-MMP2 complexes; these results were reversed by Spock3 inhibition. Thus, long-term exposure to 4G SRF-EMR diminished male fertility by directly disrupting the Spock3-MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult rats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show direct toxicity of SRF-EMR on the testes emerging after long-term exposure.


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Review: The influence of bioactive mobile telephony radiation at the level of a plant community – Possible mechanisms and indicators of the effects


Czerwiński M, Januszkiewicz L, Vian A, Lázarod A. Review: The influence of bioactive mobile telephony radiation at the level of a plant community – Possible mechanisms and indicators of the effects. Ecological Indicators. 108, Jan 2020. 105683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105683.

Highlights

• There are various indicators of microwave radiation impact on herbaceous vegetation.
• The best indicators are some parameters of vegetation canopy or individual plants.
• Specific plant functional groups may be indicators of long-term community processes.
• Other organisms interacting with plants, e.g. pollinators, should also be considered.
• The selection of indicators depends on the propagation of radiation in the canopy.

Abstract

Environmental exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile telephony has rapidly increased in the last two decades and this trend is expected to continue. The effects of this exposure at plant community level are unknown and difficult to assess in a scientifically appropriate manner. Such an assessment can be scientifically adequate if a studied plant community is completely new and control-impact radiation treatment is used.

In this review we aimed to predict ecological effects and identify indicators of the impact of bioactive RF-EMFs at the mobile telephony frequency range on plant communities. We considered the scenario where a plant community was exposed to radiation generated by a base transmitting station antenna mounted on a nearby mast. This plant community can be represented by mesic meadow, ruderal or arable weed community, or other herbaceous, moderately productive vegetation type. We concentrated primarily on radiation effects that can be recorded for a year since the exposure started. To predict them we used physical theories of radiowave propagation in vegetation and the knowledge on plants physiological responses to RF-EMF. Our indicators can be used for the detection of the impact of RF-EMFs on vegetation in a control-impact experiment.

The identified indicators can be classified into the following groups: (1) canopy parameters; (2) plant characteristics to be measured in the field or laboratory in a number of individuals that represent the populations of selected species; (3) community weighted means/medians (CWMs) of plant traits and strategies; (4) the abundance of other organisms that interact with plants and can influence their fitness or population size. The group of canopy parameters includes mean height, vertical vegetation structure and dry weight of above-ground standing phytomass. Plant characteristics requiring biometric sampling in the field are plant height, the number of fruits and seeds, as well as seed viability. The group of plant traits that are calculated as CWMs covers seed releasing height, seed dispersal mode, SLA, leaf orientation, month of germination and flowering, Ellenberg’s light indicator value, and the proportion of individuals in the classes of competitors and stress tolerators according to Grime's CSR strategy scheme. The group of “non-plant” indicators includes primarily the frequency of flower visits by beetles, wasps, hoverflies, and bees that have their nests over ground. To detect ecological responses that occur for the first year since a herbaceous community has been exposed to potentially bioactive RF-EMF, the first two indicators groups should be used.


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Health effects associated with exposure to low-frequency electromagnetic fields

French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES). Health effects associated with exposure to low-frequency electromagnetic fields. info. 
2019, ANSES OPNION Request No 2013-SA-0038: 1-14.


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Electromagnetic Fields Exposure from Power Lines and Human Fertility

Esmailzadeh S, Agajani Delavar M, Gholamian SA, Ahmadi A, Hosseinpour Haydari F, Pourali M. Electromagnetic Fields Exposure from Power Lines and Human Fertility. Iran J Public Health. 2019 May;48(5):986-987.


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Effect of Static Magnetic Field of Electric Vehicles on Driving Performance and on Neuro-Psychological Cognitive Functions

He Y, Sun W, Leung PS, Chow YT. Effect of Static Magnetic Field of Electric Vehicles on Driving Performance and on Neuro-Psychological Cognitive Functions.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep 12;16(18). pii: E3382. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16183382.

Abstract

Human neuropsychological reactions and brain activities when driving electric vehicles (EVs) are considered as an issue for traffic and public safety purposes; this paper examined the effect of the static magnetic field (SMF) derived from EVs. A lane change task was adopted to evaluate the driving performance; and the driving reaction time test and the reaction time test were adopted to evaluate the variation of the neuro-psychological cognitive functions. Both the sham and the real exposure conditions were performed with a 350 μT localized SMF in this study; 17 student subjects were enrolled in this single-blind experiment. Electroencephalographs (EEGs) of the subjects were adopted and recorded during the experiment as an indicator of the brain activity for the variations of the driving performance and of the cognitive functions. Results of this study have indicated that the impact of the given SMF on both the human driving performance and the cognitive functions are not considerable; and that there is a correlation between beta sub-band of the EEGs and the human reaction time in the analysis.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/18/3382