Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August, 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below. The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 500 scientific papers.  This 394-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:

Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.


Latest Additions

Prenatal exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field and its impact on fetal growth

Ren Y, Chen J, Miao M, Li DK, Liang H, Wang Z, Yang F, Sun X, Yuan W. Prenatal exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field and its impact on fetal growth. Environ Health. 2019 Jan 11;18(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s12940-019-0447-9. 

Abstract


OBJECTIVE:  Studies on the effect of prenatal exposure to magnetic field (MF) on fetal growth is inconclusive and subject to some methodological limitations, particularly in measurement of MF exposure. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal extremely low frequency MF (ELF-MF) exposure during pregnancy and fetal growth in offspring.

METHODS:  A total of 128 pregnant women were recruited at their 3rd trimester and asked to wear an EMDEX Lite meter for 24 h to capture daily ELF-MF exposure. Time-weighted average (TWA), P50, and P75 of personal 24-h measurements were used to evaluate prenatal ELF-MF exposure. The medians of these measurements were used as cut-off points of high and low prenatal ELF-MF exposure. Fetal growth was measured by infant's birth weight, skinfold thickness of triceps, abdomen, and back, and circumference of head, upper arm, and abdomen. These measures were conducted within 24-h after birth. Generalized Linear Model was used to examine the association between maternal ELF-MF level and fetal growth indices after potential confounders were adjusted for.

RESULTS:  Compared with girls with lower prenatal ELF-MF exposure, girls with higher exposure had a lower birth weight, thinner skinfold of triceps, abdomen and back, and smaller circumference of head, upper arm and abdomen in all three ELF-MF matrices. The differences were statistically significant for birth weight and most other growth measurements (P < 0.05). These measures had no significant difference between higher and lower prenatal ELF-MF exposure in boys except back skinfold thickness.

CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to higher ELF-MF levels was associated with decreased fetal growth in girls, but not in boys.

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The role of toxic stimuli combinations in determining safe exposure limits

Kostoff RN, Goumenou M, Tsatsakis A. The role of toxic stimuli combinations in determining safe exposure limits. Toxicol Rep. 2018 Nov 7;5:1169-1172. doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.10.010.

Abstract

This editorial addresses the effects of toxic stimuli combinations on determination of safe Exposure Limits. Examination of thousands of Medline abstracts showed typically that combinations of toxic stimuli can produce damage even when the exposure level of each member of the combination is less than the lowest exposure level of the member that produced damage when tested in isolation. The synergy of the toxic stimuli in combination means less of each component stimulus is required to cause damage compared to exposure levels when tested in isolation. This Editorial concludes there is no reason to believe today that the Exposure Limits on potentially toxic stimuli that have been set by the regulatory agencies are fully protective against serious adverse health effects in all real life exposure scenarios. The conclusion is applicable to essentially all potential contributing factors to disease amenable to Exposure Limits, including not only chemicals but other types of exposures such as radiofrequency radiation (RFR).


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Public health and the radio frequency radiation emitted by cellphone technology, smart meters and WiFi


Pockett S. Public health and the radio frequency radiation emitted by cellphone technology, smart meters and WiFi. New Zealand Medical Journal. 131(1487):97-107. Dec 14, 2018.

Abstract

This paper argues that the prevailing official narrative in New Zealand concerning the relationship between public health and the radio frequency emissions (RF) from cellphone technology, WiFi and electricity smart meters is scientifically and ethically flawed. The main regulatory document in the area, NZS2772.1:1999, is 20 years out of date and ignores existing laboratory evidence disproving its core assumption that the only biological effect of non-ionising radiation is tissue heating. This and further laboratory evidence for harmful effects of RF continues to be ignored, nominally on the contradictory grounds that (a) cellphone manufacturers say their products now emit less RF than early models, so early lab studies exposed tissue to RF levels higher than those now relevant (b) given the lack of actual data on population exposures either then or now, all laboratory evidence is unconvincing anyway. The offical narrative further opines that since there exist both laboratory and epidemiological studies concluding that RF is not biologically harmful, as well as studies concluding that RF is harmful, the appropriate response is to count up the number on each side, declare the "weight of evidence" to be such that "causation is not proven" and, pending unspecified further studies, continue exposing to unmonitored levels of RF the entire population of the country, none of whom has given informed consent to participate in the experiment. This approach is obviously unethical. It is also unacceptable scientifically. First, the algebraic model is flawed: studies that do find a harmful effect of RF are not invalidated by differently constructed studies that fail to find an effect. Secondly, while causation is relatively easy to study in the laboratory, it is difficult if not impossible to prove epidemiologically, given that (1) the very narrative under discussion has ensured that there is now no unexposed control group and (2) interpretation of timeline correlation studies is hampered by changes in the way new cancer registrations have been recorded over the years and the perennial problem of multiple possible causal factors. The present paper concludes that a precautionary approach is justified, and ends with a number of specific suggestions on how to start implementing such an approach.

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Importance of Exposure Duration and Metrics on Correlation between RF Energy Absorption and Temperature Increase in a Human Model

Cavagnaro M, Lin J. Importance of exposure duration and metrics on correlation between RF energy absorption and temperature increase in a human model. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. Dec 12, 2018. DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2018.2886475 

Abstract

Objective: This study investigated the influence of absorption metrics and averaging schemes on correlation between RF/microwave energy and induced temperature elevation for plane wave exposures. 

Methods: A voxel-based, anatomically realistic model of the human body was considered. Correlation of electromagnetic fields and temperature increases were evaluated at several frequencies. Both Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and Volume Absorption Rate (VAR) were considered. 

Results: The best correlation with temperature increase occurs for exposure durations between 1 and 2 min both for SAR and VAR for most of the 700- to 2700-MHz frequencies considered. In this case, a 1-g mass or 1-cm3 volume appears to be optimal. However, for VAR, as frequency increases to above 900 MHz, a better correlation is achieved at slightly increased exposure times and volumes. For longer exposures, the maximum correlation coefficient is reduced, and the correlation favors larger averaging mass or volume. At steady-state (30 min), correlation of temperature increase with SAR is maximum for a mass of 9 g for all frequencies considered, whereas the volume for VAR maximum correlation is 15 cm3 for higher frequencies and 20 cm3 for lower frequencies. 

Conclusions: In general, SAR provides a better correlation with temperature compared to VAR for short exposures, while VAR renders better correlations for higher frequencies and longer exposures. Significance: The correlation between electromagnetic absorption and temperature increases has implications in guidelines for limiting human exposure to electromagnetic fields and in biomedical applications such as imaging, sensing, and hyperthermia.


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Characterizing radiated power in near field of a phone operating in 3G+ and 4G+ communication standards

Sârbu A, Bechet A, Bălan T, Robu D, Bechet P, Simona Miclăuș S.Using CCDF statistics for characterizing the radiated power dynamics in the near field of a mobile phone operating in 3G+ and 4G+ communication standards. Measurement. 134:874-887. February, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2018.12.018.

Highlights

• Near field radiated power density measured by both E and H field probes.
• Real life operating situations considered for correct exposure assessment.
• Highest exposure expected at using 4G+ as compared to 3G+.
• CCDF measurements provide realistic representation of user exposure profiles.

Abstract

In this article, an original method to assess the radiated power density of the near field in the immediate vicinity of mobile terminals using both electric and magnetic field strengths determination is proposed. The complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) is used for the first time to assess exposure. A demonstration of the CCDF’s capabilities for providing a realistic representation of different wireless communication usage profiles is provided. Following the methodology description, an experimental setup was designed and a measurement campaign was conducted on a mobile terminal. The exposure assessment was performed for real life operating situations by selecting seven common application services used by mobile subscribers.

For 4G+ communication technologies the near field power density is the highest during file upload, followed by VoIP, video call, file download, streaming services and browsing. For 3G+ networks the higher to lower power density values were associated with: file upload, file download, streaming, VoIP, video call and browsing services. The total near field radiated power density was found to be on average 34 times higher for the tested applications running in the 4G+ as compared to the 3G+, with values ranging from 180 times - during file upload, down to 1.2 times - during video streaming. Significantly higher radiated power densities were emitted while using VoIP and video call on 4G+ network as compared to 3G+ network. Present results strongly suggest that higher exposure is expected for the same application running under 4G+ rather than under 3G+.

By applying an original procedure, it has been experimentally highlighted that different generations of communication technologies will lead to different exposure shapes in amplitude and in time, suggesting a future need for introducing the dose rate quantification.


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SAR and temperature elevation in human head due to overexposure to mobile phone radiation with different usage patterns

Bhargava D, Leeprechanon N, Rattanadecho P, Wessapan T.  Specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in the human head due to overexposure to mobile phone radiation with different usage patterns.  International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 130:1178-1188. March, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.11.031

Highlights
• The distribution parameters in tissues are significantly influenced by the considered cases.
• The temperature increase in the head tissues are lower to cause any thermal damage.
• The resultant SAR values in head models for some cases exceed the ICNIRP 2 W/kg exposure limit.

Abstract

Accidental overexposure to non-standard mobile phone radiation can occur in many situations. The overpower limit of mobile phone radiation interacts with the human body which could result in an adverse effect on human health. It is envisaged that the severity of the physiological effect can take place with small temperature increase in the delicate organs or tissues such as eyes, brain, skin, etc. However, the resulting thermo-physiological response of the body tissues to overpower limit of mobile phone radiation is still not well implemented. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of overexposure of mobile phone radiation on the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature increase in three-dimensional heterogeneous human head models. The study focuses attention on the differences in the electromagnetic (EM) absorption characteristics with higher power level among different usage pattern. The effect of three different usage patterns - voice calling, video calling, and texting- on SAR and temperature distributions in different types of head tissues is systematically investigated. This paper also investigates the effects of different user ages, radiated powers, and gap distances between mobile phone and human heads, on SAR and temperature distributions. Results obtained from this analysis considering the safety guidelines show a high impact of mobile phone radiation in the voice calling position. Hence, comparisons of the absorption of mobile phone radiation are calculated between an adult and a 7-year-old child head model, for the voice calling position at different gap distances. In addition, the results indicate that child head always has a higher absorption rate of mobile phone radiation than the adult head. The rate of absorption in tissue increases as the distance between mobile phone and head decreases and the radiated power increases, depending on their dielectric and thermal properties. The obtained results can be helpful in determining exposure limits for the power output of the mobile phone, and the distance a user should maintain from the mobile phone in thermo-physiological aspects.

Conclusion

The paper investigates the increase in SAR and temperature in anatomical human head models of child and adult in overexposure situations. The comparison of the three different mobile phone usage patterns is studied when the head models are exposed to mobile phone radiation at 900 MHz frequency and 5 W radiating power. The study also includes a comparison of the distribution parameters in child and adult heads, effect of different gap distances and radiated powers. The results show that among all the cases, the SAR and temperature increase are found to be highest in the voice calling case for 0.5 cm gap distance and 5 W radiated power. Also, it is evident from the results that the SAR and temperature increase in the tissues do not directly correspond to each other but are related to the physical parameters of biological tissues such as thermal conductivity, dielectric properties, blood perfusion rate, etc. This shows the importance of performing transient thermal analysis along with the dosimetry analysis to clearly understand the interaction between mobile phone radiation and human tissues. Comparing to the ICNIRP exposure limit, the resulting SAR values in skin layer, in voice and video calling cases, are found to exceed the exposure limit. But, comparing the temperature increase in the brain, it does not approach the possible physiological damage.

This study shows the concern regarding the non-standard mobile phone devices which may be harmful to human health from excessive radiation power. Moreover, the obtained results from the study also show that the children are more exposed and have a greater possibility of a serious adverse effect than the adult when exposed to mobile phone radiation.


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Mobile phone users and its effect of hearing in terms of distortion product otoacoustic emission

Kumar G, Gupa N, Sinha NK. Mobile phone users and its effect of hearing in terms of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 7(52):5520-5523. Dec. 24, 2018. DOI:10.14260/jemds/2018/1222.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Cellular phones/ mobile phones are the new addiction in today’s society. They can do pretty much everything from making calls to controlling remotely located devices/cameras. Mobile phones, owing to their user-friendly interface and reasonable prices are being used by people from every socioeconomic section and almost all the age groups. Such a rampant use of these devices makes them potentially powerful tools. The convenience, that these devices offer, easily overlooks the cost our health has to pay because of their continuous and prolonged use. The main technology that these devices use nowadays is Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Mobile phones emit a pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic (EM) field that may have adverse effects. The disturbances of the mechanoelectrical transduction during cellular phone use, especially because there is a close proximity of the cellular phone to the cochlea resulting in a fairly high absorption rate of the incident electromagnetic field (EM).
Aim - To assess hearing loss in mobile phone users.

MATERIALS AND METHODS  This is a descriptive study conducted among mobile phone users in the Department of ENT at T.S. Misra Medical College and Hospital from January 2017 to June 2018 consisting of 190 healthy volunteers between the age of 21 and 50 years.

RESULTS  Mostly in Rt. handed mobile user had shown Refer/Fail OAE 21%, out of which, higher frequency 6 KHz is affected more in comparison of all four frequency of (2, 3, 4 & 6 KHz).

CONCLUSION  The study concludes that the use of mobile phones can cause damage to the Outer Hair Cells (OHCs) in the Cochlea especially in the basal turn which may impair hearing in long term use. Oto Acoustic Emissions from the cochlea can reliably detect this damage and thus has proven to be an excellent diagnostic tool.


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Post
normal science and the management of uncertainty in bioelectromagnetic controversies


Wood AW. Letter: Postnormal science and the management of uncertainty in bioelectromagnetic controversies. Bioelectromagnetics. January 7, 2019.

No abstract.


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Cell phone radiation changes corticotrophin hormone levels & histology of brain and adrenal glands in male rats

Shahabi S, Hassanzadeh Taji I, Hoseinnezhaddarzi M, Mousavi F, Shirchi S, Nazari A, Zarei H, Pourabdolhossein F. Exposure to cell phone radiofrequency changes corticotrophin hormone levels and histology of the brain and adrenal glands in male Wistar rat. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2018 Dec;21(12):1269-1274. doi: 10.22038/ijbms.2018.29567.7133. 

Abstract

Objectives: Nowadays, the electromagnetic field-emitting devices are used routinely in our lives. Controversial reports exist concerning the effects of mobile radiofrequency (RF) on different parts of the body, especially stress hormones. The main goal of the present work was to study the long-term effects of mobile RF900 MHz exposure with special focus on the adrenal gland pathophysiology and function.

Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to mobile RF 6 hr daily for 4-8 weeks. Intact and switched-off exposed animals were considered as controls. Plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were measured by the ELISA method. At the end of the experiment, a histological study was done on adrenal gland and brain tissues by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The thickness of the fasciculate layer of the adrenal gland, and its cell count and perimeter were measured using the Fiji software.

Results: Enhanced plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were found after prolonged exposure to mobile RF. The fasciculata layer of adrenal cortex eventually thickened following mobile RF radiation. While the number of cells in zona fasciculata remained constant, the cell size and perimeter increased during RF exposure. Finally, we found that vacuolization in brain tissue and the number and size of vacuoles considerably increased during two months of RF exposure.

Conclusion: Cell phone RF exposure induced significant hormonal and structural changes in adrenal gland and brain tissues. Therefore, the public should be aware and limit their exposure as much as possible.


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Role of Mitochondria in the Oxidative Stress Induced by EMF: Focus on Reproductive Systems

Santini SJ, Cordone V, Falone S, Mijit M, Tatone C, Amicarelli F, Di Emidio G. Role of mitochondria in the oxidative stress induced by electromagnetic fields: Focus on reproductive systems.  Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Nov 8;2018:5076271. doi: 10.1155/2018/5076271. 

Abstract

Modern technologies relying on wireless communication systems have brought increasing levels of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. This increased research interest in the effects of these radiations on human health. There is compelling evidence that EMFs affect cell physiology by altering redox-related processes. Considering the importance of redox milieu in the biological competence of oocyte and sperm, we reviewed the existing literature regarding the effects of EMFs on reproductive systems. Given the role of mitochondria as the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we focused on the hypothesis of a mitochondrial basis of EMF-induced reproductive toxicity. MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus database were examined for peer-reviewed original articles by searching for the following keywords: "extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs)," "radiofrequency (RF)," "microwaves," "Wi-Fi," "mobile phone," "oxidative stress," "mitochondria," "fertility," "sperm," "testis," "oocyte," "ovarian follicle," and "embryo." These keywords were combined with other search phrases relevant to the topic. Although we reported contradictory data due to lack of uniformity in the experimental designs, a growing body of evidence suggests that EMF exposure during spermatogenesis induces increased ROS production associated with decreased ROS scavenging activity. Numerous studies revealed the detrimental effects of EMFs from mobile phones, laptops, and other electric devices on sperm quality and provide evidence for extensive electron leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain as the main cause of EMF damage. In female reproductive systems, the contribution of oxidative stress to EMF-induced damages and the evidence of mitochondrial origin of ROS overproduction are reported, as well. In conclusion, mitochondria seem to play an important role as source of ROS in both male and female reproductive systems under EMF exposure. Future and more standardized studies are required for a better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying EMF potential challenge to our reproductive system in order to improve preventive strategies.


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Electric field distribution and SAR inside a human eye exposed to Virtual Reality glasses

Cvetkovic N, Krstic, D, Stankovic V,  Jovanovic D. Electric field distribution and SAR inside a human eye exposed to VR glasses. IET Microwaves Antennas & Propagation. 12(14):2234-2240.  DOI: 10.1049/iet-map.2018.5227. Nov 28, 2018

Abstract

The aim of this study is a numerical analysis of the electric field and the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution within a realistic 3D-human eye model exposed to electromagnetic (EM) wave of virtual reality (VR) glasses at the frequency of third generation, long-term evolution-4G, and the frequency of the latest generation of mobile networks - 5G. To obtain the values of the electric field and SAR, the numerical solution of equations of EM waves propagation has been used. A new realistic 3D-human head and human eye model has been created. The obtained results are shown for different biological tissues of the eye exposed to EM radiation from VR glasses at different frequencies. The maximum absorption of EM energy will be discussed for the following frequencies: 900MHz, 2.6GHz, and 28GHz. The maximum values of electric field strength in the human eye tissue at the frequencies 28GHz and 900MHz are 94.43 and 137.3V/m, respectively (higher than referent values), whereas for 2.6GHz amounts 8.62V/m (lower than referent limits). The obtained SAR peaks do not overcome prescribed safety values.


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A novel mobile phone antenna for effectively reducing specific absorption rate


He Y, Liang K, Li J, Abbasi QH. A novel mobile phone antenna for effectively reducing specific absorption rate. 12th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2018). 9-13 April 2018. Added to IEEE Xplore: 10 December 2018. DOI: 10.1049/cp.2018.1234. 

Abstract

In this paper, a novel mobile phone antenna that can effectively reduce the harm of electromagnetic radiation to the human body is proposed. An inverted F-shaped antenna (IFA) is designed to reduce specific absorption rate (SAR) and all the measurements are done in over the air (OTA) test system. Measured results show that the proposed mobile phone antenna has excellent electrical characteristics such as reflection coefficient (700–870 MHz and 1710–2450 MHz), radiation pattern, total radiation power (TRP >17.5 dBm), hot spot map and low SAR values (< 1.4 W/kg). Due to these advantages, the proposed antenna is used to reduce SAR in the future mobile phone.

Excerpts

With the significant development of the mobile communication system, mobile phones have become indispensable tools for human daily life. Meanwhile, the number of the mobile phone has increased with an unprecedented rate around the globe including China. Since the three operators fully started 4G business in 2014, more and more users began to pay attention to and select 4G mobile phones with the reduction of 4G fees in 2015. When we make phone calls, the antenna is close to the human’s face, and its microwave radiation directly affects the human’s head. It will have a negative effect on the human body when the microwave signal power absorbed by the body exceeds the limiting value [1], [2]. Since its damage to human health is long and chronic, many domestic and foreign companies and institutions at present are studying how to keep mobile phones at a suitable level for human radiation [3].

A novel mobile phone antenna with lower SAR values is presented in this paper. By changing the routing of antenna on a mobile phone, it can increase the new amplitude wave to disperse the current peak, so that a new band (LTE band 30) can be obtained. Measured results show that the proposed antenna is simple and effective with wide bandwidths (700-870 MHz and 1710-2450 MHz), stable TRP (17.5-19.4 dBm) and lower SAR values (0.4-1.38 W/kg). In addition, the proposed antenna has lots of advantages, including low cost, compact structure, good stability, as well as easiness for fabrication. The proposed antenna can be a new solution in reducing mobile phone SAR values for modern mobile communication systems.

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Mobile Phone Base Station Tower Settings Adjacent to School Buildings: Impact on Students' Cognitive Health.

Meo SA, Almahmoud M, Alsultan Q, Alotaibi N, Alnajashi I, Hajjar WM. Mobile phone base station tower settings adjacent to school buildings: Impact on students' cognitive health. Am J Mens Health. 2018 Dec 7:1557988318816914. doi: 10.1177/1557988318816914. 

Abstract


The use of mobile phones has remarkably increased and become a basic need of daily life. Increasing subscriptions of mobile phones boost the installation of mobile phone base station towers (MPBSTs) in crowded commercial and residential areas including near school buildings. This study investigated the impact of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) radiation generated by MPBSTs on cognitive functions. Two hundred and seventeen volunteer male students aged between 13 and 16 registered from two different intermediate schools: 124 students were from School 1 and 93 students were from School 2. The MPBSTs were located within 200 m from the school buildings. In School 1, RF-EMF was 2.010 µW/cm2 with a frequency of 925 MHz and in School 2, RF-EMF was 10.021 µW/cm2 with a frequency of 925 MHz. Students were exposed to EMFR for 6 hr a day, 5 days a week for a total period of 2 years. The Narda Safety Test Solution device SRM-3006 was used to measure RF-EMF in both schools, and cognitive functions tasks were measured by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Significant impairment in Motor Screening Task (MOT; p = .03) and Spatial Working Memory (SWM) task (p = .04) was identified among the group of students who were exposed to high RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs. High exposure to RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs was associated with delayed fine and gross motor skills, spatial working memory, and attention in school adolescents compared to students who were exposed to low RF-EMF.



Note: In this cross-sectional study, students in two schools that are exposed to different amounts of microwave radiation from nearby cell towers were compared at one time. In my opinion, the authors did not adequately control for confounding that may explain the observed differences between the two groups of students. Also, the statistical tests are problematic because the students within each school are not independent of each other which the tests assume. Hence, I would not cite this study as evidence of cell tower effects.

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Oxidative and mutagenic effects of low intensity GSM 1800 MHz microwave radiation


Yakymenko I, Burlaka A, Tsybulin I, BrieievaI, Buchynska L, Tsehmistrenko I, Chekhun F. Oxidative and mutagenic effects of low intensity GSM 1800 MHz microwave radiation. Exp Oncol. 2018 Dec;40(4):282-287.

Abstract

AIM: Despite a significant number of epidemiological studies on potential carcinogenicity of microwave radiation (MWR) from wireless devices and a bulk of experimental studies on oxidative and mutagenic effects of low intensity MWR, the discussion on potential carcinogenicity of low intensity MWR is going on. This study aims to assess oxidative and mutagenic effects of low intensity MWR from a typical commercial model of a modern smartphone.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model of developing quail embryos has been used for the assessment of oxidative and mutagenic effects of Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) 1800 MHz MWR from a commercial model of smartphone. The embryos were exposed in ovo to 0.32 µW/cm2, discontinuously - 48 s - On, 12 s - Off, during 5 days before and 14 days through the incubation period.

RESULTS: The exposure of quail embryos before and during the incubation period to low intensity GSM 1800 MHz has resulted in expressive statistically significant oxidative effects in embryonic cells, including a 2-fold increase in superoxide generation rate and 85% increase in nitrogen oxide generation rate, damages of DNA integrity and oxidative damages of DNA (up to twice increased levels of 8-oxo-dG in cells of 1-day old chicks from the exposed embryos). Finally, the exposure resulted in a significant, almost twice, increase of embryo mortality.

CONCLUSION: The exposure of model biological system to low intensity GSM 1800 MHz MWR resulted in significant oxidative and mutagenic effects in exposed cells, and thus should be recognized as a significant risk factor for living cells.


Excerpt

These findings are in line with our previous research data [8, 14, 24, 25] and data from the other laboratories over the world on expressive oxidative and mutagenic effects of low intensity MWR exposure [18, 26–28]. A huge pathogenic potential of oxidative stress in the cell, including its role in carcinogenesis [29, 30], allowed us to hypothesize that overproduction of free radical species, namely superoxide and nitrogen oxide, in MWR exposed living cells is one of the key mechanisms for the next pathological transformation of cells [24]. The persistent oxidative damages of DNA could be a first step of mutagenic and carcinogenic processes [30]. Thus oxidative damages of DNA resulted in alters of transcription rate, replication errors and genomic instability [31]. In turn these processes are associated with carcinogenesis. And in different cancer tissues, an increased level of oxidative damages of DNA were reported [30].

Recently we have demonstrated that oxidative effects of low intensity MWR significantly depend on the GSM modulation of the signal [25]. Thus, except of urgent necessity to reevaluate current out-of-date official safety limits on RFR/MWR intensity, additional biologically proven restrictions on different types of modulated signals should be elaborated and implemented by international and national regulatory bodies.

In conclusion, statistically significant persistent oxidative and mutagenic effects in model biological system, a developing quail embryo, as well as significantly increased embryo mortality have been detected under low intensity GSM 1800 MHz MWR from a typical modern commercial smartphone. Thus the data confirm that modulated MWR from modern wireless devices should be recognized as a significant risk factor for living cells, and out-of-date official safety limits should be urgently reevaluated in line with current biological research on the issue.
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Pathological Findings Observed in Kidneys of Postnatal Male Rats Exposed to 2100 MHz EMF


Bedir R, Tumkaya L, Mercantepe T, Yilmaz A. Pathological findings observed in the kidneys of postnatal male rats exposed to the 2100 MHz electromagnetic field. Arch Med Res. 2018 Dec 29. pii: S0188-4409(18)30433-8. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2018.12.010. 

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The widespread use by young people of modern communication devices such as mobile phones means that they are particularly exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and other problems. However, few studies have researched the effects of long-term exposure to EMF in the kidney. We therefore investigated oxidative stress and apoptosis in long-term exposure to 2100 megahertz (MHz) in a rat model.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 8, no EMF exposure), a group exposed to 2100 MHz for 6 h for 30 d (n = 8), and a group exposed to 2100 MHz for12 h for 30 d (n = 8). Immunohistochemical analysis was performed, using caspase-3 to evaluate apoptosis. Immediately after treatment, reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissue and serum levels of various biochemical compounds were measured to detect oxidative stress.

RESULTS: Deterioration was observed in the brush border in renal tubules of the EMF groups. The results of the immunohistochemical analysis revealed a greater number of positively stained renal tubular epithelial cells in the EMF groups as compared with that in the control group. In the EMF groups, renal MDA levels increased, and renal GSH levels decreased compared with those in the control group, as shown by a biochemical examination (p = 0.00 and p = 0.00, respectively).

CONCLUSION: The findings showed that exposure to 2100 MHz for 6 and 12 h induced oxidative stress-mediated acute renal injury, depending on the length of exposure and dosage.


Excerpt

The EMF groups were continually exposed to electromagnetic waves produced by an EMF generator (Anritsu MG3670B, Kanagawa, Japan) for 30 d, 6 and 12 h per day. The generator had a signal power of 3.47 mW (5.4 dBm) at 2100 MHz, which is similar to the level experienced in mobile phone talk mode. The whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be 0.024 W/kg ....

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Electromagnetic Fields of Mobile Phone Jammer Exposure on Blood Factors in Rats

Shojaeifard MB, Jarideh S, Owjfard M, Nematollahii S, Talaei-Khozani T, Malekzadeh M. Electromagnetic fields of mobile phone jammer exposure on blood factors in rats. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2018 Dec 1;8(4):403-408.  

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The increasing demand for using mobile phones has led to increasing mobile phone jammers as well. On the other hand, reports show that exposure to electromagnetic field causes an increase in the incidence of diseases such as leukemia, cancer, depression and failure in pregnancy outcomes; therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields of mobile phone jammers on blood factors.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar immature and thirty mature rats were selected randomly and each one was divided into three groups of ten. The control group did not receive any radiation; the sham group was exposed to a switched-off jammer device and the experimental group was exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) radiated by Mobile Phone Jammer daily eight hours for five days a week during forty days. Blood sample was taken from heart and blood factors including PLT, MCHC and RDWCV were measured. The data were analyzed by ANOVA which was followed by Duncan's test.

RESULTS: The data from mature rats revealed that jammer usage led to a significant difference in blood factors including RBC, platelet, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and RDWCV (P≤0.05); however, the number of lymphocytes, WBC and MCVH in the blood was the same in all groups. In immature rats, the exposure to jammer did not change RBC, lymphocyte and WBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit; while, the platelet count along with MCHC, MVC and RDWCV changed by jammer radiation.

CONCLUSION: The results exhibited that mobile phone jammer caused frequent changes in blood cell factors.


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Power frequency EMF exposure influences network connection pattern of local field potentials during working memory



Li S, Wen X, Sang H, Xu G. [Long term power frequency electromagnetic fields exposure influences the causal network connection pattern of local field potentials during working memory]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2018 Jun 1;35(6):829-836. doi: 10.7507/1001-5515.201806004. [Article in Chinese]

Abstract

The possible influence of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the function of neural systems has been widely concerned. In this article, we intend to investigate the effects of long term power frequency EMF exposure on brain cognitive functions and it's mechanism. The Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the rats in EMF  group were placed in the 2 mT power frequency EMF for 24 days. The rats in EMF  group were placed in the 2 mT power frequency EMF for 48 days. The rats in control group were not exposed to the EMF. Then, the 16 channel local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from rats' prefrontal cortex (PFC) in each group during the working memory (WM) tasks. The causal networks of LFPs were also established by applying the directed transfer function (DTF). Based on that, the differences of behavior and the LFPs network connection patterns between different groups were compared in order to investigate the influence of long term power frequency EMF exposure on working memory. The results showed the rats in the EMF  group needed more training to reach the task correction criterion (over 80%). Moreover, the causal network connection strength and the global efficiency of the rats in EMF  and EMF  groups were significantly lower than the corresponding values of the control group. Meanwhile, significant differences of causal density values were found between EMF  group and the other two groups. These results indicate that long term exposure to 2 mT power frequency EMF will reduce the connection strength and the information transfer efficiency of the LFPs causal network in the PFC, as well as the behavior performance of the rats. These results may explain the effect of EMF exposure on working memory from the view of neural network connectivity and provide a support for further studies on the mechanism of the effect of EMF on cognition


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Effect of different intensities of static magnetic field on stress & reproduction in Zebrafish

Sedigh E, Heidari B, Roozati A, Valipour A. The effect of different intensities of static magnetic field on stress and selected reproductive indices of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) during acute and subacute exposure. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2019 Jan 9.  doi: 10.1007/s00128-018-02538-1. 

Abstract

The application of equipment and tools that produce a magnetic field is increasing in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the effects of acute (1 week) and subacute (3 weeks) exposures to different static magnetic fields (SMFs) of 2.5, 5, 7.5 mT on stress indices (cortisol and glucose), sex steroid hormones (17β-estradiol and 17-α hydroxy progesterone) and fecundity of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) were investigated. The obtained results showed a significant change in cortisol, glucose, 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17-α hydroxy progesterone (17-OHP) levels by enhancing the intensity and time of exposure to SMFs. In conclusion, the SMFs, especially at higher levels of intensities, showed physiologically harmful effects on the reproductive biology of the zebrafish during acute and subacute exposure.