Wednesday, February 22, 2017

Long-term cell phone use increases brain tumor risk

During the second week of February, two meta-analyses that examined the research on the risk of cell phone use and brain tumor risk were published in peer-reviewed journals. Both papers reported a statistically significant relationship between cell phone use of ten or more years and increased brain tumor risk. 

The authors of the first paper conclude that, "These results are in concordance with the conclusion of the expert panel for the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), that cell phones are possibly carcinogenic (Group 2B)." The authors of the second paper call for the adoption of precautionary measures to reduce the adverse effects of cell phone use.

The first paper was published in the International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, and the second paper was published in the medical journal, Neurological Sciences 


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The first study conducted by scientists at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, in Łódź, Poland, examined the research on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumors and salivary gland tumors. The study found a significant relationship between mobile phone use and the risk of an intracranial tumor on the same side of the head where the phone was placed during calls. The study also reported a significant relationship between mobile phone use of 10 or more years and intracranial tumor risk.

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Mobile phone use and risk for intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors 
- A meta-analysis

Bortkiewicz A, Gadzicka E, Szymczak W. Mobile phone use and risk for intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors - A meta-analysis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2017 Feb 21;30(1):27-43. doi: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00802. Epub 2017 Feb 13. 

Abstract

Results of epidemiological studies on the association between use of mobile phone and brain cancer are ambiguous, as well as the results of 5 meta-analysis studies published to date. Since the last meta-analysis (2009), new case-control studies have been published, which theoretically could affect the conclusions on this relationship. Therefore, we decided to perform a new meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review of multiple electronic data bases for relevant publications. The inclusion criteria were: original papers, case-control studies, published till the end of March 2014, measures of association (point estimates as odds ratio and confidence interval of the effect measured), data on individual exposure. Twenty four studies (26 846 cases, 50 013 controls) were included into the meta-analysis. A significantly higher risk of an intracranial tumor (all types) was noted for the period of mobile phone use over 10 years (odds ratio (OR) = 1.324, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.028-1.704), and for the ipsilateral location (OR = 1.249, 95% CI: 1.022-1.526). The results support the hypothesis that long-term use of mobile phone increases risk of intracranial tumors, especially in the case of ipsilateral exposure. Further studies are needed to confirm this relationship.

Excerpts

The results obtained in the random effects model indicated that there was a significant relationship between mobile phone use for longer than 10 years and the risk of intracranial tumors (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.07–1.98).

Because OR is significantly greater than 1 (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04–1.52), we can conclude that there is a significant relationship between the time from the first regular use of mobile phone of 10 years or more and the risk of intracranial tumors.

Since OR is greater than 1 (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06–1.57), there is a significant relationship between ipsilateral use of mobile phone and the risk of intracranial tumor.

We found a significant relationship between:
–– all intracranial tumors and all phone types; ipsilateral exposure;
–– all intracranial tumors and all phone types, when the time of mobile phone use was not shorter than 10 years;
–– all intracranial tumors and all phone types when the time from the first regular use of mobile phone was 10 years or more.

We are not able to compare our results with reference to different kinds of intracranial tumors (glioma, meningioma, acoustic neuroma) in relation to time of using mobile phones. A reliable analysis was not feasible because, in our opinion, the number of original works is too small. 

Conclusions
Our results support the hypothesis that long-term (over 10 years) use of mobile phones increases the risk of intracranial tumors, especially in the case of ipsilateral exposure. The same conclusions are valid for the work by Davis et al. (2013) [45], who reviewed papers on the association between the use of wireless (mobile and cordless) phones and intracranial tumors. Those authors stress that the risk of tumors in people who have used the phone for periods longer than 10 years is significantly elevated. In people who had started using the phone on a regular basis before they were 20 years old, the risk of ipsilateral glioma was found to be fourfold higher. Hardell et al. (2013) [46] stress the significance of the “lifetime exposure dose.” For an exposure of ≥ 1640 h, the risk of ipsilateral acoustic neuroma is 2.55 (95% CI: 1.5–4.4). 

These results are in concordance with the conclusion of the expert panel for the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), that cell phones are possibly carcinogenic (Group 2B) [47]. More research is needed to confirm that electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones are carcinogenic to humans.

Open Access Paper: http://bit.ly/2m8Amwt

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Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumors: a systematic review 

The results of a newly published review and meta-analysis of the research on cell phone use and brain tumor risk found that long-term or heavy cell phone use was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of brain tumors.

Overall, the study found that long-term or heavy cell phone use was associated with a 33% increased risk of a brain tumor.

The risk of a brain tumor for long-term cell phone use varied depending upon the quality of the research study with higher quality studies tending to yield greater risk estimates 
(see Table below). For the five highest quality studies, the estimates ranged from a 21% increased risk to 2.6 times the risk of a non-cellphone user. For five lower quality studies. the estimates ranged from a 47% reduced risk to 5.1 times the risk of a non-cellphone user.

Based upon the results of this review, the authors recommend that precautionary measures be taken to reduce the adverse effects of cell phone use.

In this study, long-term cell phone use was defined as ten or more years. The highest quality studies scored 7 or 8 on a 10-point scale, and the lower quality studies scored 5 or 6.

This paper was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal, Neurological Sciences

The first author of this paper, Dr. Manya Prasad is in the Department of Community Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak. India. His colleagues are in the Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi, India.


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Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes


Prasad M, Kathuria P, Nair P, Kumar A, Prasad K. Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes. Neurological Sciences. 2017 Feb 17. doi: 10.1007/s10072-017-2850-8. 

Abstract

Mobile phones emit electromagnetic radiations that are classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Evidence for increased risk for brain tumours accumulated in parallel by epidemiologic investigations remains controversial. This paper aims to investigate whether methodological quality of studies and source of funding can explain the variation in results.

PubMed and Cochrane CENTRAL searches were conducted from 1966 to December 2016, which was supplemented with relevant articles identified in the references. Twenty-two case control studies were included for systematic review.

Meta-analysis of 14 case-control studies showed practically no increase in risk of brain tumour [OR 1.03 (95% CI 0.92-1.14)]. However, for mobile phone use of 10 years or longer (or 1,640 or more hours in lifetime), the overall result of the meta-analysis showed a significant 1.33 times increase in risk. The summary estimate of government funded as well as phone industry funded studies showed 1.07 times increase in odds which was not significant, while mixed funded studies did not show any increase in risk of brain tumour. Meta-regression analysis indicated that the association was significantly associated with methodological study quality (p < 0.019, 95% CI 0.009-0.09). Relationship between source of funding and log OR for each study was not statistically significant (p < 0.32, 95% CI 0.036-0.010).

We found evidence linking mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours especially in long-term users (10 or more years). Studies with higher quality showed a trend towards high risk of brain tumour, while lower quality showed a trend towards lower risk/protection.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28213724

Excerpts

In the 22 case–control studies, a total of 48,452 participants (17,321 patient cases and 31,131 controls) were identified, with the mean age of 46.65 years (range 18–90 years). Data for ipsilateral use and temporal lobe location could not be retrieved from the papers. However, data for long-term use of mobile phones (10 or more years) were extracted from 12 studies out of 22 studies (Tables 1, 2).

Data from 14 case control studies were included in the meta-analysis. We identified a total of 30,421 participants (12,426 cases and 19,334 controls). In Fig. 2, the study with quality sum of 8 shows that there is 1.64 times increase in odds of having brain tumour with mobile phone use. In the hierarchical meta-analysis of studies with progressively lower quality scores of 7, 6, and 5, the odds ratio progressively decreased to 1.08, 0.98, and 0.81, respectively. Therefore, the overall result [OR 1.03 (95% CI 0.92–1.14)] shows a statistically insignificant increase in odds of risk of brain tumour.

In Fig. 3, the study with quality sum of eight shows that there is 2.58 times increase in odds of having brain tumour with mobile phone use of more than 10 years duration. In the meta-analysis, studies with progressively lower quality score of 7 and 6 show a progressively lower risk of brain tumour with odds ratio 1.44 and 1.13, respectively. However, the overall result of the meta-analysis shows a significant 1.33 times increase in odds of having risk of brain tumours with mobile phone use.

Stratified meta-analysis according to sources of funding shows a consistent increase in risk of brain tumour with mobile phone use of more than 10 years. While summary estimate of government funded studies shows 1.64 times increase in odds (Supplementary Figure IV), mixed funded studies show 1.05 times increase in odds of risk of brain tumours, but the results were not statistically significant (Supplementary Figure V). The data for more than 10 years of use were not available for phone industry funded studies.


The meta-analysis of case–control studies found that there is a significant positive correlation between study quality and risk of brain tumour associated with use of mobile phones. Higher quality studies show a statistically significant association between mobile phone use and risk of brain tumour, but adding poor quality studies leads to loss of significance. We found that Government funded studies were generally of higher methodological quality than phone industry funded or mixed funded.

However, one qualitatively similar finding in both government funded as well as mixed funded studies is that long-term use (10 or more years or 1640 or more hours of lifetime cellphone use) is associated with increased risk of brain tumour.

Conclusion

In our review of the literature and meta-analysis of case–control studies, we found evidence linking mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours especially in long-term users (greater than 10 years). We also found a significantly positive correlation between study quality and outcome in the form of risk of brain tumour associated with use of mobile phones. Higher quality studies show a statistically significant association between mobile phone use and risk of brain tumour. Even the source of funding was found to affect the quality of results produced by the studies. As mobile phone use certainly continues, our findings are pertinent to warrant application of precautionary measures aimed at reducing its adverse effects. Furthermore, well-designed studies embedded with prospective cohorts are required to provide a higher level of evidence.


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More information about cell phone use and brain tumor risk

Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US: The Role of Cellphone & Cordless Phone Use
The Incidence of Meningioma, a Non-Malignant Brain Tumor, is Increasing in the U.S.
Why do many scientists believe mobile phone use increases cancer risk?
MOBI-KIDS: Childhood Brain Tumor Risk & Mobile Phone Use Study

Wall Street Journal asks "Should Cellphones Have Warning Labels?"
WHO Monograph on Cancer Risk from Mobile Phone Use Released
Key Cell Phone Radiation Research Studies

Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Wireless Radiation TV News

Which wireless radiation risks 
are covered most by TV news in the U.S.?

Since June, 2014, television stations in the U.S have aired more than 100 news stories on wireless radiation risks. TV stations were most likely to report news stories about cell phone radiation health risks including stories that focused on risks to children. The next most common stories discussed radiation risks from cell antennas/towers. Other wireless technologies of concern included smart meters and devices that emit Wi-Fi radiation.

CBS and its affiliates have provided the most news coverage about wireless radiation and health. Besides CBS national news, almost all major CBS stations have run stories including stations in Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, Los Vegas, New York, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Portland, San Antonio, San Francisco, Spokane, and Washington, DC. CBS was the only TV network to cover last year's two major wireless policy developments: the International EMF Scientist Appeal and the Berkeley cell phone "Right to Know" ordinance.

With the recent publication of Norm Alster's book,"Captured agency: How the Federal Communications Commission is dominated by the industries it presumably regulates," it is time for CBS 60 Minutes to do an investigative story about why our government has not updated the obsolete wireless regulations adopted in 1996 that fail to protect the health of the American public.


The above results are based upon Google searches for TV news stories about wireless radiation health risks where the video was posted online; thus, the actual amount of TV news coverage is underestimated.

Links to the TV new stories appear below.


Updated: Feb 21, 2017

CBS SF Bay Area, Sep 13, 2016

Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Sep 7, 2016

Mt. Tabor neighbors fight plans for cell towers
Chris Holmstrom, KOIN (Portland, OR), Aug 31, 2016

Study reignites concern about cell phones and cancer
Paula Cohen, CBS News, May 27, 2016

WiFi in schools: Is it hurting your child?
Paul Joncich, KLAS (Las Vegas, NV), May 10, 2016

New Research Links Cell Phones To Health Issues In Children
Ami Yensi, CBS Baltimore, May 3, 2016

Cell tower proposed behind middle school causing controversy
WDRW (Columbia County, GA), May 3, 2016

Protester Claims Vice President Biden's Son Died from Cell Phone-Related Brain Cancer 
CBS SF Bay Area, Feb 28, 2016

Could Your Cell Phone Be Harming You?
Tess Leonhardt, WDTV (Bridgeport, WV), Feb 21, 2016

Notre Dame researchers target cell phone radiation
Zach Crenshaw, WSBT (Mishiwaka, IN), Jan 27, 2016

Bay Area Residents Worried About Radiation Face Uphill Battle Fighting Cell Towers
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Jan 12, 2016

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, Live 5 News (Charleston, SC), Nov 6, 2015

SF Residents Battle Wireless Firms Over Super Bowl Building Boom In Neighborhood Cell Antenna Systems
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Oct 31, 2015
Mark Ackerman, CBS Denver, Jul 9, 2015

Are Wi-Fi Signals Making You Sick?
Marissa Bailey, CBS Chicago, July 1, 2015

People Believe Wi-Fi Is Making Them Sick
Dr. Mallika Marshall, CBS Boston, Jun 8, 2015

Seen At 11: Is Wi-Fi Making You Sick?
CBS New York, May 20, 2015

Why I Declared Our Bedroom A Wireless-Free Zone
Julie Watts, CBS SF Bay Area, May 20, 2015

Special Report: Upgrade Outage
WMMT (Kalamazoo, MI), May 19, 2015

Berkeley Passes Nation’s First Radiation Warning For New Cellphones
CBS SF Bay Area, May 13, 2015
CBS News, May 13, 2015

Elizabeth Hinson, CBS National, May 12, 2015 (last updated May 14, 2015)
       KMOV (St. Louis, MO)
       KPAX (Missoula, MT)
       WCTV (Tallahassee, FL)
       WDTV  (Weston, West Virginia)
       WFMY (Greensboro, NC)
       WIVB (Buffalo, NY)
       WKBN (Youngstown, OH)
       WREQ (Memphis,TN)
       WTSP (Tampa Bay, FL)

Can you get radiation poisoning from your cellphone?
CBS News, May 12, 2015

Woman Cuts Family Off From WiFi Over Health Concerns
Gerri Constant, CBS Los Angeles, May 5, 2015

CBS New York, Mar 6, 2015

Samantha Cortese, KESQ (Palm Desert, CA), Feb 18, 2015 (also ABC affiliate)

In-depth investigation: Examining reports of a cancer cluster at La Quinta Middle School
Natalie Brunnell, KESQ (Palm Desert, CA), Feb 12, 2015 (also ABC affiliate)

KENS (San Antonio, TX), Nov 18, 2015

Cell phone towers raise new concerns about safety
Jason Barry, KPHO (Phoenix), Nov 10, 2015 (updated Nov. 25)

FPL, Foes Of Smart Meters Square Off
CBS Miami, Sep 30, 2014

CBS Pittsburgh, Sep 15, 2014

Brain Cancer Warning Stickers Proposed For Cellphones Sold In Berkeley
CBS SF Bay Area, Aug 22, 2014


ABC News

Parents fight plan to put cell tower near playground at Virginia elementary school
Richard Reeve, Jay Goldberg, WJLA (Washington, DC), Sep 28, 2016

San Jose residents fight cellphone tower proposal over radiation concerns
Lisa Amin Gulezian, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Aug 13, 2016

Alpine residents outraged over EMF levels from Sunrise Powerlink
Ariel Wesler, KGTV (San Diego, CA), Feb 24, 2016


Notre Dame researchers making a faster and safer phone
Brandon Pope, WBND (South Bend, IN), Feb 5, 2016

New concerns over kids and electronics
Shannon Murray, KVUE (Austin, TX), Dec 3, 2015

Parents upset over cell tower possibly being installed near Weho school
Mayde Gomez, KABC (Los Angeles, CA), Dec 1, 2015

City leaders, neighbors raise concerns about cell towers
Kayla Moody, WHAS (Louisville, KY), Oct 28, 2015

Cell phone industry sues city of Berkeley
Lyanne Melendez, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Aug 20, 2015

Alki Beach residents protest plan for cell antennas near school
Theron Zahn, KOMO (Seattle, WA), May 7, 2015

Lake Ronkonkomo residents speak out against proposed cell tower in neighborhood
Kristin Thorne, WABC (New York, NY), Apr 29, 2015

Workers say cell tower sites putting them at risk
Cristin Severance, KGTV (San Diego, CA), Mar 19, 2015 (updated Mar 24, 2015)

Ann Arbor family has power shut off by DTE in dispute over installing new SMART meter on their home
Dave LewAllen, WXYZ (Detroit, MI), Mar 18, 2015

WZZM (Lansing, MI), Dec 2, 2014

WFTV (Orlando, FL), Dec 2, 2014

KSAT (San Antonio), Sep 22, 2014 (updated Sep 23, 2014


Rebecca Klopf, WTMJ (Milwaukee, WI), Feb 7, 2017

Radiation-blocking underwear and five other crazy CES gadgets
Matt Granite, WGRZ (Buffalo, NY), Jan 7, 2016
Mark Matthews & Stephen Ellison, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Sep 13, 2016

Jackie Bensen, NBC Washington (DC), Sep 2, 2016

Government study links cell phone radiation to cancer
Maggie Fox, NBC News, May 27, 2016

Piper Glenn residents cite eagles in cell tower fight
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Mar 21, 2016

BGE makes case for another rate hike
George Lettis, WBAL (Baltimore, MD), Mar 18, 2016

North Kingstown teacher says she's being fired because she believes WiFi is health hazard
Brian Crandall, WJAR (Providence, RI), Feb 23, 2016

Kids Face Potential Radiation Danger Using Cell Phones
Shanay Campbell, WSAV (Savannah, GA), Nov 6, 2015

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, WMBF (Myrtle Beach, SC), Nov 6, 2015

Pediatricians express concern over growing cellphone use, radiation exposure for children
Meghan McRoberts, WPTV (West Palm Beach, FL), Nov 6, 2015

Potential radiation danger to kids using cell phones

Shannon Wolfson, KXAN (Austin, TX), Nov 5, 2015

Pediatricians' new warning: Limit children's exposure to cellphones
Danielle Dellorto, NBC Today Show, Nov 5, 2015


Report Examines Cell Phone Radiation
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area, Sep 24, 2015

Group wants cell towers gone
Barry Sims, WBAL (Anne Arundel County, MD), Sep 22, 2015

Neighborhood fights possible new cell tower on church property
Forrest Sanders, WSMV (Nashville, TN), Jul 30, 2015

Residents protest cell tower installation citing health concerns
Sophia Kunthara and Melissa Etezadi, NBC Southern California, Jul 20, 2015


Wireless companies sue Berkeley over cellphone radiation warning ordinance
Tamara Palmer, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Jun 8, 2015

Berkeley approves "Right to Know" cell phone radiation warning ordinance
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area 
 (San Jose, CA), May 12, 2015

West Seattle residents protest new cell phone antennas
Alex Rozier, KING (Seattle, WA), May 7, 2015

Bay Area documentary "Mobilize" examines cell phone dangers
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area 
 (San Jose, CA), Mar 28, 2015


Fox News

Controversy surrounding EMF exposure: Do wireless devices pose dangers?
Danielle Miller, KSAZ (Phoenix, AZ), Feb 22, 2016

Cell phones and fertility
Dr. Devi Nampiaparampil, WNYW (New York City, NY), Feb 21, 2016

Health concerns over Wi-Fi technology exposures in schools
Laura Evans, WTTG (Washington, DC), Feb 15, 2016

Cell Phone Dangers?
Stacey Delikat, WNYW (New York City, NY), Jan 16, 2016

High Point neighbors speak out against cell tower project
Jeremy Finley, WBRC (Franklin, TN), Nov 23, 2015

Pediatricians express concern over growing cellphone use, radiation exposure for children
WFLX (West Palm Beach, FL), Nov 6, 2015

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, Fox Carolina News (Greenville, SC), Nov 6, 2015

Brooke Crothers, Fox News, Oct 20, 2014
Carina Storrs, CNN, May 27, 2016

Kelly Wallace, CNN, May 3, 2016


Other TV News

Smart meter opt out fees could be nixed in legislative session

Emily Ikeda, WHAG (Montgomery County, MD), Feb 2, 2017

City Light takes feedback on opt-out for smart meters
Joel Moreno, KOMO (Seattle, WA), Aug 12, 2016

KXII (Denison, TX), Jun 26, 2014

Monday, February 20, 2017

Key Cell Phone Radiation Research Studies

Note: This is not intended to be a comprehensive list. I have focused on more recent papers and tried to be parsimonious. I will update this list periodically.

For additional research studies, see my post, "Should Cellphones Have Warning Labels? (Wall Street Journal)."


Tumor risk review papers

          Myung et al (2009) Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: a meta-analysis. http://1.usa.gov/12wBOmd
          Khurana et al (2009) Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including long-term epidemiologic data. http://1.usa.gov/1jel7s0
          Levis et al (2011) Mobile phones and head tumours: the discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epi studies-how do they arise. http://1.usa.gov/1gzK8vl
          Levis et al (2012) Mobile phones and head tumours: a critical analysis of case-control epi studies. http://bit.ly/1rA9aTM
          Hardell, Carlberg (2013) Using the Hill viewpoints from 1965 for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors associated with use of mobile and cordless phones. Rev Environ Health. http://1.usa.gov/1jelT8p
          Prasad et al (2017) Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes. http://bit.ly/cellphonebraintumor 
          WHO (2013) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 102: Non-ionizing radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. http://bit.ly/10oIE3o
          Morgan et al (2015) Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (Review). http://1.usa.gov/1EqL1DF

Tumor risk studies

          Interphone Study Group (2010) Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile phone use: results of the Interphone international case-control study. http://1.usa.gov/IBm2nJ
          Interphone Study Group (2011) Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study. http://1.usa.gov/18CRSNA
          Aydin et al (2011) Mobile phone use & brain tumors in children & adolescents: a multi-center case-control study. http://1.usa.gov/1baLADg
          Hardell et al (2013) Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use. http://1.usa.gov/1c7WF4T
          Hardell et al (2013) Pooled analysis of case-control studies on acoustic neuroma diagnosed 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 and use of mobile and cordless phones. http://1.usa.gov/1iu2ORM
          Coureau et al (2014)  Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study. http://bit.ly/1DWgzRi
          Grell et al (2016) The intracranial distribution of gliomas in relation to exposure from mobile phones: Analyses from the INTERPHONE Study. http://bit.ly/2emIZjz

      Also see: http://www.saferemr.com/2016/05/should-cellphones-have-warning-labels_23.html

Breast cancer case series

        West et al (2013) Multifocal breast cancer in young women with prolonged contact between their breasts and their cellular phones. http://1.usa.gov/1yFRFBH

Brain tumor incidence trends

       Inskip et al (2010) Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the United States. http://1.usa.gov/1DXyCGR
      Zada et al (2012) Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States: 1992-2006. http://1.usa.gov/1tRnRPJ
       Hardell & Carlberg (2015) Increasing rates of brain tumours in the Swedish National Inpatient Register & the Causes of Death Register. http://bit.ly/1aDHJm
      Devocht (2016). Inferring the 1985–2014 impact of mobile phone use on selected brain cancer subtypes using Bayesian structural time series and synthetic controls. http://bit.ly/2jJlbZu 

Also see: http://www.saferemr.com/2015/05/brain-tumor-rates-are-rising-in-us-role.html.

Mechanisms

•    Ruediger (2009) Genotoxic effects of RF EMF. http://1.usa.gov/1gzLuX3
•    Behari (2010) Biological responses of mobile phone frequency exposure. http://1.usa.gov/1jeogrO
•    Juutilainen et al (2011) Review of possible modulation-dependent biological effects of radiofrequency fields. http://1.usa.gov/1eQUXJ3
•    Volkow et al (2011) Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism. http://1.usa.gov/IHmW2W
•    Pall (2013) EMFs act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects. http://1.usa.gov/VulzLm
•    Dasdag & Akdag (2015) The link between RFs emitted from wireless technologies & oxidative stress. http://1.usa.gov/1X9GfT6
•    Yakymenko et al (2015) Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation. http://bit.ly/1Hgq8f
•    Barnes & Greenenbaum (2016) Some effects of weak magnetic fields on biological systems: RF fields can change radical concentrations and cancer cell growth rates. http://bit.ly/1WvQGiY
•   Tamrin et al (2016)  Electromagnetic fields and stem cell fate: When physics meets biology. http://bit.ly/2b6Ht3y
•  Terzi et al (2016) The role of electromagnetic fields in neurological disorders. http://1.usa.gov/1SVOa2g

Reproductive Health Effects

      LaVignera et al (2011) Effects of the exposure to mobile phones on male reproduction: a review of the literature. http://1.usa.gov/1eQXwuv
      Aldad et al (2012) Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 Mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice. http://1.usa.gov/18cGEwK
     Divan et al (2012) Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. http://1.usa.gov/1iu5qPn
•    Adams et al (2014) Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. http://bit.ly/1pUnmDq
•    Houston et al (2016) The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function. http://bit.ly/2cJJ2pE

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity

      See: http://www.saferemr.com/2014/10/electromagnetic-hypersensitivity_30.html

Exposure

          Kelsh et al (2010) Measured radiofrequency exposure during various mobile-phone use scenarios. http://1.usa.gov/1eQXinm
          Gandhi et al (2012) Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. http://1.usa.gov/1cVJBRD

Blood-Brain Barrier Studies

          See: http://www.saferemr.com/2016/09/airpods-are-apples-new-wireless-earbuds.html

Other

      Alster, N (2015) Captured agency: How the FCC is dominated by the industries it presumably regulates. Harvard University. http://bit.ly/FCCcaptured
     Consumer Reports (2015). "Does cell-phone radiation cause cancer?" http://bit.ly/CRoncellphoneradiation
     International EMF Scientist Appeal (2015) https://emfscientist.org/
     International Appeal: Scientists call for protection from non-ionizing electromagnetic field exposure. European J Oncology. 20(3/4). 2015. http://bit.ly/EMFappealEurJ