Monday, October 15, 2018

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August, 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

Since I have received numerous requests to post the abstracts on this website, I have compiled the collection into a document. The complete collection of abstracts from more than 500 papers can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:

Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the compilation.

See EMF-Portal for a searchable database of EMF studies. The Portal contains over 26,000 publications and 6,000 summaries of scientific studies on the effects of EMF. The Portal is a project of RWTH University Hospital in Aachen, Germany.

Latest edition

Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose

Neufeld E, Kuster N. Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Phys. 2018 Sep 21. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000930.


Extreme broadband wireless devices operating above 10 GHz may transmit data in bursts of a few milliseconds to seconds. Even though the time- and area-averaged power density values remain within the acceptable safety limits for continuous exposure, these bursts may lead to short temperature spikes in the skin of exposed people. In this paper, a novel analytical approach to pulsed heating is developed and applied to assess the peak-to-average temperature ratio as a function of the pulse fraction α (relative to the averaging time [INCREMENT]T; it corresponds to the inverse of the peak-to-average ratio). This has been analyzed for two different perfusion-related thermal time constants (τ1 = 100 s and 500 s) corresponding to plane-wave and localized exposures. To allow for peak temperatures that considerably exceed the 1 K increase, the CEM43 tissue damage model, with an experimental-data-based damage threshold for human skin of 600 min, is used to allow large temperature oscillations that remain below the level at which tissue damage occurs. To stay consistent with the current safety guidelines, safety factors of 10 for occupational exposure and 50 for the general public were applied. The model assumptions and limitations (e.g., employed thermal and tissue damage models, homogeneous skin, consideration of localized exposure by a modified time constant) are discussed in detail. The results demonstrate that the maximum averaging time, based on the assumption of a thermal time constant of 100 s, is 240 s if the maximum local temperature increase for continuous-wave exposure is limited to 1 K and α ≥ 0.1. For a very low peak-to-average ratio of 100 (α ≥ 0.01), it decreases to only 30 s. The results also show that the peak-to-average ratio of 1,000 tolerated by the International Council on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines.


Temperature Increase and Specific Absorption Rate Distribution in Human Breast from Cell Phone Radiation

Kunter, FC, Gündüz C, Seker SS. Temperature increase and Specific Absorption Rate distribution in human breast from cell phone radiation.J Med Imaging Health Informatics. 8(6):1186-1191. DOI: 10.1166/jmihi.2018.2418. Aug 2018.


This study describes the cell phone radiation effect on the healthy and unhealthy female breast tissue to establish safety criteria and to detect the cancerous tissue. A computational modeling is performed at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz with a sphere shaped breast and cancerous tissue in different configurations. Thermal investigation is performed through the heat transfer equation to determine temperature and specific absorption rate elevation in the female breast tissue. First, healthy breast tissue is excited with an antenna of which distances to the breast is varying. Next, the distribution of temperature and specific absorption rate are estimated on the different radius of cancerous breast tissue which is located at the center and at the bottom of the breast, respectively. The simulated temperature and the specific absorption rate values imply that the values are ascending with the size of the tumor whereas descending as the source is positioned further.


Personal Exposure to RF EMF among Australian Adults

Zeleke BM, Brzozek C, Bhatt CR, Abramson MJ, Freudenstein F, Wiedemann P, Geza Benke G. Personal Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields among Australian Adults. Published Oct 12, 2018 Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2234;

(This article belongs to the Special Issue
Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields in Biology and Medicine: From Mechanisms to Biomedical Applications)

The measurement of personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) is important for epidemiological studies. RF-EMF exposure can be measured using personal exposimeters that register RF-EMFs over a wide range of frequency bands. This study aimed to measure and describe personal RF-EMF exposure levels from a wide range of frequency bands. Measurements were recorded from 63 participants over an average of 27.4 (±4.5) hours. RF-EMF exposure levels were computed for each frequency band, as well as from downlink (RF from mobile phone base station), uplink (RF from mobile phone handsets), broadcast, and Wi-Fi. Participants had a mean (±SD) age of 36.9 ± 12.5 years; 66.7% were women; and almost all (98.2%) from urban areas. A Wi-Fi router at home was reported by 61 participants (96.8%), with 38 (61.2%) having a Wi-Fi enabled smart TV. Overall, 26 (41.3%) participants had noticed the existence of a mobile phone base station in their neighborhood. On average, participants estimated the distance between the base station and their usual residence to be about 500 m. The median personal RF-EMF exposure was 208 mV/m. Downlink contributed 40.4% of the total RF-EMF exposure, followed by broadcast (22.4%), uplink (17.3%), and Wi-Fi (15.9%). RF-EMF exposure levels on weekdays were higher than weekends (p < 0.05). Downlink and broadcast are the main contributors to total RF-EMF personal exposure. Personal RF-EMF exposure levels vary according to day of the week and time of day.


Estimation of TETRA radio use in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study of the British police forces

Vergnaud AC, Aresu M, Kongsgård HW, McRobie D, Singh D, Spear J, Heard A, Gao H, Carpenter JR, Elliott P. Estimation of TETRA radio use in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study of the British police forces. Environ Res. 2018 Nov;167:169-174. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.07.015.


BACKGROUND: The Airwave Health Monitoring Study aims to investigate the possible long-term health effects of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) use among the police forces in Great Britain. Here, we investigate whether objective data from the network operator could be used to correct for misreporting in self-reported data and expand the radio usage availability in our cohort.

METHODS: We estimated average monthly usage of personal radio in the 12 months prior to enrolment from a missing value imputation model and evaluated its performance against objective and self-reported data. Factors associated with TETRA radio usage variables were investigated using Chi-square tests and analysis of variance.

RESULTS: The imputed data were better correlated with objective than self-reported usage (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.72 vs. 0. 52 and kappa 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.55, 0.56] vs. 0.46 [0.45, 0.47]), although the imputation model tended to under-estimate use for higher users. Participants with higher personal radio usage were more likely to be younger, men vs. women and officer vs. staff. The median average monthly usage level for the entire cohort was estimated to be 29.3
min (95% CI: [7.2, 66.6]).

CONCLUSION: The availability of objective personal radio records for a large proportion of users allowed us to develop a robust imputation model and hence obtain personal radio usage estimates for ~50,000 participants. This substantially reduced exposure misclassification compared to using self-reported data and will allow us to carry out analyses of TETRA usage for the entire cohort in future work.


Nonparticipation selection bias in the MOBI-Kids Study

Turner MC, Gracia-Lavedan E, Momoli F, Langer CE, Castaño-Vinyals G, Kundi M, Maule M, Merletti F, Sadetzki S, Vermeulen R, Albert A, Alguacil J, Aragones N, Badia F, Bruchim R, Carretero G, Kojimahara N, Lacour B, Morales-Suarez-Varela M, Radon K, Remen T, Weinmann T, Yamaguchi N, Cardis E. Nonparticipation selection bias in the MOBI-Kids Study. Epidemiology. Oct 1, 2018. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000932.


BACKGROUND: MOBI-Kids is a 14-country case-control study designed to investigate the potential effects of electromagnetic field exposure from mobile telecommunications devices on brain tumor risk in children and young adults conducted from 2010-2016. This work describes differences in cellular telephone use and personal characteristics among interviewed participants and refusers responding to a brief non-respondent questionnaire. It also assesses the potential impact of non-participation Drafts selection bias on study findings.
METHODS: We compared non-respondent questionnaires completed by 77 case and 498 control refusers with responses from 683 interviewed cases and 1,501 controls (suspected appendicitis patients) in six countries (France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, and Spain). We derived selection bias factors and estimated inverse probability of selection weights for use in analysis of MOBI-Kids data.
RESULTS: The prevalence of ever regular use was somewhat higher among interviewed participants than non-respondent questionnaire respondents aged 10-14 years (68% vs 62% controls, 63% vs 48% cases); in those 20-24 years, the prevalence was ≥ 97%. Interviewed controls and cases in the 15-19- and 20-24-year age groups were more likely to have a time since start of use of 5+ years. Selection bias factors generally indicated a small underestimation in cellular telephone odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 0.96-0.97 for ever regular use and 0.92-0.94 for time since start of use (5+ years), but varied in alternative hypothetical scenarios considered.
CONCLUSIONS: Although limited by small numbers of non-respondent questionnaire respondents, findings generally indicated a small underestimation in cellular telephone ORs due to selective non-participation.


Letter to the Editor concerning the paper “A novel database of bio-effects from non-ionizing radiation”

Drießen S, Dechent D, Graefrath D, Petri A-K, Bodewein L, Emonds T, Kraus T. Letter to the Editor concerning the paper “A novel database of bio-effects from non-ionizing radiation." Reviews on Environmental Health. Oct 11, 2018.


Over the past decade my colleagues and I have provided the EMF-Portal, a database on non-ionizing electromagnetic fields, launched by RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Today, the database of the EMF-Portal consists of more than 27,000 scientific publications, and the number is growing every day. The World Health Organization has also honored our EMF platform for many years and recommends it as a reference database.

Over the last 10 years, the EMF-Portal was mainly funded by German institutions, in spite of the fact that about 80% of our users are from other countries. However, because the debate in Germany about electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency area has greatly decreased, we no longer have the same financial resources at our disposal as in previous years. As a result, we had to stop reviewing and uploading new articles about radiofrequency and mobile communications. Papers on biological effects caused by extremely low frequency fields (<10 MHz) have never been affected by this decision and have been continuously imported into the EMF-Portal. All this information is available on our homepage.
In the meantime, thanks to the financial support of our valuable users, we were able once again, to import articles from the radiofrequency range into the EMF-Portal (up to April 30, 2018). We hope to find a solution that allows for this service to continue past this date.

In addition, we would like to make a comment about the “effect/no effect” feature in the ORSAA database presented by the authors. According to Table 2 in their article, every study is indicated as an “effect study” if an observed change of status occurred in one or more parameters examined. Thus, as an example, the study by Sommer et al. (2) on lymphoma development is counted as an “effect study”, because the body weight of the investigated animals increased, although survival rate and lymphoma incidence did not differ between exposed mice and mice in the control group.

In our opinion, such a global categorization biases studies towards an “effect study” classification although the main outcome was “no effect”. Results of this analysis, as presented in their article, where 3 times more biological “Effect” than “No Effect” papers have been identified, might rather indicate this strong bias. For us, this is a real shortcoming in a self-declared non-biased database. To prevent such a bias and to promote a critical and differentiated discussion, we have decided not to offer such a feature in the EMF-Portal.


Probing Origins of 1,800 MHz RF EMR Induced Damage in Mouse Immortalized Germ Cells and Spermatozoa in vitro

Houston BJ, Nixon B, King BV, Aitken RJ, De Iuliis GN. Probing the origins of 1,800 MHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation induced damage in mouse immortalized germ cells and spermatozoa in vitro. Front. Public Health. 2018 Sep 21.

As the use of mobile phone devices is now highly prevalent, many studies have sought to evaluate the effects of the radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on both human health and biology. While several such studies have shown RF-EMR is capable of inducing cellular stress, the physicobiological origin of this stress remains largely unresolved. To explore the effect of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, we exposed cultured mouse spermatogonial GC1 and spermatocyte GC2 cell lines, as well as cauda epididymal spermatozoa to a waveguide generating continuous wave RF-EMR (1.8 GHz, 0.15 and 1.5 W/kg). This study demonstrated that a 4 h exposure is capable of inducing the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in populations of GC1 (7 vs. 18%; p < 0.001) and GC2 cells (11.5 vs. 16 %; p < 0.01), identifying Complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) as the potential source of electrons producing ROS. Assessing the generation of ROS in the presence of an antioxidant, penicillamine, as well as measuring lipid peroxidation via 4-hydroxynonenal levels, indicated that the elevated incidence of ROS generation observed under our exposure conditions did not necessarily induce an overt cellular oxidative stress response. However, exposure to RF-EMR at 0.15 W/kg for 3 h did induce significant DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa (that was no longer significant after 4 h), assessed by the alkaline comet assay (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this fragmentation was accompanied by an induction of oxidative DNA damage in the form of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, which was significant (p < 0.05) after spermatozoa were exposed to RF-EMR for 4 h. At this exposure time point, a decline in sperm motility (p < 0.05) was also observed. This study contributes new evidence toward elucidating a mechanism to account for the effects of RF-EMR on biological systems, proposing Complex III of the mitochondrial ETC as the key target of this radiation.


The effect of 2.45 GHz non-ionizing radiation on the structure and ultrastructure of the testis in juvenile rats

Šimaiová V, Almášiová V, Holovská K, Kisková T, Horváthová F, Ševčíková Z, Tóth Š, Raček A, Račeková E, Beňová K, Dvořák P, Cigánková V. The effect of 2.45 GHz non-ionizing radiation on the structure and ultrastructure of the testis in juvenile rats. Histol Histopathol. 2018 Sep 27:18049. doi: 10.14670/HH-18-049.


BACKGROUND: Nowadays, mobile devices that emit non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) are predominantly used by juveniles and pubescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of whole body pulsed EMR on the juvenile Wistar albino rat testis at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm².

METHODS: The investigated animals (n=24) were divided into two control and two EMR groups (5 and 6 week old rats; 6 rats per group). Both EMR groups were irradiated continually for 3 weeks (2h/day) from postnatal days 14 and 21, respectively.

RESULTS: EMR caused an irregular shape of seminiferous tubules with desquamated immature germ cells in the lumen, a large number of empty spaces along the seminiferous epithelium and dilated and congested blood vessels in the interstitial tissue of the testis. The cytoplasm of Sertoli cells showed strong vacuolization and damaged organelles, with the cytoplasm full of different heterophagic and lipid vacuoles or the cytoplasm of spermatocytes with swollen mitochondria in both irradiated groups. A significant increase in the total tubular area of seminiferous tubules was observed in both EMR groups compared with controls (P<0.001). A significant increase in the TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei (P<0.01) was accompanied by a significant rise in both Cu-Zn-SOD (P<0.01) and Mn-SOD (P<0.001) positive cells in the 6 week old experimental rats compared to control animals.

CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed a harmful effect of non-ionizing radiation on the structure and ultrastructure of the juvenile rat testis.

All experimental rats were exposed to whole-body pulsed non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/ cm² in a purpose-designed chamber (Fig. 1). The uniformity of the electromagnetic field was monitored with a spectral analyser.


The effect of 20-week continuous 60Hz magnetic field exposure on testicular function in Sprague-Dawley rats

Park S, Kim YJ, Kim MS, Kim HS, Kim MW, Kang YM, Lee SK, Choi KC, Kim N, Gimm YM, Kim YW. The effect of 20-week continuous 60
Hz magnetic field exposure on testicular function in Sprague-Dawley rats. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Oct 5. doi: 10.1002/bem.22146.


Accumulating evidence does not yet confirm the effect of power line frequency magnetic field (MF) on human health and fertility. We recently reported that, at continuous 60
Hz MF exposure in mice, the dose given as magnetic flux density (tesla; T) and duration of exposure was related to induce testicular germ cell apoptosis. We aimed to characterize the effect of a 20-week continuous exposure to 60Hz MF on the motility, morphology, and number of sperm as well as the apoptosis of testicular germ cell in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 20 weeks to 60Hz MF of 2, 20, or 200μT for 24h/day with rats exposed to sham conditions, serving as the control. The exposure to 60Hz MF of 2 and 20μT had no effects on testicular in this study. The exposure to 60Hz MF of 200μT for 20 weeks induced increases of the apoptotic cells (P<0.001) in germ cells and decreases of sperm numbers (P<0.05). However, the MF did not significantly affect the body or testis mass, seminiferous tubule diameter, or the motility or morphology of sperm. This study concluded that exposure to 60Hz MF of 200μT can increase testicular germ cell apoptosis, especially spermatogonia, and reduce sperm count. Also compared to previous mice studies, rats are less sensitive than mice to exposure to 60Hz MF.


Effects of exposure to ELF-EMF on spatial & passive avoidance learning & memory, anxiety-like behavior & oxidative stress in male rats

Asaad Karimi S, Salehi I, Shykhi T, Zare S, Komaki A. Effects of exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on spatial and passive avoidance learning and memory, anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in male rats. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Oct 2. pii: S0166-4328(18)31074-X. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.10.002.


There are many controversies about the safety of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on body health and cognitive performance. In the present study, we explored the effects of ELF-EMF on oxidative stress and behaviors of rats. Seventy-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into following groups, control, sham exposure group and the ELF-EMF exposure groups (1 µT, 100 µT, 500 µT, and 2000 µT). After 60 days exposure (2
h/day), elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM) and Passive avoidance learning (PAL) tasks were used to evaluate the anxiety-like behavior, spatial and passive learning and memory, respectively. Some days after behavioral examination, oxidative stress markers were measured. During spatial reference memory test, animals in ELF-EMF exposure groups (100, and 2000 µT) spent more time in target zone (F (4, 55)=5.699, P=0.0007, One-way ANOVA). In PAL retention, the step through latency in the retention test (STLr) in ELF-EMF exposure groups (100,500, and 2000 µT) was significantly greater than control group (F (4, 55)=29.13, P<0.0001, One-way ANOVA). In EPM test, ELF-EMF exposure (500 and 2000 µT) decreased the percentage of the entries into the open arms (F (4, 55)=26.31, P<0.0001, one-way ANOVA). ELF-EMF exposure (100, and 500 µT) increased Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (F (4, 25)=79.83, P<0.0001, One-way ANOVA). Our results may allow the conclusion that exposure to ELF-EMFs can improve memory retention (but not acquisition) in the adult male rats. Although exposure to ELF-EMFs could be a factor in the development of anxious state or oxidative stress.


Low-intensity EMFs induce human cryptochrome to modulate intracellular reactive oxygen species

Sherrard RM, Morellini N, Jourdan N, El-Esawi M, Arthaut LD, Niessner C, Rouyer F, Klarsfeld A, Doulazmi M, Witczak J, d'Harlingue A, Mariani J, Mclure I, Martino CF, Ahmad M. Low-intensity electromagnetic fields induce human cryptochrome to modulate intracellular reactive oxygen species. PLoS Biol. 2018 Oct 2;16(10):e2006229. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2006229.


Exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs), which increasingly pollute our environment, have consequences for human health about which there is continuing ignorance and debate. Whereas there is considerable ongoing concern about their harmful effects, magnetic fields are at the same time being applied as therapeutic tools in regenerative medicine, oncology, orthopedics, and neurology. This paradox cannot be resolved until the cellular mechanisms underlying such effects are identified. Here, we show by biochemical and imaging experiments that exposure of mammalian cells to weak pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) stimulates rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a potentially toxic metabolite with multiple roles in stress response and cellular ageing. Following exposure to PEMF, cell growth is slowed, and ROS-responsive genes are induced. These effects require the presence of cryptochrome, a putative magnetosensor that synthesizes ROS. We conclude that modulation of intracellular ROS via cryptochromes represents a general response to weak EMFs, which can account for either therapeutic or pathological effects depending on exposure. Clinically, our findings provide a rationale to optimize low field magnetic stimulation for novel therapeutic applications while warning against the possibility of harmful synergistic effects with environmental agents that further increase intracellular ROS.
Author summary

Repetitive low-intensity magnetic stimulation has been used in the treatment of disease for over 50 years. Associated benefits have included alleviation of depression, memory loss, and symptoms of Parkinson disease, as well as accelerated bone and wound healing and the treatment of certain cancers, independently of surgery or drugs. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that repetitive magnetic field exposure in human cells stimulates production of biological stress response chemicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). At moderate doses, we find that reactive oxygen actively stimulates cellular repair and stress response pathways, which might account for the observed therapeutic effects to repetitive magnetic stimulation. We further show that this response requires the function of a well-characterized, evolutionarily conserved flavoprotein receptor known as cryptochrome, which has been implicated in magnetic sensing in organisms ranging from plants to flies, including migratory birds. We conclude that exposure to weak magnetic fields induces the production of ROS in human cells and that this process requires the presence of the cryptochrome receptor.

Editor’s Note:

This Short Report received positive reviews by experts. The Academic Editor has written an accompanying Primer that we are publishing alongside this article ( The linked Primer presents a complementary expert perspective; it discusses considerations about the status of knowledge and experimental systems in the field that encourage cautious interpretation.

Open access paper:


Cryptochrome: The magnetosensor with a sinister side?

Landler L, Keays DA (2018) Cryptochrome: The magnetosensor with a sinister side? PLoS Biol 16(10): e3000018.

No abstract.


Coupling of oxidative stress responses to tricarboxylic acid cycle & prostaglandin E2 alterations in Caenorhabditis elegans under ELF-EMF

Sun Y, Shi Z, Wang Y, Tang C, Liao Y, Yang C, Cai P. Coupling of oxidative stress responses to tricarboxylic acid cycle and prostaglandin E2 alterations in Caenorhabditis elegans under extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field. Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Oct 11:1-8. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2019.1524943.


PURPOSE:  With all-pervasive presence of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) in modern life, ELF-EMF has been regarded as an essential factor which may induce changes in many organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the physiological responses of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to 50
Hz, 3mT ELF-EMF exposure.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Worms were exposed to ELF-EMF from the egg stage until reaching the fourth larva (L4) stage. After exposure, expressions of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes were examined by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. Two lipid metabolites were detected by GC-MS. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was detected by dichlorofluorescein staining and worm antioxidant system was investigated by enzymatic activity analysis, including detection of the superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT) activity and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC).

RESULTS:  The TCA cycle enzyme, fumarase was found with decreased expression under ELF-EMF exposure. And arachidonic acid (ArA) and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) showed elevated concentrations, with increased expression of prostaglandin E2 synthase (PGES-2) in ELF-EMF exposed worms. Significant elevation of ROS level was identified accompanied with the significant depression of T-AOC in response to ELF-EMF.

CONCLUSIONS:  Our results suggested that exposure to 50
Hz, 3mT ELF-EMF in C. elegans can elicit disruptions of the TCA cycle metabolism and PGE2 formation, coupling ELF-EMF-induced oxidative stress responses. Our study probably will attract increasing attentions to the controllable application of ELF-EMF associated with health and disease.


Effects of weak static magnetic fields on the gene expression of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana

Dhiman SK, Galland P. Effects of weak static magnetic fields on the gene expression of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. J Plant Physiol. 2018 Sep 3;231:9-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2018.08.016.


Magnetic-field reception of animals and plants is currently discussed in the framework of a cryptochrome-based radical-pair mechanism. Efforts to unravel magnetoreception in plants suffered historically from several shortcomings, most prominently, the conspicuous absence of detailed stimulus-response relationships. To determine the sensitivity of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana to weak static magnetic fields we generated stimulus-response curves between near zero and 188 μT for the transcript levels of the genes rbcl, cab4, pal4 and ef1. The moderate magneto-responsiveness of dark-grown seedlings was greatly enhanced under blue light, and for rbcl and pal4 also under red light. The stimulus-response curves obtained under blue light of constant photon-fluence rate displayed multiple maxima and thus a pattern fundamentally different from that prevalent in plant and animal physiology. A double mutant lacking cryptochromes 1 and 2 displayed altered stimulus-response curves without losing, however, magneto-responsiveness completely. A reversal of the magnetic field direction substantially affected the gene expression and the quantity of CAB-protein (chlorophyll a,b-binding protein). The majority of our results are at variance with the notion of cryptochromes acting as the only magnetic-field sensors. They do not, however, exclude the possibility that cryptochromes participate in the magnetic field reception of Arabidopsis. The findings have the unexpected implication that cryptochrome- and phytochrome-mediated plant responses can be modulated by the strength and the orientation of the local geomagnetic field.


Some recommendations for experimental work in magnetobiology, revisited

Makinistian L, Muehsam DJ, Bersani F, Belyaev I. Some recommendations for experimental work in magnetobiology, revisited. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Oct 10. doi: 10.1002/bem.22144.

No abstract.


Weak power frequency magnetic fields induce microtubule cytoskeleton reorganization depending on epidermal growth factor receptor & calcium signaling

Wu X, Du J, Song W, Cao M, Chen S, Xia R. Weak power frequency magnetic fields induce microtubule cytoskeleton reorganization depending on the epidermal growth factor receptor and the calcium related signaling. PLoS One. 2018 Oct 12;13(10):e0205569. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205569.


We have shown previously that a weak 50 Hz magnetic field (MF) invoked the actin-cytoskeleton, and provoked cell migration at the cell 
level, probably through activating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) related motility pathways. However, whether the MF also affects the microtubule (MT)-cytoskeleton is still unknown. In this article, we continuously investigate the effects of 0.4 mT, 50 Hz MF on the MT, and try to understand if the MT effects are also associated with the EGFR pathway as the actin-cytoskeleton effects were. Our results strongly suggest that the MF effects are similar to that of EGF stimulation on the MT cytoskeleton, showing that 1) the MF suppressed MT in multiple cell types including PC12 and FL; 2) the MF promoted the clustering of the EGFR at the protein and the cell levels, in a similar way of that EGF did but with higher sensitivity to PD153035 inhibition, and triggered EGFR phosphorylation on sites of Y1173 and S1046/1047; 3) these effects were strongly depending on the Ca2+ signaling through the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) phosphorylation and elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ level. Strong associations were observed between EGFR and the Ca2+ signaling to regulate the MF-induced-reorganization of the cytoskeleton network, via phosphorylating the signaling proteins in the two pathways, including a significant MT protein, tau. These results strongly suggest that the MF activates the overall cytoskeleton in the absence of EGF, through a mechanism related to both the EGFR and the LTCC/Ca2+ signaling pathways.