The latest additions appear below.
The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 1,000 scientific papers. This 789-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:
New fifth generation (5G) telecommunications systems, now being rolled out globally, have become the subject of a fierce controversy. Some health protection agencies and their scientific advisory committees have concluded that there is no conclusive scientific evidence of harm. Several recent reviews by independent scientists, however, suggest that there is significant uncertainty on this question, with rapidly emerging evidence of potentially harmful biological effects from radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures, at the levels 5G roll-out will entail. This essay identifies four relevant sources of scientific uncertainty and concern: (1) lack of clarity about precisely what technology is included in 5G; (2) a rapidly accumulating body of laboratory studies documenting disruptive in vitro and in vivo effects of RF-EMFs—but one with many gaps in it; (3) an almost total lack (as yet) of high-quality epidemiological studies of adverse human health effects from 5G EMF exposure specifically, but rapidly emerging epidemiological evidence of such effects from past generations of RF-EMF exposure; (4) persistent allegations that some national telecommunications regulatory authorities do not base their RF-EMF safety policies on the latest science, related to unmanaged conflicts of interest. The author, an experienced epidemiologist, concludes that one cannot dismiss the growing health concerns about RF-EMFs, especially in an era when higher population levels of exposure are occurring widely, due to the spatially dense transmitters which 5G systems require. Based on the precautionary principle, the author echoes the calls of others for a moratorium on the further roll-out of 5G systems globally, pending more conclusive research on their safety.
Conclusions and recommendation
In assessing causal evidence in environmental epidemiology, Bradford Hill himself pointed out that ‘the whole picture matters;’ he argued against prioritising any subset of his famous nine criteria for causation. One’s overall assessment of the likelihood that an exposure causes a health condition should take into account a wide variety of evidence, including ‘biological plausibility’. 34 35 After reviewing the evidence cited above, the writer, an experienced physician-epidemiologist, is convinced that RF-EMFs may well have serious human health effects. While there is also increasing scientific evidence for RF-EMF effects of ecological concern in other species, 6–8 16–18 23 both plant and animal, these have not been reviewed here, for reasons of space and the author’s disciplinary limitations. In addition, there is convincing evidence, cited above, that several nations’ regulatory apparatus, for telecommunications innovations such as the 5G roll-out, is not fit for purpose. Indeed, significant elements in that apparatus appear to have been captured by vested interests. Every society’s public health—and especially the health of those most likely to be susceptible to the hazard in question (in the case of EMFs, children and pregnant women)—needs to be protected by evidence-based regulations, free from significant bias.
Finally, this commentary would be
remiss if it did not mention a widely circulating conspiracy theory,
suggesting that 5G and related EMF exposures somehow contributed to the
creation or spread of the current COVID-19 pandemic. There are
knowledgeable commentators’ reports on the web debunking this theory, and no respectable scientist or publication has backed it. 40 41 Indeed, combatting it is widely viewed by the scientific community as critical to dealing with the pandemic, as conspiracy theorists holding this view have already carried out violent attacks on mobile phone transmission facilities and other symbolic targets, distracting the public and authorities at a time when pandemic control actions are paramount. 42 This writer completely supports that view of the broader scientific community: the theory that 5G and related EMFs have contributed to the pandemic is baseless.
It follows that, for the current 5G roll-out, there is a sound basis for invoking ‘the precautionary principle’. 43 This is the environmental and occupational health principle by which significant doubt about the safety of a new and potentially widespread human exposure should be a reason to call a moratorium on that exposure, pending adequate scientific investigation of its suspected adverse health effects. In short, one should ‘err on the side of caution’. In the case of 5G transmission systems, there is no compelling public health or safety rationale for their rapid deployment. The main gains being promised are either economic (for some parties only, not necessarily with widely distributed financial benefits across the population) or related to increased consumer convenience. Until we know more about what we are getting into, from a health and ecological point of view, those putative gains need to wait.
Effects of Electromagnetic Waves with LTE and 5G Bandwidth on the Skin Pigmentation In Vitro
Kyuri Kim, Young Seung Lee, Nam Kim, Hyung-Do Choi, Dong-Jun Kang, Hak Rim Kim, Kyung-Min Lim. Effects of Electromagnetic Waves with LTE and 5G Bandwidth on the Skin Pigmentation In Vitro. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 26;22(1):E170. doi: 10.3390/ijms22010170.
With the rapid growth of wireless communication devices, the influences of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health are gathering increasing attention. Since the skin is the largest organ of the body and is located at the outermost layer, it is considered a major target for the health effects of EMF. Skin pigmentation represents one of the most frequent symptoms caused by various non-ionizing radiations, including ultraviolet radiation, blue light, infrared, and extremely low frequency (ELF). Here, we investigated the effects of EMFs with long-term evolution (LTE, 1.762 GHz) and 5G (28 GHz) bandwidth on skin pigmentation in vitro. Murine and Human melanoma cells (B16F10 and MNT-1) were exposed to either LTE or 5G for 4 h per day, which is considered the upper bound of average smartphone use time. It was shown that neither LTE nor 5G exposure induced significant effects on cell viability or pigmentation. The dendrites of MNT-1 were neither lengthened nor regressed after EMF exposure. Skin pigmentation effects of EMFs were further examined in the human keratinocyte cell line (MNT-1-HaCaT) co-culture system, which confirmed the absence of significant hyper-pigmentation effects of LTE and 5G EMFs. Lastly, MelanoDerm™, a 3D pigmented human epidermis model, was irradiated with LTE (1.762 GHz) or 5G (28 GHz), and image analysis and special staining were performed. No changes in the brightness of MelanoDerm™ tissues were observed in LTE- or 5G-exposed tissues, except for only minimal changes in the size of melanocytes. Collectively, these results imply that exposure to LTE and 5G EMFs may not affect melanin synthesis or skin pigmentation under normal smartphone use condition.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-
Recently, a decreasing rate of fertility has to be credited to an array of factors such as environmental, health and lifestyle. Male infertility is likely to be affected by the strong exposure to heat and radiations. The most common sources of nonionizing radiations are cell phones, laptops, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens, which may participate to the cause of male infertility. One of the major sources of daily exposure to non-ionizing radiation is mobile phones. A mobile phone is now basically dominating our daily life through better services such as connectivity, smartphone devices. However, the health consequences are linked with their usage are frequently ignored. Constant exposure to non-ionizing radiations produced from a cell phone is one of the possible reasons for growing male infertility. Recently, several studies have shown that cell phone users have altered sperm parameters causing declining reproductive health. Cell phone radiation harms male fertility by affecting the different parameters like sperm motility, sperm count, sperm morphology, semen concentration, morphometric abnormalities, increased oxidative stress along with some hormonal changes. This review is focusing on the prevailing literature from in vitro and in vivo studies suggesting that non-ionizing exposure negatively affects human male infertility.
Generally, the outcome of the studies has indicated that mobile phone usage changes different sperm parameters in both ways in-vitro (human) and in-vivo (animals). Several studies disclose that the exposure to cell phones produces harmful effects on the testes, which may affect sperm motility, sperm number, sperm concentration, and morphology and an increased DNA damage, causing micronuclei formation and reactive oxygen species within the cell. So many evidences showed that exposure from cell phones results in elevated oxidative stress with disintegrated DNA and it is directly and indirectly dependent on the time of cell phone use. Further researches are required to provide strong evidence that the use of mobile phones may disturb sperm and testicular activity. Several evidences suggest that the irregularities reported due to RF-EMF-exposure depend on physical parameters such as utilized RF wavelength, penetration range into the object, and transmission length of the radiation. Unfortunately, existing studies are not able to suggest a true mechanism between the harmful effects of RF-EMF radiation and the male reproductive system. To conclude all of the above, government bodies and agencies should form strong guidelines against cell phone exposure and take preventive actions such as in the usage of mobile phones, preventing chatting, reducing the overall contact time, and holding the gadget away from the groin may be of significant help to people pursuing fertility. Moreover, very limited studies are available on protective actions so far so a large-scale analysis is also required to determine the reproductive parameters.
Ravilla Dilli. Implications of mmWave Radiation on Human Health: State of the Art Threshold Levels. IEEE Access. 18 January 2021. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3052387.
In fact, “Many of the general malaise symptoms associated with IEI (Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance) 7 are common in the general population” p.42 (World Health Organisation 2004). This is not a sign of a healthy general population even by the WHO’s definition of health, 8 and causes must be identified. Life is dependent upon, and arguably defined by the electrical activity, of the brain, the broader nervous system and indeed the body’s ongoing efforts to maintain homeostasis. As we said earlier, internal electrical impulses are inherent to life; when they stop, we die. There are also natural, static and low-frequency, non-modulated, electromagnetic fields with which we have evolved and most of which we use and even rely upon. Our bodies and cells have their own resonant frequencies, and research has shown cell sensitivity to RFR exposure at ultra-low intensities (Kositsky, 2001). It is almost to be expected that exposures never encountered during the course of evolution would affect us. Indeed, “Since the low-level environmental exposures associated with IEI are commonly found in everyone’s daily living environment, the exposed population is indistinguishable from the general population. Everyone is exposed” p.44 (World Health Organisation 2004).
Our current model of electrosensitivity includes the “general population” and expresses that differing responses are a normal part of being alive. For some of those who do not appear to respond (no symptoms), there will mostly likely be cellular impacts. For most, these will be promptly repaired or otherwise dealt with (e.g., apoptosis); for some, damage will gradually or eventually accumulate and may lead, in time, to a catastrophic response in the form of a disease that began as oxidative stress that the body has fought but finally to which it has catastrophically succumbed. For others, effects will be felt and cause early symptoms. Among these people, some will respond by avoiding the exposure either subconsciously or consciously, while others will ignore them and eventually pay the price. Others will develop EHS. At this stage, it will often go undiagnosed due to lack of training in recognising this possible diagnosis.
Importantly, this model implies that there is a need to acknowledge that EHS (with all its variety) is one part of a range of symptomless pre-cursor and EMI responses to a novel and rapidly changing evolutionary situation. There should be no stigma to EHS, and those affected deserve the same level of concern and extent of assistance as those with allergies or auto-immune diseases, the principal actions being minimisation of the harmful stimulant until personal repair capacity has improved, then slowly re-introducing exposure, to the extent manageable on an individual basis. Assistance with this would be necessary at several stages so the body is not pushed into the hypo-responsive state, but rather assisted to reach the best possible health with the best practicable repair capacity.
We propose that to work towards avoiding, ameliorating, or attempting to overcome EHS it is necessary not only to observe the positive actions recommended, but also to build capacity. And capacity provides the energy necessary to build resilience (Gerritsen and Band 2018).
Artur Kacprzyk, Tomasz Stefura, Marta Krzysztofik, Tomasz Rok, Eugeniusz Rokita, Grzegorz Tatoń. The Impact of Mobile Phone Use on Tinnitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Bioelectromagnetics. 2021 Jan 13. doi: 10.1002/bem.22316.
Tinnitus is a perception of sound in the absence of an external source. The aim of our study was to investigate with a meta-analytical approach, whether mobile phone (MP) use increases the risk of tinnitus. Eight studies reporting the risk of tinnitus in relation to MP use were identified, and six high-quality studies (two cohort studies, one case-control study, and three cross-sectional ones) were included in the meta-analysis. The quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The risk of tinnitus was analyzed depending on the exposure to MPs in subgroups according to the study design and method of exposure assessment. Two cohort studies, which assessed the exposure to MPs using network operator data, indicated no significantly increased risk of tinnitus among highly exposed MP users in comparison to lightly exposed individuals (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-1.15]). Likewise, the self-reported exposure data from two cohorts/case-control and four cross-sectional studies did not find an association between exposure to MPs and tinnitus (OR: 1.20 [95% CI: 0.40-3.61] and OR: 1.73 [95% CI: 0.67-4.49], respectively). Current scientific knowledge, including high-quality studies with a reliable exposure assessment based on network operator data, does not support the hypothesis that MP use is associated with tinnitus.
Is there evidence for oxidative stress caused by electromagnetic fields? A summary of relevant observations in experimental animal and cell experiments related to health effects in the last ten years
Prof Meike Mevissen, David Schürmann. Is there evidence for oxidative stress caused by electromagnetic fields? A summary of relevant observations in experimental animal and cell experiments related to health effects in the last ten years. BERENIS – The Swiss expert group on electromagnetic fields and non-ionising radiation Newsletter – Special Issue January 2021.
This special issue of the BERENIS newsletter contains an up-to-date assessment of a possible correlation between oxidative stress and exposure to magnetic and electromagnetic fields and their putative effects on health. For this purpose, relevant animal and cell studies published between 2010 and 2020 were identified and summarized. An extended report presenting these recent studies in more detail will be published soon by the FOEN1. This special issue contains a short version of the report.
In summary, the majority of the animal and more than half of the cell studies provided evidence of increased oxidative stress caused by RF-EMF or ELF-MF. This notion is based on observations in a large number of cell types, applying different exposure times and dosages (SAR or field strengths), also in the range of the regulatory limits. Certainly, some studies are burdened with methodological uncertainties and weaknesses or are not very comprehensive in terms of exposure time, dose, number and quantitative analysis of the biomarkers used, to name a few. Taking these methodological weaknesses into account, nonetheless, a tendency becomes apparent, namely that EMF exposure, even in the low dose range, can lead to changes in oxidative balance. Organisms and cells are generally able to react to oxidative stress, and many studies showed adaptation to EMF exposure after a recovery phase. Pre-existing conditions, such as immune deficiencies or diseases (diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases), compromise the body's defence mechanisms, including antioxidative protection, and it is therefore possible that individuals with these conditions experience more severe health effects. In addition, the studies show that very young and elderly individuals can react less efficiently to oxidative stress induced by EMF, which of course also applies to other stressors that cause oxidative stress. More extensive studies under standardised conditions are necessary, to better understand and confirm these phenomena and observations.
Open access report: https://t.co/ubvIFOnyXd?amp=1
The FOEN has nominated a consultative group of Swiss experts from various disciplines with scientific competence regarding electromagnetic fields and NIR, which has commenced its work in July 2014. The group is called “BERENIS”, based on the acronym of the respective German term. The BERENIS experts regularly screen the scientific literature, and assess the publications which they consider relevant for the protection of humans from potentially adverse effects.
In Switzerland, the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) is the responsible government body for monitoring and assessing research on health effects of non-ionising radiation (NIR) from stationary sources in the environment. This includes informing and updating the public about the current state of research, which is the basis for the ambient regulatory limits stated in the Swiss "ordinance relating to protection from non-ionising radiation". In the case of reliable new scientific knowledge and experiences, the FOEN would advise the Federal Council of Switzerland to adapt these ambient regulatory limits.
Assessing the results and conclusions of scientific studies enables early detection of potential health risks of NIR. The FOEN places particular emphasis to not overlook any evidence of harmfulness for public health demanding for corrective regulatory interventions. Furthermore, critical assessment of available scientific data is required to make firm statements about the validity of the presented evidence for biological effects, their relevance for public health, and if so, to estimate the number of potentially affected people.
NIR includes a broad spectrum of frequencies with varying intensities and radiation characteristics, which is becoming more complex and multifaceted as the development and application of technologies emitting them is very dynamic and rapidly increasing. In the context of the work of BERENIS, NIR at frequencies below 10 GHz is addressed. Potential biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of NIR are manifold, and research activities range from the molecular to the population level. As a consequence, specific expertise in various disciplines is needed to assess the related scientific studies rooted in many different biological, medical and technical scientific realms.
The FOEN has therefore nominated a consultative group of Swiss experts from various disciplines with scientific competence regarding electromagnetic fields and NIR, which has commenced its work in July 2014. The group is called "BERENIS", based on the acronym of the respective German term. The BERENIS experts regularly screen the scientific literature, and assess the publications which they consider relevant for the protection of humans from potentially adverse effects. The results of this evaluation are published in quarterly newsletters, which can be downloaded from this webpage.
Members of BERENIS
- Prof. Dr. Martin Röösli, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel (in charge)
- Prof. Dr. Peter Achermann, The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, Zurich
- Dr. Jürg Fröhlich, Fields at Work GmbH, Zurich
- Prof. Dr. med. Jürg Kesselring, previous head of the Department of Neurorehabilitation, Rehabilitation Centre, Clinics of Valens
- Prof. Dr. Meike Mevissen, Vet-Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Bern
- Dr. David Schürmann, Molecular Genetics Group, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel
- Dr. med. Edith Steiner, Ärztinnen und Ärzte für Umweltschutz, Basel
- Dr. Stefan Dongus, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel
Federal Office for the Environment:
- Alexander Reichenbach
- Dr. Maurane Riesen
- Dr. Evelyn Stempfel (Federal Office of Public Health)
- Dr. Roland Krischek (Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund)
- Dr. Christian Monn (State Secretariat for Economic Affairs)
- Dr. Samuel Iff (State Secretariat for conomic Affairs)
Empirical study on specific absorption rate of head tissues due to induced heating of 4G cell phone radiation
Christopher B, Mary S, Khandaker MU, Jojo PJ. Empirical study on specific absorption rate of head tissues due to induced heating of 4G cell phone radiation. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 178(Special Issue): 108910. Jan 2021. DOI:10.1016/j.radphyschem.
Exposures to electromagnetic radiation mainly from the extended use of mobile phones may initiate biological damages in the human body at the macromolecular level. Several studies on human and animal models have shown significant changes in the functions of neural cells. Present empirical study analyses the thermal changes and the specific absorption rates (SAR) of brain, eye and skin tissues due to prolonged exposure to mobile phone radiation. A phantom, simulating human head with skin, skull and brain was used for the study. The Phantom was exposed to radiation for longer durations (600 s and more) and the temperature variations at different specific points were studied with sensitive thermocouple probes. SAR (1 g of contiguous tissue) values were determined using the variations of temperature and other parameters. The average rise in brain temperature was found to be 0.10 +/- 0.05 degrees C at 30 mm deep in the brain and the estimated SAR was 0.66 +/- 0.35 Wkg(-1). The increase in temperature for the eye socket was 0.03 +/- 0.02 degrees C with SAR 0.15 +/- 0.08 Wkg(-1). The average rise in temperature for skin was 0.14 +/- 0.05 degrees C and the SAR was 0.66 +/- 0.42 Wkg(-1). Although the measured SAR lie within the safe limit of 2 Wkg(-1) recommended by the international regulatory body, considering the tremendous growth in the number of mobile phone users and prolonged use of mobile phone in communication purposes, the cumulative effects could be a real concern for human health.
Association between estimated whole-brain radiofrequency electromagnetic fields dose and cognitive function in preadolescents and adolescents
Cabre-Riera A, van Wel, L, Liorni, I, Thielens A, Birks LE, Pierotti L, Joseph W, Gonzalez-Safont L, Ibarluzea J, Ferrero A, et al. Association between estimated whole-brain radiofrequency electromagnetic fields dose and cognitive function in preadolescents and adolescents. Int J Hygiene Envir Health. 231:113659. Jan 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113659.
Objective: To investigate the association between estimated whole-brain radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) dose, using an improved integrated RF-EMF exposure model, and cognitive function in preadolescents and adolescents.
Methods: Cross-sectional analysis in preadolescents aged 9-11 years and adolescents aged 17-18 years from the Dutch Amsterdam Born Children and their Development Study (n = 1664 preadolescents) and the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project (n = 1288 preadolescents and n = 261 adolescents), two population-based birth cohort studies. Overall whole-brain RF-EMF doses (mJ/kg/day) were estimated for several RF-EMF sources together including mobile and Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications phone calls (named phone calls), other mobile phone uses than calling, tablet use, laptop use (named screen activities), and far-field sources. We also estimated whole-brain RF-EMF doses in these three groups separately (i.e. phone calls, screen activities, and far-field) that lead to different patterns of RF-EMF exposure. We assessed non-verbal intelligence in the Dutch and Spanish preadolescents, information processing speed, attentional function, and cognitive flexibility in the Spanish preadolescents, and working memory and semantic fluency in the Spanish preadolescents and adolescents using validated neurocognitive tests.
Results: Estimated overall whole-brain RF-EMF dose was 90.1 mJ/kg/day (interquartile range (IQR) 42.7; 164.0) in the Dutch and Spanish preadolescents and 105.1 mJ/kg/day (IQR 51.0; 295.7) in the Spanish adolescents. Higher overall estimated whole-brain RF-EMF doses from all RF-EMF sources together and from phone calls were associated with lower non-verbal intelligence score in the Dutch and Spanish preadolescents (-0.10 points, 95% CI-0.19; -0.02 per 100 mJ/kg/day increase in each exposure). However, none of the whole-brain RF-EMF doses was related to any other cognitive function outcome in the Spanish preadolescents or adolescents.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher brain exposure to RF-EMF is related to lower non-verbal intelligence but not to other cognitive function outcomes. Given the cross-sectional nature of the study, the small effect sizes, and the unknown biological mechanisms, we cannot discard that our results are due to chance finding or reverse causality. Longitudinal studies on RF-EMF brain exposure and cognitive function are needed.
N. Kamyab, Z. Mordouei, M. Hosseini, M. Sheikh Fathollahi. The effect of mobile phone waves on salivary secretion in dental students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. Int J Radiat Res 2021, 19(1): 81-87.
Background: Excessive use of mobile phones is addictive and causes many complications. The severity of these complications depends on the duration of the call and the frequency of using mobile phones. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of mobile phone waves on salivary secretion.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 120 dental students in Rafsanjan, Iran, in 2015. Using the call history of the mobile phones, the number and duration of each person's daily calls were obtained. The spitting method was used to collect unstimulated saliva, and stimulated saliva was collected with the help of natural chewing gums without sugar and additive flavors. After sampling, the falcon tubes containing saliva were centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 10 minutes. Then the saliva volume was read from the tube and recorded. Independent two-sample t test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression model were used for data analysis.
Results: Students who talked for more than 40 minutes or 20-40 minutes a day on their mobile phones had a mean unstimulated salivary secretion of 0.885 and 0.331 ml/min, respectively and mean stimulated salivary secretion of 0.702 and 0.708 ml/min, respectively more than students who talked less than 20 minutes a day on their cell phones (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The results showed that increased duration of cell phone calls was associated with increasing the amount of stimulated and unstimulated salivary secretion, which could decrease the risk of developing oral infections and tooth decay.
Deepshikha Bhargava, Phadungsak Rattanadecho, Teerapot Wessapan. The effect of metal objects on the SAR and temperature increase in the human head exposed to dipole antenna (numerical analysis). Case Studies in Thermal Engineering. Volume 22, December 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
Wearable metal objects with high electromagnetic reflection characteristics can cause interference with the incident waves during exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the effect of metal objects capable of increasing the absorption of EM energy and temperature within the tissues when get exposed to EM radiation. A numerical analysis of increase in specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distribution in a human head model when metal objects are placed between the head and radiating source is performed. A realistic three-dimensional heterogeneous human head model, metal objects of different shapes and sizes, and spectacles with different lenses are used. A half-wavelength dipole antenna operating at 1800 MHz served as an EM radiation source. Results show that the presence of metal objects in proximity to the head alters SAR and temperature increase within the tissues. In most cases, metal objects redistribute the EM field incident upon them to a smaller region increasing power absorption, thereby increasing SAR and temperature in that region. The power absorption in head layers is found to be sensitive to metal object's size and shape, and distance of the antenna from the objects.
B O Ayinmode, I P Farai. Assessing The Risk Associated with Simultaneous Exposure To Mobile Communication Signals Within 900-2500 MHz in Nigeria. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2020 Dec 31;ncaa203. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncaa203.
In this study, the total exposure due to signals within GSM 900, GSM 1800, CDMA-1900 and 3G-2100 frequency bands at 200 m from the foot of 120, 100 and 80 base station masts in the Nigerian cities of Lagos, Ibadan and Abuja, respectively, was assessed. A calibrated hand-held spectrum analyser was used to measure the level of power (in dBm) of each signal within the mobile frequency bands. The exposure quotient associated with the combine electric field strengths from the various frequency bands in each city was estimated. The maximum value of total electric field strength at each point in Lagos, Ibadan and Abuja was 0.83 V/m, 0.53 V/m and 1.63 V/m, respectively. This study shows that the exposure quotient due to the simultaneous exposure to the four bands of mobile communication signals in each city is far less than one, as recommend by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.
Measuring the impact of ICNIRP vs. stricter-than-ICNIRP exposure limits on QoS and EMF from cellular networks
JaimeGalán-Jiménez, LucaChiaraviglio. Measuring the impact of ICNIRP vs. stricter-than-ICNIRP exposure limits on QoS and EMF from cellular networks. Computer Networks. 6 January 2021. 107824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
The installation of new equipment (Base Stations, BSs) during the planning phase of a cellular network (including 5G BSs) is governed by exposure limits in terms of allowable ElectroMagnetic Field (EMF) levels. The exposure limits can be either defined by i) international bodies (e.g., ICNIRP) or ii) national regulations imposing limits stricter than i). In this work, we compare the impact of ICNIRP vs. stricter-than-ICNIRP exposure regulations on the Quality of Service (QoS) and EMF. To this aim, we perform a large-scale measurement campaign in one scenario in Spain subject to ICNIRP regulations and another one in Italy subject to EMF limits stricter than ICNIRP ones. Both the scenarios are characterized by similar exposure conditions, comparable user density, and common 4G performance targets by the operators. Results, obtained by measuring QoS and EMF at selected locations, reveal that the QoS in the scenario subject to strict EMF limits is heavily worsened compared to the one in which ICNIRP-based limits are enforced. Clearly, the scenario with strict EMF limits presents a lower level exposure over the territory compared to the one imposing ICNIRP limits.
Exposure to 2.45 GHz radiofrequency modulates calcitonin-dependent activity and HSP-90 protein in parafollicular cells of rat thyroid gland
E López-Martín, F J Jorge-Barreiro, J L Relova-Quintero, A A Salas-Sánchez, F J Ares-Pena. Exposure to 2.45 GHz radiofrequency modulates calcitonin-dependent activity and HSP-90 protein in parafollicular cells of rat thyroid gland. Tissue Cell. 2020 Dec 26;68:101478. doi: 10.1016/j.tice.2020.101478.
- • Non-ionizing radiation could constitute a toxic environment, altering the morphology and functioning of parafollicular cells.
- • EMFs activate stress stimuli in the thyroid gland, which is associated with C-cell hyperplasia.
- • Non-ionizing radiation modulates expression of Heat Shock Protein 90 in calcitonin-positive cells.
In this study we analyzed the response of parafollicular cells in rat thyroid gland after exposure to radiofrequency at 2.45 GHz using a subthermal experimental diathermy model. Forty-two Sprague Dawley rats, divided into two groups of 21 rats each, were individually exposed at 0 (control), 3 or 12 W in a Gigahertz Transverse Electro-Magnetic (GTEM) chamber for 30 min. After radiation, we used simple or fluorescence immunohistochemistry to measure calcitonin cells or cellular stress levels, indicated by the presence hyperplasia of parafollicular cells, heat shock protein (HSP) 90. Immunomarking of calcitonin-positive cells was statistically significant higher in the thyroid tissue of rats exposed to 2.45 GHz radiofrequency and cell hyperplasia appeared 90 min after radiation at the SAR levels studied. At the same time, co-localized expression of HSP-90 and calcitonin in parafollicular cells was statistically significant attenuated 90 min after radiation and remained statistically significantly low 24 h after radiation, even though parafollicular cell levels normalized. These facts indicate that subthermal radiofrequency (RF) at 2.45 GHz constitutes a negative external stress stimulus that alters the activity and homeostasis of parafollicular cells in the rat thyroid gland. However, further research is needed to determine if there is toxic action in human C cells.
Effects of 2600 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation in Brain Tissue of Male Wistar Rats and Neuroprotective Effects of Melatonin
Kevser Delen, Bahriye Sırav, Sinem Oruç, Cemile M Seymen, Dilek Kuzay, Korkut Yeğin, Gülnur Take Kaplanoğlu. Effects of 2600 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation in Brain Tissue of Male Wistar Rats and Neuroprotective Effects of Melatonin. Bioelectromagnetics. 2021 Jan 13. doi: 10.1002/bem.22318.
The debate on the biological effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) still continues due to differences in the design of studies (frequency, power density, specific absorption rate [SAR], exposure duration, cell, tissue, or animal type). The current study aimed to investigate the effects of 2,600 MHz RFR and melatonin on brain tissue biochemistry and histology of male rats. Thirty-six rats were divided into six groups randomly: cage-control, sham, RFR, melatonin, sham melatonin, and RFR melatonin. In RFR groups, animals were exposed to 2,600 MHz RFR for 30 days (30 min/day, 5 days/week) and the melatonin group animals were subcutaneously injected with melatonin (7 days/week, 10 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. SAR in brain gray matter was calculated as 0.44 and 0.295 W/kg for 1 and 10 g averaging, respectively. RFR exposure decreased the GSH, GSH-Px, and SOD levels and increased the MPO, MDA, and NOx levels (P < 0.005) significantly. RFR exposure also led to an increase in structural deformation and apoptosis in the brain tissue. This study revealed that exogenous high-dose melatonin could reduce these adverse effects of RFR. Limiting RFR exposure as much as possible is recommended, and taking daily melatonin supplements may be beneficial.
The effect of 900-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields during the adolescence on the histological structure of rat testis and its androgen and estrogen receptors localization
Gur FM, Keles AI, Erol HS, Guven C, Taskin E, Kaya H, Gur HE, Odaci E, Halici MB, Timurkaan S. The effect of 900-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields during the adolescence on the histological structure of rat testis and its androgen and estrogen receptors localization. Int J Radiation Research. 19(1):135-144. Jan 2021. DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.ijrr.19.1.135
Background: Mobile phones as an electronic device which are emitting radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF). In this study was intend to determine the contingent effects of cell phone induced RF-EMF on testicular tissue in adolescence. Materials and Methods: Rats in the RF-EMF group were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF, while sham and control rats were not. After the completion of the test steps, the testicular tissues which were rapidly removed from the body of sacrificed rats were examined by using histopathological and biochemical methods. Testicular tissues cut to 5 mu m thickness undergo routine histological procedures. Thus, histopathological evaluation will be completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in testicular tissues were measured by biochemical methods to determine whether oxidative stress occurred or not. Results: Histopathologic findings were not observed in any of the studied groups. There was also no difference between the groups in terms of localization of androgen and estrogen receptors. The incidence of apoptotic index and TUNEL-positive cells was similar in all three groups. In the RF-EMF group, although the levels of MDA and CAT were significantly higher, GSH levels were lower than the other groups. There was no essential difference between the groups in terms of SOD level. Conclusions: The obtained results of this study showed that exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in adolescents caused oxidative stress in the testes, but testicular damage which is caused by oxidative stress remained too low to be detected by histopathological methods in this study.
Non-thermal effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields
Peter Wust, Benedikt Kortüm, Ulf Strauss, Jacek Nadobny, Sebastian Zschaeck, Marcus Beck, Ulrike Stein, Pirus Ghadjar. Non-thermal effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Sci Rep. 2020 Aug 10;10(1):13488. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-69561-3.
We explored the non-thermal effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields and established a theoretical framework to elucidate their electrophysiological mechanisms. In experiments, we used a preclinical treatment device to treat the human colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and SW480 with either water bath heating (WB-HT) or 13.56 MHz RF hyperthermia (RF-HT) at 42 °C for 60 min and analyzed the proliferation and clonogenicity. We elaborated an electrical model for cell membranes and ion channels and estimated the resulting ion fluxes. The results showed that, for both cell lines, using RF-HT significantly reduced proliferation and clonogenicity compared to WB-HT. According to our model, the RF electric field component was rectified and smoothed in the direction of the channel, which resulted in a DC voltage of ~ 1 µV. This may induce ion fluxes that can potentially cause relevant disequilibrium of most ions. Therefore, RF-HT creates additional non-thermal effects in association with significant ion fluxes. Increasing the understanding of these effects can help improve cancer therapy.
The technological advancement and increased usage of wireless and other communication devices have greatly enhanced the level of radiofrequency electromagnetic field radiation (EMF-r) in the environment. It has resulted in unprecedented increased exposure of living organisms to these radiations. Most of the studies in past have, however, focused on animal systems and comparatively less attention has been paid to plants with studies reporting various, sometimes contradictory effects. This review is an attempt to provide a critical appraisal of the available reports regarding the impacts of these radiations on plant development and the underlying physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we propose that the main entry point for the biological effects of EMF-r corresponds to an increase in ROS metabolism and cytosolic calcium that leads to various cellular responses including changes in gene expression and/or enzymatic activities, which could ultimately result in immediate cellular alterations or delayed plant growth. This may constitute a new perspective in the interpretation of plant responses to EMF-r exposure. Understanding the impacts of EMF-r and the inherent abilities of plants to cope up with such changes should lead to EMF-r being considered as full-fledged environmental signals that are perceived by the plants and integrated into their development patterns.
Conclusion and perspectives
Over the course of past decades, the extensive applications of EMF-r producing devices, and their potential to induce biological effects, have encouraged scientists to investigate the possible mechanisms of their action. Few studies have documented the progressive impacts of EMF-r on biota; however, studies with appropriate methodology suggested biological effects that require additional experimentation to understand their integration into plant development (rather than describing them in terms of positive or negative effects, as often found in the literature). The contradictory outcomes of studies suggest that the effects of EMF-r may be highly dependent upon exposure conditions (power density, frequency, and duration) and are species specific. A standardization of the procedure in use to expose plant to EMF-r, at least
for model plants (arabidopsis, tomato, wheat, maize…) and for common frequencies (900, 1800 and MHz) would be highly valuable to allow a better comparison of the measured biological effects. However, the initial interaction and mechanism of EMF-r with plant tissue (the ‘‘primo-interaction’’) is not yet understood, even if several putative mechanisms have been proposed. These include dipole transition of polar structures (Amat et al. 2006), forced vibration of free ions (Panagopoulos et al. 2000, 2002) or modification of ligand binding capacity (Chiabrera et al. 2000). These uncertainties make difficult the elaboration of efficient strategies to characterize the complexity of the plant response. The literature emphasizes that EMF-r interfere with the growth and development of plants at the molecular or whole plant level, clearly involving some factors (calcium, ROS, secondary metabolites, ATP) of plant responses to environmental cues. There are convincing evidences to consider EMF-r as real environmental signals’ that plants possibly integrate into their development. Nevertheless, in the real environment, EMF-r induced stress is certainly of secondary importance in comparison with other more serious stresses for plants (drought, pathogen attack, wind, etc.). However, an unintended consequence is that a constant level of exposure to electromagnetic fields may condition plants to respond secondarily more efficiently to a severe stress, installing a kind of memory in the plant (Thellier et al. 2000; Hilker et al. 2016). This hypothesis would be worth testing experimentally and may have valuable application in agriculture. In this perspective, global approaches to plant responses to EMF-r exposure (RNA sequencing, proteomics, metabolomics, DNA methylation, etc.) are still too few in the present literature for a more exhaustive knowledge of the metabolic pathways affected by exposure to EMF-r and should be investigated/deciphered in experimental designs.
Repeated electromagnetic field stimulation lowers amyloid-β peptide levels in primary human mixed brain tissue cultures
Felipe P Perez, Bryan Maloney, Nipun Chopra, Jorge J Morisaki, Debomoy K Lahiri. Repeated electromagnetic field stimulation lowers amyloid-β peptide levels in primary human mixed brain tissue cultures. Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 12;11(1):621. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-77808-2.
Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease is the most common cause of dementia, characterized by extracellular deposition of plaques primarily of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and tangles primarily of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. We present data to suggest a noninvasive strategy to decrease potentially toxic Aβ levels, using repeated electromagnetic field stimulation (REMFS) in primary human brain (PHB) cultures. We examined effects of REMFS on Aβ levels (Aβ40 and Aβ42, that are 40 or 42 amino acid residues in length, respectively) in PHB cultures at different frequencies, powers, and specific absorption rates (SAR). PHB cultures at day in vitro 7 (DIV7) treated with 64 MHz, and 1 hour daily for 14 days (DIV 21) had significantly reduced levels of secreted Aβ40 (p = 001) and Aβ42 (p = 0.029) peptides, compared to untreated cultures. PHB cultures (DIV7) treated at 64 MHz, for 1 or 2 hour during 14 days also produced significantly lower Aβ levels. PHB cultures (DIV28) treated with 64 MHz 1 hour/day during 4 or 8 days produced a similar significant reduction in Aβ40 levels. 0.4 W/kg was the minimum SAR required to produce a biological effect. Exposure did not result in cellular toxicity nor significant changes in secreted Aβ precursor protein-α (sAPPα) levels, suggesting the decrease in Aβ did not likely result from redirection toward the α-secretase pathway. EMF frequency and power used in our work is utilized in human magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, thus suggesting REMFS can be further developed in clinical settings to modulate Aβ deposition.
Electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency has an impact on selected chemical components of the honeybee
A Koziorowska, J Depciuch, J Białek, I Woś, K Kozioł, S Sadło, B Piechowicz. Electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency has an impact on selected chemical components of the honeybee. Pol J Vet Sci. 2020 Dec;23(4):537-544. doi: 10.24425/pjvs.2020.134703.
The electromagnetic field (EMF) is an environmental factor affecting living organisms. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on selected chemical components of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The FTIR method provides information on the chemical structure of compounds through identification and analysis of functional groups. The honeybees were treated with EMF at a frequency of 50 Hz and magnetic induction of 1.6 mT for 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Analysis of FTIR spectra showed that EMF exposure longer than 2 hours induced changes in the structure of chemical compounds, especially in the IR region corresponding to DNA, RNA, phospholipids and protein vibrations, compared to control samples (bees not EMF treated). The results confirm the effect of EMF on bees depending on the duration of exposure.
EMF frequency dependent differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to astrocyte cells
Nader Asadian, Majid Jadidi, Manouchehr Safari, Taha Jadidi, Mahbobeh Gholami. EMF frequency dependent differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to astrocyte cells. Neurosci Lett. 2020 Dec 26;744:135587. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135587.
- • Stem cells viability and proliferation rate reduced in 400μT (25−75 Hz) EMF.
- • BMMSC differentiation to neuron increased with 400μT (25−75 Hz) EMF.
- • BMMSC differentiation to astrocyte cell was EMF frequency dependent.
The numerous factors regulate the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC) self-renewal and differentiation response. We aimed to analyze the influence of electromagnetic field (EMF) as an external inducing factor on rat BMMSC differentiation and proliferation to neuron and astrocyte cells. BMMSCs extracted from the rats femurs and tibias and incubated in a cell-cultured CO2 incubator. After the third passages, the plates selected randomly and then divided into seven groups (Sham exposed, three groups of square, and three groups of sinusoidal waveform EMF (25, 50, and 75 Hz, 400 μT, 1 h/day). The BMMSCs exposed to EMF at the middle of a Helmholtz coil for 7 days. The viable cell counting and proliferation performed by the MTT test and BMMSC differentiation into the neuron and the astrocyte cell was studied by immunocytochemistry staining. The results confirmed BMMSC viability and proliferation rate reduction in sinusoidal 25 Hz, square 50 Hz and sinusoidal 75 Hz EMF groups compare to sham. The maximum BMMSC differentiation to neuron was considered in sinusoidal 50 Hz and 75 Hz EMF groups. The increase of BMMSC differentiation to astrocyte cell was frequency dependent and the most differentiation was shown in square 75 Hz, and sinusoidal 75 Hz EMF groups. In conclusion, the results suggest that both square and sinusoidal EMF could affect BMMSC development and differentiation to neuron and astrocyte cells. Further studies for the consequence of EMF with wider flux density and frequency on BMMSC are recommended.